Mobile App Testing

idleheadedceleryMobile - Wireless

Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Mobile

App

Testing

Mobile

App

Testing

Mobile

apps

are

inevitable

part

of

mobile

industry

and

it

has

now

grown

to

an

inevitable

part

of

millions

of

mobile

users
.

Day

by

day

thousands

of

apps

are

entering

the

market
.

Some

with

good

features

and

with

good

and

bad

quality
.

To

deliver

a

good

quality

app

for

mobile

customers,

mobile

app

testing

plays

a

great

role

in

todays

industry
.

Define

the

quality

of

an

app?


Lets

see

how

the

mobile

app

testing

can

be

done

to

improve

quality

of

the

app
.

Baseline

Mobile

app

testing

field

is

normally

in

Manual

Testing

and

also

we

have

some

tools

to

partially

automate

the

testing

process
.

So

the

basic

method

used

is

Manual

Testing

and

Automation

tools

are

also

used

for

some

less

extend
.

The

test

procedure

will

follow

the

manual

testing

approach

and

will

use

if

any

automation

needed

with

the

available

tools
.

Challenges in Manual Testing


Time consuming


Repetition causes tiresome experience


Human error due to lac of concentration & negligence


Reproduction difficulty


Less knowledge in code


Multi devices for multi platforms


Multi device specifications


Lac of sufficient requirement description


Lac of understanding for a requirement


Basic Preparation


Project Knowledge


Requirement Knowledge


System Knowledge


System Requirements


Tool Requirements


Device Requirements


Multi Device Support


Device Knowledge


Target Device


Compatible Devices


Device Specifications


Versions &
Features


Device Platform


Platform Specified App Development Guidelines



Testing Preparation


Gather all requirement documents


Complete basic preparation


Author test documents


Testing methods and levels


Write device use cases and test cases


Write project use cases and test cases


Set up testing environment


Hardware set up


Software set up


Service set up


Test execution


Bug reporting


Testing summary report


Final test summary and sign off


Testing Levels


Unit Testing


Smoke / Build Testing


Integration Testing


System Testing


Regression Testing


Adhoc Testing


UAT


Unit

Testing

Unit

testing

is

normally

done

by

developers

before

the

app

is

given

to

the

testing

team
.

It

may

be

done

in

several

ways

such

as

a

code

walk

through,

build

creation,

running

in

development

environment,

running

in

device

environment

(Emulators),

Installing

in

real

devices

and

testing
.

App

will

be

given

to

the

testing

team

only

if

the

app

passes

the

unit

testing
.

Smoke

Test

/

Build

Test


Smoke

Test

Smoke

test

is

done

by

the

testing

team

initially

on

the

first

release

or

version

of

the

app

to

see

whether

the

app

is

ready

for

testing
.


Build

Test

Build

test

is

basically

a

smoke

test

done

for

the

acceptance

of

the

build

for

testing

process
.

It

will

verify

the

build

whether

it

is

ready

to

test

in

a

device

and

to

perform

the

next

step

of

testing
.

It

will

also

verify

the

contents

and

criteria's

of

the

build

and

its

associated

files
.


If

any

of

these

test

fails

the

app

is

returned

to

developers

untested

and

otherwise

moved

to

next

level
.

Integration

/

System

Testing

For

mobile

applications,

integration

testing

and

system

testing

can

be

done

after

build

acceptance
.

If

an

app

given

for

testing

have

several

modules

and

only

some

of

the

modules

are

implemented

in

the

release,

then

integration

testing

will

be

done

for

the

particular

modules

only
.

Later

on

adding

the

modules

integration

testing

will

be

done

for

those

modules

also
.


For

an

application

having

all

the

modules

implemented

in

the

release,

system

testing

will

be

performed

by

testing

all

the

application

functionality,

features

and

other

areas

by

covering

all

the

test

cases

authored
.

All

the

features

in

requirement

traceability

matrix

should

be

tested
.

General App Testing Criteria's


Download


Install


Uninstall


Launching / Exiting


Application start/ Restart/ Pause / Resumption


Graphics & UI


Security


Network Testing


Interrupt Handling


Error Handling


Mapped & Un mapped Keys


Memory


Battery Consumption


Interfaces


Visual Feedback


Display


Device Alerts


Incoming communication alert


Navigation


Transitions


Usability


Documentation




App Specific Criteria’s


App Icon


Splash Screens


App Title


Screens


Screen size in all display modes.


