AP Billy Budd Vocabx

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)


: ab∙er∙ra∙tion (àb´e
râ¹shen) noun 1. A deviation from the proper or expected course. 2. A
departure from the normal or typical: events that were aberrations from the norm. 3. Psychology. A
disorder or abnormal alteration in one's mental
state. 4. a. A defect of focus, such as blurring in an image. b.
An imperfect image caused by a physical defect in an optical element, as in a lens. [Latin aberrâtio,
, diversion, from aberrâtus, past participle of aberrâre, to go astray : ab
away from. See AB

errâre, to stray.]

: ab∙ro∙gate (àb¹re
gât´) verb, transitive ab∙ro∙gat∙ed, ab∙ro∙gat∙ing, ab∙ro∙gates To abolish, do
away with, or annul, especially by authority. [Latin abrogâre, abrogât

: ab
, away. See AB

+ rogâre, to

ask.] . ab´ro∙ga¹tion noun

: a∙cer∙bic (e
sûr¹bîk) also a∙cerb (e
sûrb¹) adjective Sour or bitter, as in taste, character, or tone:
"At times, the playwright allows an acerbic tone to pierce through otherwise arid or flowery prose" (Alvin
n). [From Latin acerbus.] . a∙cer¹bi∙cal∙ly adverb

: ac∙qui∙esce (àk´wê
ès¹) verb, intransitive ac∙qui∙esced, ac∙qui∙esc∙ing, ac∙qui∙esc∙es To
consent or comply passively or without protest. [Latin acquiêscere : ad
, ad

+ quiêscere, to rest (
quiês, rest).] Usage Note: When acquiesce takes a preposition, it is usually used with in (acquiesced in the
ruling) but sometimes with to (acquiesced to her parents' wishes). Acquiesced with is obsolete.

: ac∙quit (e
kwît¹) verb, transitive

ac∙quit∙ted, ac∙quit∙ting, ac∙quits 1. Law. To free or clear from a
charge or accusation. 2. To release or discharge from a duty. 3. To conduct (oneself) in a specified manner.
4. Obsolete. To repay. [Middle English aquiten, from Old French aquiter : a
to (from Latin ad
). AD

quite, free, clear (from Medieval Latin quittus, variant of Latin quiêtus, past participle of quiêscere, to
rest).] . ac∙quit¹ter noun

: a∙dul∙ter∙ate (e
rât´) verb, transitive a∙dul∙ter∙at∙ed, a∙dul∙ter∙at∙i
ng, a∙dul∙ter∙ates To
make impure by adding extraneous, improper, or inferior ingredients. adjective (
ît) 1. Spurious;
adulterated. 2. Adulterous. [Latin adulterâre, adulterât
, to pollute.] . a∙dul´ter∙a¹tion noun . a∙dul¹ter∙a´tor
noun Synonyms: adu
lterate, debase, doctor, load, sophisticate. The central meaning shared by these verbs is
"to make impure or inferior by adding foreign substances, especially by way of fraudulently increasing
weight or quantity": adulterate coffee with ground acorns; silv
er debased with copper; doctored the wine
with water; rag paper loaded with wood fiber; alcohol sophisticated with ether.

: am∙bi∙dex∙ter∙i∙ty (àm´bî
tê) noun 1. The state or quality of being ambidextrous.
2. Deceit or hypocrisy.

: an∙nals (àn¹elz) plural noun Abbr. ann. 1. A chronological record of the events of successive
years. 2. A descriptive account or record; a history: "the short and simple annals of the poor" (Thomas
Gray). 3. A periodical journal in which the r
ecords and reports of a learned field are compiled. [Latin (lìbrì)
annâlês, yearly (books), annals, pl. of annâlis, yearly, from annus, year.]

: an∙tip∙a∙thy (àn
thê) noun plural an∙tip∙a∙thies 1. A strong feeling of aversion or
ce. 2. An object of aversion. [Latin antipathìa, from Greek antipatheia, from antipathês, of
opposite feelings : anti
, anti

+ pathos, feeling.]

: ar∙id (àr¹îd) adjective 1. Lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support
trees or woody plants: an arid climate. 2. Lacking interest or feeling; lifeless and dull: a technically perfect
but arid musical performance. [Latin âridus, from ârêre, to be dry.] . a∙rid¹i∙ty (e
tê) or ar¹id∙ness noun

: as∙cet∙ic (e

t¹îk) noun A person who renounces material comforts and leads a life of austere
discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion. adjective 1. Leading a life of self
discipline and
denial, especially for spiritual improvement. 2. Pertaining

to or characteristic of an ascetic; self
denying and austere: an ascetic existence. [Late Greek askêtikos, from Greek askêtês, practitioner, hermit,
monk, from askein, to work.] . as∙cet¹i∙cal∙ly adverb

: a∙thwart (e
thwôrt¹) adverb 1. From si
de to side; crosswise or transversely. 2. So as to thwart,
obstruct, or oppose; perversely. preposition 1. From one side to the other of; across: "the Stars that shoot
athwart the Night" (Alexander Pope). 2. Contrary to; against. 3. Nautical. Across the co
urse, line, or length
of. [Middle English : a
, on. See A
2 + thwert, across]

: au∙gu∙ry (ô¹gye
rê) noun plural au∙gu∙ries 1. The art, ability, or practice of auguring;
divination. 2. A sign of something coming; an omen. [Middle English augurie,

from Old French, from Latin
augurium, from augur, augur.]

: aus∙tere (ô
stîr¹) adjective aus∙ter∙er, aus∙ter∙est 1. Severe or stern in disposition or
appearance; somber and grave: the austere figure of a Puritan minister. 2. Strict or severe

in discipline;
ascetic: a desert nomad's austere life. 3. Having no adornment or ornamentation; bare: an austere style.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin austêrus, from Greek austêros.] . aus∙tere¹ly adverb .
aus∙tere¹ness noun

aux∙il∙ia∙ry (ôg
rê) adjective Abbr. aux., auxil. 1. Giving assistance or
support; helping. 2. Acting as a subsidiary; supplementary: the main library and its auxiliary branches. 3.
Held in or used as a reserve: auxiliary troops; an auxil
iary power generator. 4. Nautical. Equipped with a
motor as well as sails. 5. Grammar. Of, relating to, or being an auxiliary verb. noun plural aux∙il∙ia∙ries
Abbr. aux., auxil. 1. An individual or a group that assists or functions in a supporting capacity
: a volunteers'
auxiliary at a hospital. 2. A member of a foreign body of troops serving a country in war. 3. Grammar. An
auxiliary verb. 4. Nautical. a. A sailing vessel equipped with a motor. b. A vessel, such as a supply ship or a
tug, that is designed
for and used in instances and services other than combat. [Middle English, from Latin
auxiliârius, from auxilium, help.]

: av∙a∙rice (àv¹e
rîs) noun Immoderate desire for wealth; cupidity. [Middle English, from
Old French, from Latin avâriti
a, from avârus, greedy, from avêre, to desire.]

: bal∙last (bàl¹est) noun 1. Heavy material that is placed in the hold of a ship or the gondola of
a balloon to enhance stability. 2. a. Coarse gravel or crushed rock laid to form a bed for road
s or railroads.
b. The gravel ingredient of concrete. 3. Something that gives stability, especially in character. verb,
transitive bal∙last∙ed, bal∙last∙ing, bal∙lasts 1. To stabilize or provide with ballast. 2. To fill (a railroad bed)
with or as if with
ballast. [Perhaps from Old Swedish and or Old Danish barlast : bar, mere, bare + last,

: ban (bàn) verb, transitive banned, ban∙ning, bans 1. To prohibit, especially by official decree. See
synonyms at FORBID. 2. South African. To deprive (
a person suspected of illegal activity) of the right of
free movement and association with others. 3. Archaic. To curse. noun 1. An excommunication or
condemnation by church officials. 2. A prohibition imposed by law or official decree. 3. Censure,
ation, or disapproval expressed especially by public opinion. 4. A curse; an imprecation. 5. A
summons to arms in feudal times. [Middle English bannen, to summon, banish, curse, from Old English
bannan, to summon, and from Old Norse banna, to prohibit, cur

: ben∙e∙dic∙tion (bèn´î
dîk¹shen) noun 1. A blessing. 2. An invocation of divine blessing,
usually at the end of a church service. 3. Often Benediction. Roman Catholic Church. A short service
consisting of prayers, the singing of a Eu
charistic hymn, and the blessing of the congregation with the host.
[Middle English benediccioun, from Old French benedicion, from Latin benedictio, benediction
, from
benedictus, past participle of benedicere, to bless : bene, well + dìcere, to speak.] .
ben´e∙dic¹tive or
ben´e∙dic¹to∙ry (
rê) adjective

