China Historyx

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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China History

I.

Foundations

A.

Geography
-

isolated, fertile land

B.

Dynastic Cycle
-

change in dynasties as one becomes corrupted
and the
Mandate of Heaven

is given to another

C.

Confucianism
-

emphasizes honor, respect, tradition, and
family; submission to rule of
authority

D.

Authoritarianism
-

strong central leadership backed by a well
trained bureaucracy for most of their history

E.

Western influence
-

mostly isolationist until the Opium War in
1846 when China was opened into spheres of influence

F.

Revolution of 1911
-

nati
onalists led by Sun Yat
-
sun established
a republic, period of internal conflict

II.

Chinese Civil War

A.

Chiang Kai
-
shek

became leader of the Nationalists
, solidified
power,

and attacked the Communists

B.

The Long March
-

communists lead by
Mao Zedong

took the
6000 m
ile journey to the remote parts of China

C.

Peasant support

formed the base of Communist support

D.

Japanese invasion

(1937
-
1945)
-

Brutal occupation of
China,
Mao used as opportunity to rebuild strength

E.

Mao wins Civil War
-

proclaimed China communist in 1949,
Ch
iang Kai
-
shek retreated to Taiwan

III.

Rule of Mao (1949
-
1976)

A.

Established command economy

1.

Complete nationalization with industrialization and
collectivization

2.

Iron rice bowl
-

socialism in which people are state
-
dependant from cradle
-
to
-
grave

B.

Hundred Flowers
Movement
-

a period of openness to
participate in public policy

1.

Great criticism of government

2.

Mao responded by attacking “rightist enemies of the
revolution”

C.

Great Leap Forward
-


1.

goal to increase growth through rapid communism

2.

collectivization of
agriculture was a huge failure: 30
million died of starvation

D.

Cultural Revolution
-

to maintain political control, Mao
launched a political purge of enemies of revolution

1.

Mass line
-

use of propaganda and mobilization to instill
ideological beliefs in the ma
sses

2.

Caused great chaos, many deaths

3.

Lin Biau and the Gang of Four (led by Mao’s wife) took
power

E.

Arrest of Gang of Four
-

Moderates led eventually by Deng
Xioping took power

IV.

Rule of Deng Xiaoping (1977
-
1997)

A.

Socialist
-
market economy
-

Economic liberalizatio
n while
maintaining government direction and socialist policies

B.

Privatization of some major industries
: SOE from 80 to 17% of
economy but many firms have partial public ownership

C.

Encouragement of free enterprise
:

1.

Household responsibility system
-

household
s leased
land and the profits were left to them

2.

village and town enterprises
-

market enterprises that
were publically owned by local government

D.

Created special economic zones in areas like Shanghai

in order
to encourage domestic trade

E.

Open door policy
-

open to foreign trade

F.

High economic growth
, increase in standard of living

G.

Freer expression but not democracy

H.

Tiananmen Square Massacre

I.

Deng slowly retired but maintained strong influence

V.

Rule of Technocrats (199
2
-

present)

A.

Deng set in motion the foreseeab
le future of the Chinese
government and economy

B.

Successors were chosen by their technical skill, not ideology

C.

1997
-

Hong Kong returned to China: “one China, two systems”:
allowed more freedom than the rest of China

D.

Rule of Jiang Zemin
-

background as an eng
ineer

E.

Rule of Hu Jintao
-

smooth transition, “Scientific Development”

F.

Rule of Xi Jin
ping
-

continuation of technocratic rule, party
divided between Hu and Jiang supporters