App Sounds


App Alerts


Text Edit Fields


Options / Settings


Lisibility


Control Specifications


Verbiage Consistency


Transition Consistency


Stability


Fonts &
Colour






Login


App Timeout


Device features


Data Accuracy


Data Storage


Protocols


Performance


Functionality


Features


Feedback


T & C


User Interactions


Minimum Requirement


Localization


Translation


General System Testing


Usability Testing


Functionality Testing


Performance / Load Testing


Security Testing


Authentication checks


Input Validation checks


Session Management checks


Encryption checks


Application checks


Next Level


Regression Testing


Adhoc Testing


UAT

Mobile

App

Testing

Tools

For

mobile

application

testing

major

problem

is

the

vast

range

of

platforms

and

devices

with

different

specifications

and

features
.

So

for

a

product

supporting

for

a

vast

range

of

devices,

testing

cannot

be

done

in

all

real

devices

due

to

time

constraints

or

the

device

availability
.

We

have

to

select

some

master

device

from

the

list

and

list

all

compatible

devices

and

test

on

the

master

device

and

some

other

compatible

devices

if

device

is

available

and

timeline

is

not

exceeding
.


At

this

instance

the

testers

can

use

mobile

emulators

for

the

devices

which

we

have

to

test
.

How

ever

emulators

wont

be

able

to

produce

all

the

bugs

as

it

is

used

from

a

desktop
.

So

testing

in

a

real

device

is

better

than

testing

in

an

emulator
.

Mobile

Emulators

Emulators

can

be

used

instead

to

allow

you

to

simulate

testing

on

the

real

device

or

browser
.

The

benefits

of

this

approach

are

many
-
fold
:


No

data

browsing

charges

are

incurred,

as

all

browsing

is

performed

via

your

standard

Web

connection


Quicker

access

to

devices



starting

an

emulator

is

faster

than

switching

sim

cards

and

rebooting

devices


Provides

access

to

a

potentially

large

number

of

devices/browsers



the

number

of

devices

you

can

use

is

only

limited

by

hard

disk

space

and

the

number

of

emulators

you

can

find


Inexpensive



many

emulators

are

available

for

free



Emulator

Types

Mobile

emulators

fall

into

three

main

categories
:



Device

emulators

-

These

are

generally

provided

by

device

manufacturers

and

simulate

the

actual

device
.

Device

emulators

are

excellent

for

testing

your

site

or

application

on

a

particular

device

or

set

of

devices
.


Browser

emulators

-

These

simulate

mobile

browser

environments
.

Whilst

useful

for

determining

the

functionality

available

in

a

particular

mobile

browser,

they

are

useless

for

device
-
specific

testing
.


Operating

System

Emulators

-

Microsoft

provides

emulators

for

Windows

Mobile,

and

Google

provides

an

emulator

for

Android
.

These

run

within

a

simulated

mobile

device

environment

and

provide

access

to

applications

running

within

the

operating

system,

e
.
g
.

a

Web

browser
.


Disadvantage

Emulators

are

great,

but

you

should

not

assume

that

just

because

your

site

works

perfectly

on

an

emulator,

it

will

function

in

the

same

way

on

the

real

device
.

Emulators

can

often

differ

in

subtle

ways

from

the

devices

they

simulate
;

this

is

especially

the

case

if

the

developer

of

the

emulator

is

not

the

original

creator

of

the

device
.

Use

emulators

to

cover

a

wide

breadth

of

devices

that

you

wouldn’t

have

access

to,

and

fix

any

bugs

you

find
;

but

make

sure

you

test

the

site

on

real

devices

too,

just

to

be

sure
.


Popular Emulators

There are a large number of
emulators available. The
following companies offer
emulators for some or all of
their mobile devices:


Research in Motion
(BlackBerry)


Apple (
iPhoney
)


Samsung


Palm


LG


Motorola


Operating system emulators are
available from
:


Microsoft (Windows Mobile)


Google (Android)


Nokia (Series 40 and Series
60)

Some available browser
emulators are:


Opera Mini


Openwave


Testiphone

There are also some generic
emulators


mobiForge
,
offers
an emulator which can be
skinned as a Nokia N70 or a
Sony K750.