: big∙ot (bîg¹et) noun One who is strongly partial to one's own group, religion, race, or politics
and is intolerant of those who differ. [French, from Old French.] Word History: A bigot
may have more in
common with God than one might think. Legend has it that Rollo, the first duke of Normandy, refused to
kiss the foot of the French king Charles III, uttering the phrase bi got, his borrowing of the assumed Old
English equivalent of our exp
ression by God. Although this story is almost certainly apocryphal, it is true
that bigot was used by the French as a term of abuse for the Normans, but not in a religious sense. Later,
however, the word, or very possibly a homonym, was used abusively in F
rench for the Beguines, members
of a Roman Catholic lay sisterhood. From the 15th century on Old French bigot meant "an excessively
devoted or hypocritical person." Bigot is first recorded in English in 1598 with the sense "a superstitious


: bluff (blùf) noun A steep headland, promontory, riverbank, or cliff. adjective bluff∙er, bluff∙est
1. Rough and blunt but not unkind in manner. 2. Having a broad, steep front. [Probably from obsolete
Dutch blaf and or Middle Low German blaff, broa
d.] . bluff¹ly adverb . bluff¹ness noun

: ca∙pa∙cious (ke
pâ¹shes) adjective Capable of containing a large quantity; spacious or
roomy. [From Latin capâx, capâc
, from capere, to take.] . ca∙pa¹cious∙ly adverb . ca∙pa¹cious∙ness noun

: ca∙pri∙cious (ke
prê¹shes) adjective Characterized by or subject to whim;
impulsive and unpredictable. . ca∙pri¹cious∙ly adverb . ca∙pri¹cious∙ness noun

: cas∙ti∙gate (kàs¹tî
gât´) verb, transitive cas∙ti∙gat∙ed, cas
∙ti∙gat∙ing, cas∙ti∙gates 1. To
inflict severe punishment on. 2. To criticize severely. [Latin castìgâre, castìgât
, from castus, pure.] .
cas´ti∙ga¹tion noun . cas¹ti∙ga´tor noun

: ca∙su∙ist∙ry (kàzh¹¡
strê) noun plural ca∙sui∙ist∙ries 1. S
pecious or excessively subtle
reasoning intended to rationalize or mislead. 2. The determination of right and wrong in questions of
conduct or conscience by the application of general principles of ethics.

: ce∙ler∙i∙ty (se
tê) noun Swi
ftness of action or motion; speed. [French célérité, from Old
French, from Latin celeritâs, from celer, swift.]

: chafe (châf) verb chafed, chaf∙ing, chafes verb, transitive 1. To wear away or irritate by
rubbing. 2. To annoy; vex. 3. To warm by

rubbing, as with the hands. verb, intransitive 1. To rub and cause
irritation or friction: The high collar chafed against my neck. 2. To become worn or sore from rubbing. 3.
To feel irritated or impatient: chafed at the delay. noun 1. Warmth, wear, or sor
eness produced by friction.
2. Annoyance; vexation. [Middle English chafen, from Old French chaufer, to warm, from Vulgar Latin
*calefâre, alteration of Latin calefacere : calêre, to be warm + facere, to make.] Synonyms: chafe, abrade,
excoriate, fret, gal
l. The central meaning shared by these verbs is "to wear down or rub away a surface by
or as if by scraping": chafed my skin; a swift stream abrading boulders; an excoriated elbow; rope that
fretted a groove in the post; his heel galled by an ill
fitting s

: chev∙a∙lier (shèv´e
lîr¹) noun 1. A member of certain male orders of knighthood or merit,
such as the Legion of Honor in France. 2. a. A French nobleman of the lowest rank. b. Used as a title for
such a nobleman. 3. A knight. 4. A chi
valrous man. [Middle English chevaler, from Old French chevalier,
from Late Latin caballârius, horseman, from caballus, horse.]

: cir∙cum∙am∙bi∙ent (sûr´kem
ent) adjective Encompassing on all sides;
surrounding. . cir´cum∙am¹bi∙en
ce or cir´cum∙am¹bi∙en∙cy noun . cir´cum∙am¹bi∙ent∙ly adverb

: co∙ad∙ju∙tor (ko´e
j¡¹ter, ko
ter) noun 1. A coworker; an assistant. 2. An assistant to a
bishop, especially one designated to succeed the bishop. [Middle English coadjutour
, assistant, from Latin
coadiútor : co
, co

+ adiútor, assistant (from adiútâre, to aid).]

: col∙lo∙quy (kòl¹e
kwê) noun plural col∙lo∙quies 1. A conversation, especially a formal one.
2. A written dialogue. [From Latin colloquium, conversat

: con∙tu∙me∙ly (kòn¹t¡
lê) noun plural con∙tu∙me∙lies 1. Rudeness or
contempt arising from arrogance; insolence. 2. An insolent or arrogant remark or act. [Middle English
contumelie, from Old French, from Latin co
ntumêlia; akin to contumâx, insolent.] . con´tu∙me¹li∙ous
es) adjective . con´tu∙me¹li∙ous∙ly adverb

: coun∙te∙nance (koun¹te
nens) noun 1. Appearance, especially the expression of the face.
2. The face or facial features. 3.

a. A look or expression indicative of encouragement or of moral support. b.
Support or approval. 4. Obsolete. Bearing; demeanor. verb, transitive coun∙te∙nanced, coun∙te∙nanc∙ing,
coun∙te∙nanc∙es To give or express approval to; condone: The college admini
stration will not countenance
cheating. [Middle English contenaunce, from Old French, from contenir, to behave.] . coun¹te∙nanc∙er noun

: cyn∙ic (sîn¹îk) noun 1. A person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness. 2. Cynic.
A member o
f a sect of ancient Greek philosophers who believed virtue to be the only good and self
to be the only means of achieving virtue. adjective 1. Cynical. 2. Cynic. Of or relating to the Cynics or their
beliefs. [Latin cynicus, Cynic philosopher, from

Greek kunikos, from kuon, kun
, dog.] Word History: A
cynic may be pardoned for thinking that this is a dog's life. The Greek word kunikos, from which cynic
comes, was originally an adjective meaning "doglike," from kuon, "dog." The word was most likely a
to the Cynic philosophers because of the nickname kuon given to Diogenes of Sinope, the prototypical
Cynic. He is said to have performed such actions as barking in public, urinating on the leg of a table, and
masturbating on the street. The first us
e of the w ord recorded in English, in a work published from 1547 to
1564, is in the plural for members of this philosophical sect. In 1596 we find the first instance of cynic
meaning "faultfinder," a sense that was to develop into our modern sense. The me
aning "faultfinder" came
naturally from the behavior of countless Cynics who in their pursuit of virtue pointed out the flaws in
others. Such faultfinding could lead quite naturally to the belief associated with cynics of today that
selfishness determines
human behavior.

: cy∙no∙sure (sì¹ne
sh¢r´, sîn¹e
) noun 1. An object that serves as a focal point of attention and
admiration. 2. Something that serves to guide. [French, Ursa Minor (which contains the guiding star
Polaris), from Latin cynosú
ra, from Greek kunosoura, dog's tail, Ursa Minor : kuon, kun
, dog + oura, tail.]
. cy´no∙sur¹al adjective

: de∙camp (dî
kàmp¹) verb, intransitive de∙camped, de∙camp∙ing, de∙camps 1. To depart
secretly or suddenly. 2. To depart from a camp or
camping ground. [French décamper, from Old French
descamper, to strike camp : des
, de

+ camper, to camp (from camp, camp] . de∙camp¹ment noun

: de∙coct (dî
kòkt¹) verb, transitive de∙coct∙ed, de∙coct∙ing, de∙cocts 1. To extract the flavor
of by boiling. 2. To make concentrated; boil down. [Middle English decocten, to boil, from Latin
dêcoquere, dêcoct
, to boil down or away : dê
, de

+ coquere, to boil, to cook.] . de∙coc¹tion noun

: de∙fer (dî
fûr¹) verb de∙ferred, de∙fer∙rin
g, de∙fers verb, transitive 1. To put off; postpone. 2.
To postpone the induction of (one eligible for the military draft). verb, intransitive To procrastinate.
[Middle English differren, to postpone, differ.] . de∙fer¹ra∙ble adjective . de∙fer¹rer noun Sy
nonyms: defer,
postpone, shelve, stay, suspend. The central meaning shared by these verbs is "to put off until a later time":
deferred paying the bills; postponing our trip; shelved the issue; stay an execution; suspending train service.