Downloading Emulators &
Groups.

Emulators can generally be found in one of three places:


On a manufacturer’s development portal


Bundled as part of an SDK


As part of a Web
site


The emulators outlined in this article are grouped as follows:



Web
-
based emulators


Installable emulators


Symbian
-
based emulators


Emulators that can only be used to test
applications (Java
Based Emulators)



Web

Based

Emulator


Web
-
based

emulators

are

easy

and

quick

to

access



no

installation,

no

fuss
.

Just

enter

the

correct

URL

and

start

testing
.

Test

Iphone


This

provides

a

nice,

quick

way

of

testing

your

Web

sites

on

a

simulated

iPhone
.

Just

type

in

the

URL

of

the

site

you

want

to

test

and

hit

ENTER
.


Testiphone

Installable

Emulators


Many

device

manufacturers

offer

free

emulators
;

after

all,

they

want

you

to

develop

for

their

platforms
.

More

developers

=

more

applications

=

more

users

=

more

revenue
.

Details

about

how

to

obtain,

install,

and

use

some

of

the

more

popular

emulators

can

be

seen

here
.



RIM

In

my

opinion,

RIM

offers

the

gold

standard

in

emulators

(or

“simulators”

in

RIM

terminology)
.

The

RIM

emulators

are

available

from

the

RIM

Developer

Zone
.

You’ll

need

to

sign

up

for

an

account


Downloading

Blackberry

Simulator


Once

you’ve

signed

up,

click

on

the

Web

Development

Tools

&

Downloads

link
.

You’ll

see

a

section

entitled

BlackBerry

Smartphone

Simulator
.

Click

the

link

and

a

page

will

be

displayed,

listing

lots

of

different

simulators
.

Simulators

are

grouped

by

the

BlackBerry

version

number
.

Select

the

necessary

device

with

OS

Version

and

download

and

install
.


MDS

To

start

with

RIM

emulators

to

connect

to

network,

you

need

to

download

at

least

two

files
:


BlackBerry

Email

and

MDS

Services

Simulator

Package

-

This

program

simulates

the

BlackBerry

Enterprise

Server
.

You

will

not

be

able

to

connect

the

simulator

to

the

Internet

without

it
.


Any

BlackBerry

Device

Simulator

-

Clicking

on

a

device

simulator

item

in

the

drop
-
down

list

and

clicking

Next

will

display

the

simulators

available

in

that

group
.

You

can

download

and

install

as

many

as

you

like
.



Blackberry 9500 Simulator

Windows Emulator

Android Emulator

Installing

App

in

Android

Emulator

Installing

the

SDK
:


After

downloading

the

SDK,

unpack

the

.
zip

archive

to

a

suitable

location

on

your

machine
.

For

the

rest

of

this

document,

we

will

refer

to

the

directory

where

you

installed

the

SDK

as

$
SDK_ROOT
.

Optionally,

you

can

add

$
SDK_ROOT/tools

to

your

path
:


On

Linux,

edit

your

~/
.
bash

profile

or

~/
.
bashrc

file
.

Look

for

a

line

that

sets

the

PATH

environment

variable

and

add

the

full

path

to

your

$
SDK_ROOT/tools

to

it
.

If

you

don’t

see

a

line

setting

the

path,

you

can

add

one
:

export

PATH=
$
{PATH}
:


On

a

Mac,

look

in

your

home

directory

for

.
bash

profile

and

proceed

as

for

Linux
.

You

can

create

the

.
bash

profile
,

if

you

haven’t

already

set

one

up

on

your

machine
.


On

Windows,

right

click

on

My

Computer,

and

select

Properties
.

Under

the

Advanced

tab,

hit

the

Environment

Variables

button,

and

in

the

dialog

that

comes

up,

double
-
click

on

Path

under

System

Variables,

and

add

the

full

path

to

the

tools/

directory

under

$
SDK_ROOT

to

it
.

*
Note
*



Updating

the

SDK

for

newer

releases

means

you

might

also

need

to

update

the

PATH

settings
.


Go

to

$
SDK_ROOT/tools

directory

and

execute

the

file

‘emulator
.
exe

.

You

might

need

to

also

include

android

virtual

device

(AVD)

to

command

line

execution

for

example
,

.
/
emulator

-
avd

TestDevice


Please

wait

couple

of

minutes

until

it

loads
.

You

should

see

the

home

screen

of

the

android

emulator
.


Save/copy

the

APK

file

directly

in

the

$
SDK_ROOT/tools

directory
.


Goto

Shell/Terminal/Command

Prompt
,

adb

install

fileName
.
apk

(You

will

need

to

shell/terminal/
cmd

sessions

live)


or

.
/adb

install

fileName
.
apk


I
f

there

is

‘Path

not

found’

error

then

you

need

to

add

$
SDK_ROOT/tools

directory

to

your

system

PATH

settings

correctly
.


After

above

command

executions,

you

will

be

able

to

see

installed

apk

into

emulator
.



Symbian Emulator

I Phoney

Application

Testing

Emulators

(Java

Based

Emulators)


Some

SDKs

provide

emulators

that

can

only

be

used

to

test

mobile

applications
.

Many

of

the

J
2
ME

SDKs

are

cases

in

point
.

Whilst

this

renders

them

useless

for

mobile

site

testing,

it

provides

application

developers

with

a

useful

and

quick

way

to

debug

applications
.


The

J
2
ME

SDKs

are

all

re

skinned

versions

of

sdk

Toolbar,

a

minimal

but

useful

Java

development

environment
.

Installing

this

is

easy
;

unzip

the

downloaded

file,

and

keep

clicking

Next

until

installation

is

complete
.

Download

size

is

around

60
MB

per

version

of

the

SDK
.

You

need

to

be

running

the

Java

2

SDK

1
.
6

or

later

to

install

any

of

the

J
2
ME

SDKs
.


J
2
ME

Emulators

Samsung

Emulator

Summary


Emulators

give

you

access

to

many

platforms

and

“devices”

that

you

may

not

have

been

able

to

test

on

otherwise
.

Whilst

it

is

wise

to

exercise

caution

when

using

an

emulator

(remember

there

may

be

slight

differences

between

the

emulator

and

the

“real

thing”),

they

generally

give

a

good

indication

of

whether

something

will

work

on

the

real

device

or

not
.

Emulators

can

save

you

a

lot

of

money

and

time,

so

try

using

them

as

part

of

your

test

plans
.


Xcode

Xcode

is

the

SDK

tool

for

the

development

and

testing

of

I

OS

Apps
.

It

can

be

used

for

I

phone,

I

pod,

I

Pad

different

versions
.

Same

like

other

SDK

tools

Xcode

also

offer

emulation

of

the

above

mentioned

devices

to

run

the

application

for

debugging
.


Apart

from

the

emulators,

Xcode

also

provide

Instruments

for

testing

the

application

for

different

scenarios
.

Instruments

Instruments

is

available

as

part

of

the

Xcode

Tools

installation
.


When

you

launch

Instruments,

the

application

automatically

creates

a

new

document

for

you
.

You

can

also

create

new

documents

by

choosing

File

>

New
.



For

each

new

document

you

create,

Instruments

prompts

you

to

select

a

starting

template
.

These

templates

define

the

initial

set

of

instruments

you

plan

to

use

in

your

trace

document
.

Instruments

provides

several

different

templates,

listed

in

Table

1
-
1
,

each

geared

toward

different

goals
.

You

can

use

the

Blank

template

if

you

want

to

add

a

specific

set

of

instruments

to

your

trace

document

manually
.

For

any

of

the

templates,

you

can

also

remove

instruments

you

do

not

want
.



Instruments

S
tarting

Templates


Activity

Monitor

Use

this

template

if

you

want

to

correlate

the

system

workload

with

the

virtual

memory

size
.


Allocation

Use

this

template

to

monitor

memory

and

object
-
allocation

patterns

in

your

program
.


Automation

Use

this

template

to

automate

user

interface

tests

of

your

iOS

application
.


CPU

Sampler

Use

this

template

if

you

want

to

correlate

the

overall

system

workload

with

the

work

being

done

specifically

by

your

application
.


Energy

Diagnosis

Adds

the

Energy

Diagnostics,

CPU

Activity,

Display

Brightness,

Sleep/Wake,

Bluetooth,

WiFi,

and

GPS

instruments

to

your

document
.

Use

this

template

to

get

diagnostic

information

regarding

energy

usage

in

iOS

devices
.


File

Activity

Use

this

template

if

you

want

to

examine

file

usage

patterns

in

the

system
.