: Del∙
phic (dèl¹fîk) also Del∙phi∙an (

en) adjective 1. Greek Mythology. Of or relating to
Delphi or to the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. 2. Obscurely prophetic; oracular: made a great deal of Delphic
pronouncements. . Del¹phi∙cal∙ly adverb

: de∙mur
mûr¹) verb, intransitive de∙murred, de∙mur∙ring, de∙murs 1. To voice opposition;
object: demurred at the suggestion. 2. Law. To enter a demurrer. 3. To delay. noun 1. The act of demurring.
2. An objection. 3. A delay. [Middle English demuren, to delay,

from Anglo
Norman demurer, from Latin
dêmorârì : dê
, de

+ morârì, to delay (from mora, delay).] . de∙mur¹ra∙ble adjective

: der∙e∙lict (dèr¹e
lîkt´) adjective 1. Deserted by an owner or keeper; abandoned. 2. Run
down; dilapidated. 3. Neg
lectful of duty or obligation; remiss. noun 1. Abandoned property, especially a
ship abandoned at sea. 2. A homeless or jobless person; a vagrant. 3. Law. Land left dry by a permanent
recession of the water line. [Latin dêrelictus, past participle of dêrel
inquere, to abandon : dê
, de

relinquere, to leave behind.]

: di∙gress (dì
grès¹, dî
) verb, intransitive di∙gressed, di∙gress∙ing, di∙gress∙es To turn aside,
especially from the main subject in writing or speaking; stray. [Latin dìgredì
, dìgress

: dì
, dis
, apart.]

: dis∙com∙fit (dîs
kùm¹fît) verb, transitive dis∙com∙fit∙ed, dis∙com∙fit∙ing, dis∙com∙fits 1. To
make uneasy or perplexed; disconcert. 2. To thwart the plans of; frustrate. 3. Archaic. To defeat in battle;
quish. noun Discomfiture. [Middle English discomfiten, from Old French desconfit, past participle of
desconfire, descumfire, to defeat : des
, dis

+ confire, to make (from Latin conficere, to prepare).] Usage
Note: It is true that discomfit originally mea
nt "to defeat, frustrate," and that its newer use meaning "to
embarrass, disconcert," probably arose in part through confusion with discomfort. But the newer sense is
now the most common use of the verb in all varieties of writing and should be considered
entirely standard.

: dis∙dain (dîs
dân¹) verb, transitive dis∙dained, dis∙dain∙ing, dis∙dains 1. To regard or treat with
haughty contempt; despise. 2. To consider or reject as beneath oneself. noun A feeling or show of contempt
and aloofness; s
corn. [Middle English disdeinen, from Old French desdeignier, from Vulgar Latin
*disdignâre, from Latin dêdignârì : dê
, de

+ dignârì, to deem worthy (from dignus, worthy).]

: dis∙sem∙ble (dî
sèm¹bel) verb dis∙sem∙bled, dis∙sem∙bling, dis∙se
m∙bles verb, transitive 1.
To disguise or conceal behind a false appearance. 2. To make a false show of; feign. verb, intransitive To
disguise or conceal one's real nature, motives, or feelings behind a false appearance. [Middle English
dissemblen, from Ol
d French dessembler, to be different : des
, dis

+ sembler, to appear, seem.] .
dis∙sem¹blance noun . dis∙sem¹bler noun . dis∙sem¹bling∙ly adverb

: du∙bi∙e∙ty (d¡
tê, dy¡
) noun plural du∙bi∙e∙ties 1. A feeling of doubt that often
results in
wavering. 2. A matter of doubt. [Late Latin dubietâs, from Latin dubius, doubtful. See DUBIOUS.]

: du∙bi∙ous (d¡¹bê
es, dy¡¹
) adjective 1. Fraught with uncertainty or doubt; undecided. 2.
Arousing doubt; doubtful: a dubious distinc
tion. 3. Of questionable character: dubious profits. [From Latin
dubius.] . du¹bi∙ous∙ly adverb . du¹bi∙ous∙ness noun

: ef∙face (î
fâs¹) verb, transitive ef∙faced, ef∙fac∙ing, ef∙fac∙es 1. To rub or wipe out; erase.
2. To make indistinct as

if by rubbing: "Five years' absence had done nothing to efface the people's memory
of his firmness" (Alan Moorehead). 3. To conduct (oneself) inconspicuously: "When the two women went
out together, Anna deliberately effaced herself and played to the drama
tic Molly" (Doris Lessing). [Middle
English effacen, from French effacer, from Old French esfacier : es
, out (from Latin ex
, ex
) + face, face
(from Latin faciês).] . ef∙face¹a∙ble adjective . ef∙face¹ment noun . ef∙fac¹er noun

: e∙jac∙u∙
late (î
lât´) verb e∙jac∙u∙lat∙ed, e∙jac∙u∙lat∙ing, e∙jac∙u∙lates verb, transitive
To utter suddenly and passionately; exclaim. verb, intransitive [Latin êiaculârì, êiaculât

: ê
, ex
, ex

iaculârì, to throw (from iaculum, dart).] . e∙jac¹u∙la´to
r noun

: em∙is∙sar∙y (èm¹î
sèr´ê) noun plural em∙is∙sar∙ies An agent sent on a mission to represent or
advance the interests of another. [Latin êmissârius, from êmissus, past participle of êmittere, to send out.]

: en∙er∙vate (è
vât´) verb, transitive en∙er∙vat∙ed, en∙er∙vat∙ing, en∙er∙vates 1. To weaken
or destroy the strength or vitality of: "the luxury which enervates and destroys nations" (Henry David
Thoreau). 2. Medicine. To remove a nerve or part of a nerve. adjective

nûr¹vît) Deprived of strength;
debilitated. [Latin ênervâre, ênervât

: ê
, ex
, ex

+ nervus, sinew.] . en´er∙va¹tion noun . en¹er∙va´tive
adjective . en¹er∙va´tor noun

: ep∙i∙thet (èp¹e
thèt´) noun 1. a. A term used to characterize a pers
on or thing, such as rosy
fingered in rosy
fingered dawn or the Great in Catherine the Great. b. A term used as a descriptive
substitute for the name or title of a person, such as The Great Emancipator for Abraham Lincoln. 2. An
abusive or contemptuous wor
d or phrase. [Latin epitheton, from Greek, neuter of epithetos, added,
attributed, from epitithenai, to add to : epi
, epi

+ tithenai, to place.] . ep´i∙thet¹ic or ep´i∙thet¹i∙cal
adjective Usage Note: Strictly speaking, an epithet need not be derogatory,

but the term is commonly used
as a simple synonym for "term of abuse" or "slur," as in the sentence There is no place for racial epithets in
a police officer's vocabulary. This usage is accepted by 80 percent of the Usage Panel.

: e∙quiv∙o∙
cal (î
kel) adjective 1. Open to two or more interpretations and often
intended to mislead; ambiguous. 2. Of uncertain significance. 3. Of a doubtful or uncertain nature. [From
Late Latin aequivocus : Latin aequi
, equi

+ Latin vox, voc
, voice.] .

e∙quiv´o∙cal¹i∙ty (
tê) or
e∙quiv¹o∙cal∙ness noun . e∙quiv¹o∙cal∙ly adverb

: eu∙tha∙na∙sia (y¡´the
e) noun The act or practice of ending the life of an
individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable conditi
on, as by lethal injection or the
suspension of extraordinary medical treatment. [Greek, a good death : eu
, eu

+ thanatos, death.]

: ev∙a∙nes∙cent (èv´e
nès¹ent) adjective Vanishing or likely to vanish like vapor..
ev´a∙nes¹cent∙ly adverb

: e∙vince (î
vîns¹) verb, transitive e∙vinced, e∙vinc∙ing, e∙vinc∙es To show or demonstrate
clearly; manifest: evince distaste by grimacing. [Latin êvincere, to prevail, prove.] . e∙vinc¹i∙ble adjective

: feign (fân) verb feigne
d, feign∙ing, feigns verb, transitive 1. a. To give a false appearance
of: feign sleep. b. To represent falsely; pretend to: feign authorship of a novel. 2. To imitate so as to
deceive: feign another's voice. 3. To fabricate: feigned an excuse. 4. Archaic.

To invent or imagine. verb,
intransitive To pretend; dissemble. [Middle English feinen, from Old French feindre, from Latin fingere, to
shape, form.]

: fer∙vid (fûr¹vîd) adjective 1. Marked by great passion or zeal: a fervid patriot. 2. Extrem
ely hot;
burning. [Latin fervidus, from fervêre, to boil.] . fer¹vid∙ly adverb . fer¹vid∙ness noun

: fi∙nesse (fe
nès¹) noun 1. Refinement and delicacy of performance, execution, or artisanship.
2. Skillful, subtle handling of a situation; tac
tful, diplomatic maneuvering. 3. A stratagem in which one
appears to decline an advantage. verb fi∙nessed, fi∙ness∙ing, fi∙ness∙es verb, transitive 1. To accomplish by
the use of finesse. 2. To handle with a deceptive or evasive strategy. [French, fineness
, subtlety, from fin,

: fin∙i∙al (fîn¹ê
el) noun 1. Architecture. An ornament fixed to the peak of an arch or arched
structure. 2. An ornamental terminating part, such as the screw on top of a lampshade. [Middle English,
last, finial, va
riant of final.]