This

combination

of

instruments

monitors

open,

close,

read,

and

write

operations

on

files

and

also

monitors

changes

in

the

file

system

itself,

including

permission

and

owner

changes
.


Leaks

Use

this

template

to

monitor

memory

usage

in

your

application

and

to

detect

memory

leaks
.


Sudden

Termination

Use

this

template

to

analyze

sudden

termination

support
.

It

reports

unprotected

file
-
system

access

the

target

process

should

be,

but

is

not,

guarding

with

calls

to

disable

sudden

termination
.

It

also

provides

activity

monitoring

across

all

processes,

including

sudden

termination

status

for

each
.


System

Usage

Use

this

template

to

record

calls

to

functions

that

operate

on

files

in

a

process

running

on

an

iOS

device
.


Threads

Use

this

template

to

analyze

thread

state

transitions

within

a

process,

including

running

and

terminated

threads,

thread

state,

and

associated

backtraces
.


Time

Profiler

Use

this

template

to

perform

low
-
overhead

time
-
based

sampling

of

one

or

all

processes
.


Zombies

Use

this

template

to

measure

general

memory

usage

while

focusing

on

the

detection

of

over
-
released

"zombie"

objects
.

App

Tools

To

test

some

of

the

functionality

or

features

or

usage

of

the

test

app

in

a

device

there

are

number

of

applications

available

in

the

market

for

different

platforms
.

These

apps

provide

services

like
.


Battery

consumption


Screen

shot


Memory

Monitor


Generate

random

key

event


Automation

Tools

For

mobile

application

testing

automation

tools

are

available,

but

most

of

the

companies

go

with

manual

testing

only
.

The

basic

thing

is

that

there

is

no

complete

automation

tools

for

mobile

app

testing
.

How

ever

partial

testing

tools

are

available

for

mobile

apps

having

functionality

like

recording

process,

performing

recorded

testing

process,

converting

the

recorded

process

to

scripts

for

QTP,

Python

like

testing

tools
.

Other

than

these

there

are

some

service

providers

providing

devices

through

online

for

testing

purpose
.

An

automated

software

testing

tool

i
s

capable

of

playing

pre
-
recorded

and

predefined

actions
.

The

results

are

mapped

to

the

expected

behavior

and

report

the

success

or

failure

of

these

manual

tests
.

Once

automated

tests

are

created

they

can

easily

be

repeated
.

Having

experienced

the

efficiency

of

automated

software

testing,

it

has

become

an

important

part

of

an

application

testing
.

Remote

Device

Access

Due

to

a

large

number

of

devices

available

in

the

market,

it

is

not

feasible

to

buy

a

new

device

every

time
.

At

the

same

time

Simulators

are

not

completely

reliable

enough

to

launch

a

mobile

app

based

on

testing

conducted

only

on

simulators
.

RDA

(Remote

device

services)

can

be

a

good

solution

to

deal

with

these

challenges
.

The

remote

device

access

services

enable

access

to

a

live

device

over

the

Internet
.

As

a

Mobile

Apps

Tester,

you

should

be

aware

of

such

services

and

should

suggest

your

managers

about

the

capabilities

of

such

Services
.


Other

than

device

anywhere

there

are

more

providers

of

device

now

in

the

market
.

Each

and

every

service

differ

from

each

other

and

giving

an

extreme

platform

for

testing
.


Some

Available

RDA

Services

are
:



Device

Anywhere

(Paid)


Perfecto

Mobile

(Paid)


Nokia

RDA

(Free,

For

Symbian

Phones)


Common

Automation

Tools

Mainly

mobile

testing

is

done

manually

on

actual

devices
.

Some

of

the

following

tools

are

available

in

to

test

the

functionality

as

well

as

usability

of

application
.


Seetest

for

I

phone,

Android,

Windows,

Symbian,

Blackberry


Robotium

for

Android


Testquest


for

Symbian


FoneMonkey

for

IPhones


Memory

sweep

for

IPhone


Hopper



TestComplete



M
-
Eux


TestQuest

Countdown


Test

Quest

Pro


VNC


Sikuli


Eggplant

(iPhone)


TestiPhone


IBM®

Rational®

Performance

Tester

(RPT)


3
P

Mobile


Expertest


MITE

(A

Mobile

content

testing

and

validation

tool

for

Mobile

Web

app)



Seetest

This

is

a

multi

platform

testing

tool

which

can

be

used

for

testing

most

of

the

mobile

platforms
.

This

is

normally

a

recording

based

script

generation

tool
.

To

record

a

test

on

a

mobile

phone,

follow

the

steps

below
:

Step

1
:

Launch

Seetest

and

create

a

new

project
.

To

start

recording

a

script

on

a

mobile

device,

you

need

to

have

your

mobile

device

connected

by

USB

to

your

computer

and

have

the

device

screen

then

appear

on

your

computer

screen
.

Step

2
:

In

SeeTest,

go

to

the

Script

tab

and

click

on

the

Record

button
.

Step

3
:

Go

to

the

device

screen

appearing

on

your

computer

screen,

and

do

the

exact

sequence

of

actions

you

want

in

the

test
.

Step

4
:

Return

to

SeeTest

and

click

on

the

Stop

Record

button
.

Step

5
:

You

will

see

a

progress

bar

indicating

the

record

data

is

being

analyzed,

and

the

test

script

will

then

appear

in

the

Script

area
.

Step

6
:

Before

clicking

the

Play

button

to

run

the

script
:


(
1
)

Set

the

tested

application

in

the

same

starting

mode

as

the

one

you

have

recorded

the

test

on
:

a)


Same

start

screen


b)


Same

items

in

the

tested

application

are

highlighted

or

not

highlighted,

as

was

the

situation

when

you

recorded

the

test
.

c)


Text

boxes

are

empty/filled

in

with

same

text

as

was

when

you

recorded

(
2
)

Check

that

the

elements

have

been

extracted

accurately

and

if

not

Edit
/

ReLearn

the

element
:


a)


Edit

an

element

that

was

extracted

too

widely

(e
.
g
.

several

buttons

instead

of

one)

or

too

narrowly

(e
.
g
.

part

of

the

image,

image

cut

in

the

middle)

b)


ReLearn

an

Element

that

was

not

identified

during

runtime

because

it

may

have

several

appearances

(such

as

with

or

without

mouse

over)

and

was

extracted

in

the

wrong

appearance
.

For

example,

sometimes,

an

element

is

captured

when

it

is

in

mouse
-
over

mode

(highlighted)

and

you

need

to

ReLearn

it

in

the

non

mouse
-
over

mode

(not

highlighted)
.

To

do

so,

set

the

tested

application

screen

in

the

right

mode,

bring

it

to

the

clipboard

of

the

computer

using

Print

Screen
.

Then

go

to

SeeTest,

right
-
click

on

the

element

and

select

ReLearn

and

then

select

Clipboard

from

the

dropdown

list
.

The

corrected

element

will

appear
.

Click

OK

to

finish
.

c)


If

you

have

ReLearnt

an

element

as

described

in

b

above

but

it

has

still

not

been

identified

during

runtime,

reduce

sensitivity

of

the

element

that

has

not

been

identified

(reduce

by

5
%

every

time

and

try

to

run

the

test

then

and

see

if

it

has

been

identified

successfully)


(
3
)

Add,

if

there

is

need,

synchronization

commands

(such

as

Sleep,

WaitForElement)

to

ensure

that

each

test

step

is

executed

on

the

correct

application

window

(follow

the

Edit>

Add

Element&Command

section

for

explanation

how

to

add

a

command
)

Step

7
:

Once

the

test

has

been

executed,

you

will

receive

a

report

indicating

for

each

test

step

if

it

was

executed

successfully

or

not,

including

a

screenshot

of

the

tested

application

in

run

time
.

Step

8
:

You

can

run

the

test

script

from

QTP,

TestComplete,

RFT,

JUnit

,

Python,

Perl

or

C#

and

other

frameworks
.

To

do

so,

click

the

Export

code

button,

copy

the

code

into

your

framework

and

run

it

from

the

framework
.



Conclusion

Thus

to

achieve

high

quality

in

mobile

applications

the

testing

practices

are

made

in

such

a

way

that

it

can

be

opted

for

vast

range

of

mobile

devices
.


So

as

far

as

quality

is

concerned,

there

is

no

compromise

in

mobile

app

also

like

other

software

applications
.

A

good

software

tester

must

be

good

observer,

creative

and

dependable

person

with

necessary

skills
.

Thank You…