: fo∙ment (fo
mènt¹) verb, transitive fo∙ment∙ed, fo∙ment∙ing, fo∙ments 1. To promote the
growth of; incite. 2. To treat (the skin, for example) by fomentation. [Middle English fomenten, to apply
warm liquids to the skin, from
Old French fomenter, from Late Latin fomentâre, from Latin fomentum,
from *fovementum, from fovêre, to warm.] . fo∙ment¹er noun

: for∙bear (fôr
bâr¹) verb for∙bore (
bor¹) for∙borne (
born¹) for∙bear∙ing,
for∙bears verb, transi
tive 1. To refrain from; resist: forbear replying. 2. To desist from; cease. 3. Obsolete.
To avoid or shun. verb, intransitive 1. To hold back; refrain. 2. To be tolerant or patient in the face of
provocation. [Middle English forberen, from Old English for
beran, to endure.] . for∙bear¹er noun

: frank (fràngk) adjective frank∙er, frank∙est 1. Open and sincere in expression; straightforward.
2. Clearly manifest; evident: frank enjoyment. Synonyms: frank, candid, outspoken, straightforward, open.
ese adjectives mean revealing or disposed to reveal one's thoughts freely and honestly. Frank implies
forthrightness of expression, sometimes to the point of bluntness: You can tell me what you think, and you
may just as well be frank. Candid stresses open
ness and sincerity and often suggests refusal to evade
difficult or unpleasant issues: "Save, save, oh save me from the candid friend!" (George Canning).
Outspoken usually implies bold lack of reserve: It is possible to be outspoken without being rude.
aightforward denotes directness of manner and expression: "George was a straightforward soul . . . 'See
here!' he said. 'Are you engaged to anybody?'" (Booth Tarkington). Open suggests freedom from all trace
of reserve or secretiveness: "I will be open and

sincere with you" (Joseph Addison).

: fresh∙et (frèsh¹ît) noun 1. A sudden overflow of a stream resulting from a heavy rain or a
thaw. 2. A stream of fresh water that empties into a body of salt water.

: func∙tion∙ar∙y (fùngk
nèr´ê) noun plural func∙tion∙ar∙ies One who holds an office or
a trust or performs a particular function; an official.

: fus∙tian (fùs¹chen) noun 1. a. A coarse, sturdy cloth made of cotton and flax. b. Any of several
thick, twilled cotton

fabrics, such as corduroy, having a short nap. 2. Pretentious speech or writing;
pompous language. adjective 1. Made of or as if of fustian: "[He] disliked the heavy, fustian . . . and
brocaded decor of Soviet officialdom" (Frederick Forsyth). 2. Pompous,

bombastic, and ranting: "Yossarian
was unmoved by the fustian charade of the burial ceremony" (Joseph Heller). [Middle English, from Old
French fustaigne, from Medieval Latin fustâneum, possibly from Latin fústis, wooden stick, club (loan
translation of G
reek xulina (lina), wood
linen, cotton) and or from El Fostat (El Fustat), a section of Cairo,

: gel∙id (jèl¹îd) adjective Very cold; icy: gelid ocean waters. [Latin gelidus, from gelú, frost.] .
ge∙lid¹i∙ty (je
tê) or gel¹id∙ness
noun . gel¹id∙ly adverb

: grav∙el verb, transitive grav∙eled or grav∙elled grav∙el∙ing or grav∙el∙ling grav∙els or grav∙els
1. To apply a surface of rock fragments or pebbles to. 2. To confuse; perplex. 3. Informal. To irritate.

[Middle English, from Old French gravele, diminutive of grave, pebbly shore, of Celtic origin.]

: hei∙nous (hâ¹nes) adjective Grossly wicked or reprehensible; abominable: a heinous crime.
[Middle English, from Old French haineus, from haine,
hatred, from hair, to hate, from Frankish *hatjan.] .
hei¹nous∙ly adverb . hei¹nous∙ness noun

: hom∙age (hòm¹îj, òm¹
) noun 1. Ceremonial acknowledgment by a vassal of allegiance to his
lord under feudal law. 2. Special honor or respect shown o
r expressed publicly. [Middle English, from Old
French, probably from omne, homme, man, from Latin homo, homin

: huz∙zah also huz∙za (he
zä¹) interjection Used to express joy, encouragement, or triumph. noun
1. A shout of "huzzah." 2. A cheer
. [Perhaps variant of Middle English hisse, heave!.]

: i∙con∙o∙clast (ì
klàst´) noun 1. One who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional or
popular ideas or institutions. 2. One who destroys sacred religious images. [French iconocla
ste, from
Medieval Greek eikonoklastês, smasher of religious images : Greek eikono
, icono

klastês, breaker
(from Greek klan, klas
, to break).] . i∙con´o∙clas¹tic adjective . i∙con´o∙clas¹ti∙cal∙ly adverb Word History:
An iconoclast can be unpleasant
company, but at least the modern iconoclast only attacks such things as
ideas and institutions. The original iconoclasts destroyed countless works of art. Eikonoklastês, the ancestor
of our word, was first formed in Medieval Greek from the elements eikon,
"image, likeness," and
"breaker," from klan, "to break." The images referred to by the word are religious images, which were the
subject of controversy among Christians of the Byzantine Empire in the 8th and 9th centuries, when
iconoclasm was at
its height. Those who opposed images did not, of course, simply destroy them, although
many were demolished; they also attempted to have the images barred from display and veneration. During
the Protestant Reformation images in churches were again felt to
be idolatrous and were once more banned
and destroyed. It is around this time that iconoclast, the descendant of the Greek word, is first recorded in
English (1641), with reference to the Greek iconoclasts. In the 19th century iconoclast took on the secula
sense that it has today, as in "Kant was the great iconoclast" (James Martineau).

: ig∙no∙min∙i∙ous (îg´ne
es) adjective 1. Marked by shame or disgrace: "It was an
ignominious end. . . . as a desperate mutiny by a handful of soldie
rs blossomed into full
scale revolt"
(Angus Deming). 2. Deserving disgrace or shame; despicable. 3. Degrading; debasing: "The young people
huddled with their sodden gritty towels and ignominious goosebumps inside the gray
shingled bathhouse"
(John Updike).

. ig´no∙min¹i∙ous∙ly adverb . ig´no∙min¹i∙ous∙ness noun

: im∙mure (î
my¢r¹) verb, transitive im∙mured, im∙mur∙ing, im∙mures 1. To confine within or
as if within walls; imprison. 2. To build into a wall: immure a shrine. 3. To entomb in a wall.

Latin immúrâre : Latin in
, in.] . im∙mure¹ment noun

: im∙pe∙ri∙al (îm
el) adjective 1. Of, relating to, or suggestive of an empire or a
sovereign, especially an emperor or empress: imperial rule; the imperial palace. 2. Ruli
ng over extensive
territories or over colonies or dependencies: imperial nations. 3. a. Having supreme authority; sovereign. b.
Regal; majestic. 4. Outstanding in size or quality. [Middle English, from Old French, from Latin imperiâlis,
from imperium, comm
and.] . im∙pe¹ri∙al∙ly adverb

: im∙pet∙u∙ous (îm
es) adjective 1. Characterized by sudden and forceful energy or
emotion; impulsive and passionate. 2. Having or marked by violent force: impetuous, heaving waves.
[Middle English, viole
nt, from Old French impetueux, from Late Latin impetuosus, from Latin impetus,
impetus.] . im∙pet¹u∙ous∙ly adverb . im∙pet¹u∙ous∙ness noun Synonyms: impetuous, heedless, hasty,
headlong, precipitate, sudden. These adjectives describe people and their actio
ns when they are marked by
abruptness or lack of deliberation. Impetuous suggests forceful impulsiveness or impatience: "[a race driver
who was] flamboyant, impetuous, disdainful of death" (Jim Murray). Heedless implies carelessness or lack
of a sense of r
esponsibility or proper regard for consequences: "Hobbling down stairs with heedless haste, I
set my foot full in a pail of water" (Richard Steele). Hasty and headlong both stress hurried, often reckless
action: "Hasty marriage seldom proveth well" (Shakes
peare). The soldiers made a headlong rush for cover.
Precipitate suggests impulsiveness and lack of due reflection: "Some of the fickle populace began to doubt
whether they had not been rather precipitate in deposing his brother" (Washington Irving). Sudde
n applies
to what becomes apparent abruptly or unexpectedly: The patient is given to sudden and inexplicable
paroxysms of anger.

: im∙pale (îm
pâl¹) also em∙pale (èm
) verb, transitive im∙paled, im∙pal∙ing, im∙pales 1. a. To
pierce with a sharp

stake or point. b. To torture or kill by impaling. 2. To render helpless as if by impaling.
[Medieval Latin impâlâre : Latin in
, in.] . im∙pale¹ment noun . im∙pal¹er noun

: im∙press (îm
près¹) verb, transitive im∙pressed, im∙press∙ing, im∙pr
ess∙es 1. To compel (a
person) to serve in a military force. 2. To seize (property) by force or authority; confiscate. noun (îm¹près)
Impressment. [influenced by IMPREST, advance on a soldier's pay (obsolete).]

: in∙cip∙i∙ent (în
adjective Beginning to exist or appear: detecting incipient tumors;
an incipient personnel problem. [Latin incipiêns, incipient
, present participle of incipere, to begin.] .
in∙cip¹i∙en∙cy or in∙cip¹i∙ence noun . in∙cip¹i∙ent∙ly adverb

: in
∙cum∙bent (în
kùm¹bent) adjective 1. Imposed as an obligation or a duty; obligatory: felt
it was incumbent on us all to help. 2. Lying, leaning, or resting on something else: incumbent rock strata. 3.
Currently holding a specified office: the incumbent may
or. [Middle English, holder of an office, from
Medieval Latin incumbêns, incumbent
, from Latin, present participle of incumbere, to lean upon, apply
oneself to : in
, o] . in∙cum¹bent∙ly adverb

: in∙ef∙fa∙ble (în
bel) adjective 1. Inca
pable of being expressed; indescribable or
unutterable. 2. Not to be uttered; taboo: the ineffable name of the Deity. [Middle English, from Old French,
from Latin ineffâbilis : in
, not. IN
1 + effâbilis, utterable (from effârì, to utter : ex
, ex

+ fârì,

to speak).] .
in∙ef´fa∙bil¹i∙ty or in∙ef¹fa∙ble∙ness noun . in∙ef¹fa∙bly adverb

: in∙ef∙fec∙tu∙al (în´î
el) adjective 1. a. Insufficient to produce a desired effect: an
ineffectual effort to block the legislation. b. Useless; wort
hless: an ineffectual treatment for cancer. 2.
Lacking forcefulness or effectiveness; weak: an ineffectual ruler. . in´ef∙fec´tu∙al¹i∙ty (
tê) or
in´ef∙fec¹tu∙al∙ness noun . in´ef∙fec¹tu∙al∙ly adverb

: in∙im∙i∙cal (î
kel) adjective

1. Injurious or harmful in effect; adverse: habits inimical to
good health. 2. Unfriendly; hostile: a cold, inimical voice. [Late Latin inimìcâlis, from Latin inimìcus,
enemy.] . in∙imi∙cal∙ly adverb

: in∙junc∙tion (în
jùngk¹shen) noun 1.
The act or an instance of enjoining; a command, a
directive, or an order. 2. Law. A court order prohibiting a party from a specific course of action. [Middle
English injunccion, from Late Latin iniúnctio, iniúnction
, from Latin iniúnctus, past participle
iniungere, to enjoin : in
, in.] . in∙junc¹tive adjective

: in∙sin∙u∙ate (în
ât´) verb in∙sin∙u∙at∙ed, in∙sin∙u∙at∙ing, in∙sin∙u∙ates verb, transitive
1. To introduce or otherwise convey (a thought, for example) gradually and insid
iously. 2. To introduce or
insert (oneself) by subtle and artful means. [Latin ìnsinuâre] . in∙sin¹u∙a´tive adjective . in∙sin¹u∙a´tor noun .
in∙sin¹u∙a∙tor´y (

tor´ê) adjective

: in∙sol∙vent (în
sòl¹vent) adjective 1. a. Unable

to meet debts or discharge liabilities;
bankrupt. b. Insufficient to meet all debts, as an estate or a fund. 2. Of or relating to bankrupt persons or

: in∙sig∙ni∙a (în
e) also in∙sig∙ne (
nê) noun plural insignia or in∙sig∙
ni∙as 1. A badge of
office, rank, membership, or nationality; an emblem. 2. A distinguishing sign. [Latin ìnsignia, pl. of
ìnsigne, badge of office, mark, from neuter of ìnsignis, distinguished, marked : in
, in.] Usage Note:
Insignia in Latin is the plura
l form of insigne, but it has long been used in English as both a singular and a
plural form: The insignia was visible on the wingtip. There are five insignia on various parts of the plane.
From the singular use of insignia comes the plural insignias, whic
h is also common in reputable writing.
The Latin singular insigne is rare and may strike some readers as pedantic.

: in∙ter∙lop∙er (în¹ter
lo´per) noun 1. One that interferes with the affairs of others, often for
selfish reasons; a meddler.

2. Archaic. a. One that trespasses on a trade monopoly, as by conducting
unauthorized trade in an area designated to a chartered company. b. A ship or other vessel used in such
trade. [INTER

+ probably Middle Dutch loper, runner (from loopen, to run).] .

in¹ter∙lope´ verb Word
History: The word interloper comes to us from the days when England was embarking on the course that
would lead to the British Empire. Interloper, first recorded in connection with the Muscovy Company,
which was the earliest major E
nglish trading company (chartered in 1555), was soon being used as well in
regard to the East India Company (chartered in 1600). Since these companies were monopolies,
independent traders called interlopers were not wanted. The term is probably partly deri
ved from Dutch, the
language of one of the great trade rivals of the English at that time. The inter

is simply a use of the prefix
, which English has borrowed from Latin, meaning "between, among." The element
loper is probably
related to the same
element in landloper, "vagabond," a word adopted from Dutch landlooper, with the
same sense and composed of land, "land," and loper, from lopen, "to run, leap." The word interloper, first
recorded around 1590, was too useful in a world of busybodies to be
restricted to its original specialized
sense and came to be used in the extended sense "busybody" in the 17th century.

: in∙trigue (în¹trêg´, în
trêg¹) noun 1. a. A secret or underhand scheme; a plot. b. The practice
of or involvement in such

schemes. 2. A clandestine love affair. verb in∙trigued, in∙trigu∙ing, in∙trigues (în
trêg¹) verb, intransitive To engage in secret or underhand schemes; plot. verb, transitive 1. To effect by
secret scheming or plotting. 2. To arouse the interest or curio
sity of: Hibernation has long intrigued
biologists. [Probably from French intriguer, to plot, from Italian intrigare, to plot, from Latin intrìcâre, to
entangle.] . in∙trigu¹er noun . in¹trigu´ing∙ly adverb Usage Note: The introduction of the verb intrigue

mean "to arouse the interest or curiosity of" was initially resisted by writers on usage as an unneeded
French substitute for available English words such as interest, fascinate, or puzzle, but it now appears to be
well established. Seventy

eight perc
ent of the Usage Panel accepts it in the sentence The special

idea intrigues some legislators, who have asked a Washington think tank to evaluate it, whereas only 52
percent accepted it in a 1968 survey.

: in∙vid∙i∙ous (în
es) a
djective 1. Tending to rouse ill will, animosity, or resentment:
invidious accusations. 2. Containing or implying a slight; discriminatory: invidious distinctions. 3. Envious.
[From Latin invidiosus, envious, hostile, from invidia, envy.] . in∙vid¹i∙ous∙ly

adverb . in∙vid i∙ous∙ness

: i∙ras∙ci∙ble (î
bel, ì
) adjective 1. Prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered. 2.
Characterized by or resulting from anger. [Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin ìrâscibilis,
m Latin ìrâscì, to be angry, from ìra, anger.] . i∙ras´ci∙bil¹i∙ty or i∙ras¹ci∙ble∙ness noun . i∙ras¹ci∙bly

: ju∙di∙cious (j¡
dîsh¹es) adjective Having or exhibiting sound judgment; prudent. [From
French judicieux, from Latin iúdicium
, judgment, from iúdex, iúdic
, judge.] . ju∙di¹cious∙ly adverb .
ju∙di¹cious∙ness noun

: jug∙gler∙y (jùg¹le
rê) noun plural jug∙gler∙ies 1. The skill or performance of a juggler. 2.
Trickery; deception.

: jux∙ta∙pose

poz¹) verb, transitive jux∙ta∙posed, jux∙ta∙pos∙ing, jux∙ta∙pos∙es To
place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast. [French juxtaposer : Latin iuxtâ, close by +
French poser, to place (from Old French).]

: lodg∙ment als
o lodge∙ment (lòj¹ment) noun 1. a. The act of lodging. b. The state of being
lodged. 2. A place for lodging. 3. An accumulation or a deposit. 4. A foothold or beachhead gained by
troops in enemy or neutral territory.

: mag∙nan∙i∙mous (màg
mes) adjective 1. Courageously noble in mind and heart.
2. Generous in forgiving; eschewing resentment or revenge; unselfish. [From Latin magnanimus : magnus,
great + animus, soul, mind.] . mag∙nan¹i∙mous∙ly adverb . mag∙nan¹i∙mous∙ness noun

: ma∙lig∙ni∙ty (me
tê) noun plural ma∙lig∙ni∙ties 1. a. Intense ill will or hatred; great
malice. b. An act or a feeling of great malice. 2. The condition or quality of being highly dangerous or
injurious; deadliness.

: mar∙plot
(mär¹plòt´) noun A stupid, officious meddler whose interference compromises the
success of an undertaking. [After Marplot, a character in The Busy Body, a play by Susannah Centlivre

: mar∙tial (mär¹shel) adjective 1. Of, relating

to, or suggestive of war. 2. Relating to or
connected with the armed forces or the profession of arms. 3. Characteristic of or befitting a warrior.
[Middle English, from Latin Mârtiâlis, from Mârs, Mârt
, Mars.] . mar¹tial∙ism noun . mar¹tial∙ist noun .
ar¹tial∙ly adverb

: mar∙ti∙net (mär´tn
èt¹) noun 1. A rigid military disciplinarian. 2. One who demands
absolute adherence to forms and rules. [After Jean Martinet (died 1672), French army officer.]

: mer∙ce∙nar∙y (mûr¹se
ê) adjective 1. Motivated solely by a desire for monetary or
material gain. 2. Hired for service in a foreign army. noun plural mer∙ce∙nar∙ies 1. One who serves or
works merely for monetary gain; a hireling. 2. A professional soldier hired for service in a

foreign army.
[Middle English mercenarie, a mercenary, from Old French mercenaire, from Latin mercênârius, from
mercês, wages, price.] . mer´ce∙nar¹i∙ly adverb . mer¹ce∙nar´i∙ness noun

: mes∙mer∙ize (mèz¹me
rìz´, mès¹
) verb, transitive

mes∙mer∙ized, mes∙mer∙iz∙ing,
mes∙mer∙iz∙es 1. To spellbind; enthrall: "He could mesmerize an audience by the sheer force of his
presence" (Justin Kaplan). 2. To hypnotize. . mes´mer∙i∙za¹tion (
zâ¹shen) noun . mes¹mer∙iz´er noun

: mi
t∙i∙gate (mît¹îgât´) verb mit∙i∙gat∙ed, mit∙i∙gat∙ing, mit∙i∙gates verb, transitive To
moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate. verb, intransitive To become milder.
[Middle English mitigaten, from Latin mìtigâre, mìtigât

: mìtis
, soft + agere, to drive, do. See ACT.] .
mit¹i∙ga∙ble (
bel) adjective . mit´i∙ga¹tion noun . mit¹i∙ga´tive or mit¹i∙ga∙to´ry (
adjective . mit¹i∙ga´tor noun

: mon∙o∙ma∙ni∙a (mòn´e
mân¹ye) noun 1. Pathological

obsession with one idea
or subject, as in paranoia. 2. Intent concentration on or exaggerated enthusiasm for a single subject or idea.
. mon´o∙ma¹ni∙ac´ (
àk´) noun . mon´o∙ma∙ni¹a∙cal (
kel) adjective . mon´o∙ma∙ni¹a∙cal∙ly

: non∙age (nòn¹îj, no¹nîj) noun 1. The period during which one is legally underage. 2. A period
of immaturity: "The bravest achievements were always accomplished in the nonage of a nation" (Thomas
Paine). [Middle English nounage, from Anglo
Norman, var
iant of Old French nonaage : non
, non

+ aage,

: non∙plus (nòn
plùs¹) verb, transitive non∙plused also non∙plussed non∙plus∙ing
non∙plus∙sing non∙plus∙es non∙plus∙ses To put at a loss as to what to think, say, or do; bewilder. noun A
tate of perplexity, confusion, or bewilderment. [From Latin non plús, no more : non, not.]

: pa∙ren∙the∙sis (pe
sîs) noun plural par∙en∙the∙ses (
sêz´) Abbr. par., paren. 1.
Either or both of the upright curved lines, ( or ), use
d to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in
writing or printing or enclose a sum, product, or other expression considered or treated as a collective entity
in a mathematical operation. 2. a. A qualifying or amplifying word, phrase, or sentence inser
ted within
written matter in such a way as to be independent of the surrounding grammatical structure. b. A comment
departing from the theme of discourse; a digression. 3. An interruption of continuity; an interval: "This is
one of the things I wasn't prep
ared for. the amount of unfilled time, the long parentheses of nothing"
(Margaret Atwood). [Late Latin, insertion of a letter or syllable in a word, from Greek, from parentithenai,
to insert : para
, beside.]

: par∙ley (pär¹lê) noun plural par
∙leys A discussion or conference, especially one between
enemies over terms of truce or other matters. verb, intransitive par∙leyed, par∙ley∙ing, par∙leys To have a
discussion, especially with an enemy. [Middle English, from Old French parlee, from feminin
e past
participle of parler, to talk, from Vulgar Latin *paraulâre, from Late Latin parabolâre, from Late Latin
parabola, discourse.]

: par∙ox∙ysm (pàr¹ek
sîz´em) noun 1. A sudden outburst of emotion or action: a paroxysm
of laughter. 2. Med
icine. a. A sudden attack, recurrence, or intensification of a disease. b. A spasm or fit; a
convulsion. [Middle English paroxism, periodic attack of a disease, from Medieval Latin paroxysmus, from
Greek paroxusmos, from paroxunein, to stimulate, irritate
: para
, intensive pref.] . par´ox∙ys¹mal (
sîz¹mel) adjective . par´ox∙ys¹mal∙ly adverb

: pas∙sion (pàsh¹en) noun 1. A powerful emotion, such as love, joy, hatred, or anger. 2. a.
Ardent love. b. Strong sexual desire; lust. c. The object
of such love or desire. 3. a. Boundless enthusiasm:
His skills as a player don't quite match his passion for the game. b. The object of such enthusiasm: soccer is
her passion. 4. An abandoned display of emotion, especially of anger: He's been known to fly
into a passion
without warning. 5. Passion a. The sufferings of Jesus in the period following the Last Supper and
including the Crucifixion. b. A narrative, musical setting, or pictorial representation of Jesus's sufferings. 6.
Archaic. Martyrdom. 7. Archa
ic. Passivity. [Middle English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin passio,
, sufferings of Jesus or a martyr, from Late Latin, physical suffering, martyrdom, sinful desire,
from Latin, an undergoing, from passus, past participle of patì, to suffe
r.] Synonyms: passion, fervor, fire,
zeal, ardor. These nouns all denote powerful, intense emotion. Passion is a deep, overwhelming emotion:
"an ardent, generous, perhaps an immoderate passion for fame" (Edmund Burke). "There is not a passion so
strongly r
ooted in the human heart as envy" (Richard Brinsley Sheridan). The term may signify sexual
desire but can also refer to anger: "He flew into a violent passion and abused me mercilessly" (H.G. Wells).
Fervor is great warmth and intensity of feeling: "The un
ion of the mathematician with the poet, fervor with
measure, passion with correctness, this surely is the ideal" (William James) . Fire is burning passion: "In
our youth our hearts were touched with fire" (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.). Zeal is strong, enthu
devotion to a cause, an ideal, or a goal and tireless diligence in its furtherance: "his fervent zeal for the
interests of the state" (Macaulay). "We are sometimes stirred by emotion and take it for zeal" (Thomas à
Kempis). Ardor is fiery intensity

of feeling: "the furious ardor of my zeal repressed" (Charles Churchill).

: pe∙dan∙tic (pe
dàn¹tîk) adjective Characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for
book learning and formal rules: a pedantic attention to details. . pe∙da
n¹ti∙cal∙ly adverb Synonyms:
academic, bookish, donnish, scholastic. The central meaning shared by these adjectives is "marked by a
narrow, often tiresome focus on or display of learning and especially its trivial aspects": a pedantic style of
writing; an
academic insistence on precision; a bookish vocabulary; donnish refinement of speech;
scholastic and excessively subtle reasoning.

: pe∙nul∙ti∙mate (pî
mît) adjective Next to last. noun The next to last [From Latin
paenultimus.] .
pe∙nul¹ti∙mate∙ly adverb

: per∙du or per∙due (per
dy¡¹) noun Obsolete. A soldier sent on an especially dangerous
mission. [From French sentinelle perdue, forward sentry : sentinelle, sentinel + perdu, past participle of
perdre, to lose (
from Latin perdere).]

: per∙emp∙to∙ry (pe
rê) adjective 1. Putting an end to all debate or action: a
peremptory decree. 2. Not allowing contradiction or refusal; imperative: The officer issued peremptory
commands. 3. Having the nat
ure of or expressing a command; urgent: The teacher spoke in a peremptory
tone. 4. Offensively self
assured; dictatorial: a swaggering, peremptory manner. [Latin peremptorius, from
peremptus, past participle of perimere, to take away : per
, per

+ emere,
to obtain.] . per∙emp¹to∙ri∙ly
adverb . per∙emp¹to∙ri∙ness noun

: per∙func∙to∙ry (per
rê) adjective 1. Done routinely and with little interest or
care: The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting. 2. Acting with i
ndifference; showing
little interest or care. [Late Latin perfúnctorius, from Latin perfúnctus, past participle of perfungì, to get
through with : per
, per

+ fungì, to perform.] . per∙func¹to∙ri∙ly adverb . per∙func¹to∙ri∙ness noun

per∙ju∙ry (pûr¹je
rê) noun plural per∙ju∙ries 1. Law. The deliberate, willful giving of false,
misleading, or incomplete testimony under oath. 2. The breach of an oath or a promise. [Middle English
periurie, from Anglo
Norman, from Latin periúrium, from pe
riúrâre, to perjure.] . per∙ju¹ri∙ous (per
es) adjective . per∙ju¹ri∙ous∙ly adverb

: phe∙nom∙e∙non (fî
nen) noun plural phe∙nom∙e∙na (
ne) 1. An
occurrence, a circumstance, or a fact that is perceptible by the senses. 2.

plural phe∙nom∙e∙nons a. An
unusual, significant, or unaccountable fact or occurrence; a marvel. b. A remarkable or outstanding person;
a paragon. 3. Philosophy. a. That which appears real to the mind, regardless of whether its underlying
existence is pro
ved or its nature understood. b. In Kantian philosophy, the appearance of an object to the
mind as opposed to its existence in and of itself, independent of the mind. 4. Physics. An observable event.
[Late Latin phaenomenon, from Greek phainomenon, from ne
uter present participle of phainesthai, to
appear.] Usage Note: Phenomenon is the only singular form of this noun; phenomena is the usual plural.
Phenomenons may also be used as the plural in nonscientific writing when the meaning is "extraordinary

occurrences, or persons": They were phenomenons in the history of music.

: phlegm (flèm) noun 1. Thick, sticky, stringy mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the
respiratory tract, as during a cold or other respiratory infection. 2. One of

the four humors of ancient
physiology, described as cold and moist and thought to cause sluggishness, apathy, and evenness of temper.
3. Sluggishness of temperament. 4. Calm self
possession; equanimity. [Middle English fleume, mucous
discharge, the humor
phlegm, from Old French, from Medieval Latin phlegma, flegma, from Late Latin
phlegma, the humor phlegm, from Greek, heat, the humor phlegm, from phlegein, to burn.] . phlegm¹y

: pin∙ion (pîn¹yen) noun 1. The wing of a bird. 2. The
outer rear edge of the wing of a bird,
containing the primary feathers. 3. A primary feather of a bird. verb, transitive pin∙ioned, pin∙ion∙ing,
pin∙ions 1. a. To remove or bind the wing feathers of (a bird) to prevent flight. b. To cut or bind (the wings
of a bird). 2. a. To restrain or immobilize (a person) by binding the arms. b. To bind (a person's arms). 3. To
bind fast or hold down; shackle. [Middle English, from Old French pignon, from Vulgar Latin *pinnio,

, from Latin penna, pinna, feather

: port∙man∙teau (pôrt
màn¹to, port
, pôrt´màn
to¹, port´
) noun plural port∙man∙teaus or
port∙man∙teaux (
toz¹) A large leather suitcase that opens into two hinged compartments. [French
portemanteau : porte, imperative of porter,

to carry (from Old French).]

: pre∙co∙cious (prî
ko¹shes) adjective 1. Manifesting or characterized by unusually early
development or maturity, especially in mental aptitude. 2. Botany. Blossoming before the appearance of
leaves. [From La
tin praecox, praecoc
, premature, from praecoquere, to boil before, ripen fully : prae
, pre

+ coquere, to cook, ripen.] . pre∙co¹cious∙ly adverb . pre∙coc¹ity (
tê) or pre∙co¹cious∙ness noun

: pre∙em∙i∙nent or pre
em∙i∙nent (prê
nent) adjective Superior to or notable above
all others; outstanding. [Middle English, from Latin praeêminêns, present participle of praeêminêre, to
excel : prae
, pre

+ êminêre, to stand out.] . pre∙em¹i∙nence noun . pre∙em¹i∙nent∙ly adverb

: pri∙me∙val (prì
mê¹vel) adjective Belonging to the first or earliest age or ages; original or
ancient: a primeval forest. [From Latin prìmaevus, early in life : prìmus, first + aevum, age.] . pri∙me¹val∙ly

: prof∙fer (pròf¹er) ve
rb, transitive prof∙fered, prof∙fer∙ing, prof∙fers To offer for acceptance;
tender. noun The act of proffering; an offer. [Middle English profren, from Old French poroffrir, profrir :
, forth (from Latin pro
). See PRO
1 + offrir, to offer (from Latin
offerre).] . prof¹fer∙er noun

: pro∙fi∙cient (pre
fîsh¹ent) adjective Having or marked by an advanced degree of
competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning. noun An expert; an adept. [Latin
proficiêns, proficient
, present participle of proficere, to make progress.] . pro∙fi¹cient∙ly adverb Synonyms:
proficient, adept, skilled, skillful, expert. These adjectives mean having or showing knowledge, ability, or
skill, as in a vocation, profession, or branch of learning
. Proficient implies an advanced degree of
competence acquired through training: A proficient surgeon is the product of lengthy training and
experience. Adept suggests a natural aptitude improved by practice: The dress designer was adept at
draping and cut
ting the fabric without using a pattern. Skilled implies sound, thorough competence and
often mastery, as in an an art, a craft, or a trade: Only the most skilled gymnasts are accepted for the
Olympic team. Skillful adds to skilled the idea of natural dext
erity in performance or achievement: The
crafts teacher is skillful in knitting, crocheting, embroidery, and the use of the hand loom. Expert applies to
one with consummate skill and command: A virtuoso is one who is expert in playing a musical instrument.

: pro∙mis∙cu∙ous (pre
es) adjective 1. Indiscriminate in the choice of sexual
partners. 2. Lacking standards of selection; indiscriminate. 3. Casual; random. 4. Consisting of diverse,
unrelated parts or individuals; confused: "Th
rongs promiscuous strew the level green" (Alexander Pope).
[From Latin promiscuus, possessed equally : pro
, intensive pref.] . pro∙mis¹cu∙ous∙ly adverb .
pro∙mis¹cu∙ous∙ness noun

: prom∙ul∙gate (pròm¹el
gât´, pro
mùl¹gât´) verb, transiti
ve prom∙ul∙gat∙ed,
prom∙ul∙gat∙ing, prom∙ul∙gates 1. To make known (a decree, for example) by public declaration; announce
officially. 2. To put (a law) into effect by formal public announcement. [Latin promulgâre, promulgât
.] .
prom´ul∙ga¹tion (pròm´el
â¹shen, pro´mel
) noun . prom¹ul∙ga´tor noun

: pro∙sa∙ic (pro
zâ¹îk) adjective 1. a. Consisting or characteristic of prose. b. Matter
straightforward. 2. Lacking in imagination and spirit; dull. [Late Latin prosaicus, from Latin pros
a, prose.] .
pro∙sa¹i∙cal∙ly adverb . pro∙sa¹ic∙ness noun

: pro∙tu∙ber∙ant (pro
, pre
) adjective Swelling outward; bulging. [Late
Latin protúberâns, protúberant
, present participle of protúberâre, to bulge out.] . pro∙
tu¹ber∙ant∙ly adverb

: pru∙dent (pr¡d¹nt) adjective 1. Wise in handling practical matters; exercising good judgment
or common sense. 2. Careful in regard to one's own interests; provident. 3. Careful about one's conduct;
circumspect. [Middle
English, from Old French, from Latin prúdêns, prúdent
, contraction of providêns,
present participle of providêre, to provide for.] . pru¹dent∙ly adverb

: pug∙na∙cious (pùg
nâ¹shes) adjective Combative in nature; belligerent. [From Latin
ugnâx, pugnâc
, from pugnâre, to fight, from pugnus, fist.] . pug∙na¹cious∙ly adverb . pug∙na¹cious∙ness or
pug∙nac¹i∙ty (
tê) noun

: punc∙til∙i∙ous (pùngk
es) adjective 1. Strictly attentive to minute details of form in
n or conduct. 2. Precise; scrupulous. . punc∙til¹i∙ous∙ly adverb . punc∙til¹i∙ous∙ness noun

: queer (kwîr) adjective queer∙er, queer∙est 1. Deviating from the expected or normal; strange: a
queer situation. 2. Odd or unconventional, as in behav
ior; eccentric. 3. Of a questionable nature or
character; suspicious. 4. Slang. Fake; counterfeit. 5. Feeling slightly ill; queasy. verb, transitive queered,
queer∙ing, queers Slang. 1. To ruin or thwart: "might try to queer the Games with anything from tr
movements . . . to a bomb attack" (Newsweek). 2. To put (someone) in a bad position. [Perhaps from Low
German, oblique, off
center, from Middle Low German dwer.] . queer¹ish adjective . queer¹ly adverb .
queer¹ness noun

: quid∙nunc (kwîd
¹nùngk´) noun A nosy person; a busybody. [Latin quid nunc?, what now?
: quid, what + nunc, now.]

: rat∙tan (rà
tàn¹, re
) noun 1. Any of various climbing palms of the genera Calamus,
Daemonorops, or Plectomia of tropical Asia, having long, tou
gh, slender stems. 2. a. The stems of any of
these palms, used to make wickerwork, canes, and furniture. b. Work made of the stems of these palms. 3.
A switch or cane made from these palms. [Malay rotan (perhaps from raut, to pare or trim for use).]


: rec∙on∙dite (rèk¹en
dìt´, rî
kòn¹dìt´) adjective 1. Not easily understood; abstruse. 2.
Concerned with or treating something abstruse or obscure: recondite scholarship. 3. Concealed; hidden.
[Latin reconditus, past participle of recondere, to p
ut away : re
, re

+ condere, to put together, preserve.] .
rec¹on∙dite´ly adverb . rec¹on∙dite´ness noun

: rec∙ti∙tude (rèk¹tî
ty¡d´) noun 1. Moral uprightness; righteousness. 2. The quality or
condition of being correct in judgment
. 3. The quality of being straight. [Middle English, from Old French,
from Late Latin rêctitúdo, from Latin rêctus, straight.] . rec´ti∙tu¹di∙nous adjective

: res∙tive (rès¹tîv) adjective 1. Uneasily impatient under restriction, oppositio
n, criticism,
or delay. 2. Resisting control; difficult to control. 3. Refusing to move. Used of a horse or other animal.
[Middle English restif, stationary, from Old French, from rester, to remain, from Latin restâre, to keep back
: re
, re

+ stâre, to s
tand.] . res¹tive∙ly adverb . res¹tive∙ness noun Usage Note: Restive is properly applied
to the impatience or uneasiness induced by external coercion or restriction and is not a general synonym for
restless: The government has done nothing to ease export r
estrictions, and domestic manufacturers are
growing restive (not restless). The atmosphere in the office was congenial, but after five years she began to
grow restless (not restive).

: rig∙or (rîg¹er) noun 1. Strictness or severity, as in tempe
rament, action, or judgment. 2. A harsh
or trying circumstance; hardship. 3. A harsh or cruel act. [Middle English rigour, from Old French, from
Latin rigor, from rigêre, to be stiff.]

: ru∙mi∙nate (r¡¹me
nât´) verb ru∙mi∙nat∙ed, ru∙mi∙nat∙i
ng, ru∙mi∙nates verb, intransitive To
turn a matter over and over in the mind. verb, transitive To reflect on over and over again. [Latin rúminâre,
, from rúmen, rúmin
, throat.] . ru¹mi∙na´tive adjective . ru¹mi∙na´tive∙ly adverb . ru¹mi∙na´tor

: sa∙ga∙cious (se
gâ¹shes) adjective Having or showing keen discernment, sound judgment,
and farsightedness. [From Latin sagâx, sagâc
, of keen perception.] . sa∙ga¹cious∙ly adverb .
sa∙ga¹cious∙ness noun

: sal∙ly

(sàl¹ê) verb, intransitive sal∙lied, sal∙ly∙ing, sal∙lies 1. To rush out or leap forth suddenly.
2. To issue suddenly from a defensive or besieged position to attack an enemy. 3. To set out on a trip or an
excursion: sallied forth to see the world. noun p
lural sal∙lies 1. A sudden rush forward; a leap. 2. An assault
from a defensive position; a sortie. 3. A sudden emergence into action or expression; an outburst. [From
French saillie, a sally, from Old French, from feminine past participle of salir, to rus
h forward, from Latin
salìre, to leap.]

: scru∙ple (skr¡¹pel) noun An uneasy feeling arising from conscience or principle that tends to
hinder action. verb, intransitive scru∙pled, scru∙pling, scru∙ples To hesitate as a result of conscience o
principle: . A man who could make so vile a pun would not scruple to pick a pocket. (John Dennis).
[Middle English scrupul, from Old French scrupule, from Latin scrúpulus, small unit of measurement,
scruple, diminutive of scrúpus, rough stone, scruple.]

: self
ab∙ne∙ga∙tion (sèlf´àb´nî
gâ¹shen) noun The setting aside of self
interest for the
sake of others or for a belief or principle. . self´
ab¹ne∙gat´ing adjective

: sen∙ten∙tious (sèn
tèn¹shes) adjective 1. Terse

and energetic in expression; pithy. 2. a.
Abounding in aphorisms. b. Given to aphoristic utterances. 3. a. Abounding in pompous moralizing. b.
Given to pompous moralizing. [Middle English, from Old French sententieux, from Latin sententiosus, full
of mean
ing, from sententia, opinion.] . sen∙ten¹tious∙ly adverb . sen∙ten¹tious∙ness noun

: se∙ques∙ter (sî
kwès¹ter) verb se∙ques∙tered, se∙ques∙ter∙ing, se∙ques∙ters verb,
transitive 1. To cause to withdraw into seclusion. 2. To remove or s
et apart; segregate. [Middle English
sequestren, from Old French, from Latin sequestrâre, to give up for safekeeping, from Latin sequester,
depositary, trustee.]

: sham (shàm) noun 1. Something false or empty that is purported to be genuine; a s
imitation. 2. The quality of deceitfulness; empty pretense. 3. One who assumes a false character; an
impostor: . He a man! Hell! He was a hollow sham!. (Joseph Conrad). 4. A decorative cover made to
simulate an article of household linen and used o
ver or in place of it: a pillow sham. verb, intransitive To
assume a false appearance or character; dissemble. [Perhaps dialectal variant of SHAME.] . sham¹mer noun

: shod∙dy (shòd¹ê) adjective shod∙di∙er, shod∙di∙est 1. Made of or containing
inferior material.
2. a. Of poor quality or craft. b. Rundown; shabby. 3. Dishonest or reprehensible: shoddy business
practices. 4. Conspicuously and cheaply imitative. [Origin unknown.] . shod¹di∙ly adverb . shod¹di∙ness

: so∙ber (so¹ber)

adjective so∙ber∙er, so∙ber∙est 1. Habitually abstemious in the use of alcoholic
liquors or drugs; temperate. 2. Not intoxicated or affected by the use of drugs. 3. Plain or subdued: sober
attire. 4. Devoid of frivolity, excess, exaggeration, or speculati
ve imagination; straightforward: gave a
sober assessment of the situation. 5. Marked by seriousness, gravity, or solemnity of conduct or character.
6. Marked by circumspection and self
restraint. verb, transitive & intransitive so∙bered, so∙ber∙ing, so∙ber
To make or become sober. [Middle English, from Old French sobre, from Latin sobrius.] . so¹ber∙ly adverb
. so¹ber∙ness noun

: stri∙dor (strì¹der,
dôr´) noun 1. A harsh, shrill, grating, or creaking sound. 2. Pathology. A
harsh, high
d sound in inhalation or exhalation. [Latin strìdor, from strìdêre, to make harsh sounds,
ultimately of imitative origin.]

: strip∙ling (strîp¹lîng) noun An adolescent youth. [Middle English, possibly from strip.]

: suf∙fuse (
fy¡z¹) verb, transitive suf∙fused, suf∙fus∙ing, suf∙fus∙es To spread through or
over, as with liquid, color, or light: . The sky above the roof is suffused with deep colors. (Eugene O'Neill).
[Latin suffundere, suffús

: sub
, sub

+ fundere, to pour.]
. suf∙fu¹sion noun . suf∙fu¹sive (

: sum∙ma∙ry (sùm¹e
rê) adjective 1. Presenting the substance in a condensed form;
concise: a summary review. 2. Performed speedily and without ceremony: summary justice; a summary
rejection. noun plural sum∙ma∙ries A presentation of the substance of a body of material in a condensed
form or by reducing it to its main points; an abstract. [Middle English, from Medieval Latin summârius, of
or concerning the sum, from Latin summa, sum.
] . sum∙mar¹i∙ly (se
lê) adverb . sum¹ma∙ri∙ness noun

: su∙per∙an∙nu∙at∙ed (s¡´per
â´tîd) adjective 1. Retired or ineffective because of
advanced age: . Nothing is more tiresome than a superannuated pedagogue. (Henry Adams).
2. Outmoded;
obsolete: superannuated laws. [From Medieval Latin superannuâtus, over one year old : Latin super
, super

+ Latin annus, year.]

: sur∙mise (ser
mìz¹) verb sur∙mised, sur∙mis∙ing, sur∙mis∙es verb, transitive To infer
without sufficiently conclusive evidence. verb, intransitive To make a guess or conjecture.
noun An idea or opinion based on insufficiently conclusive evidence; a conjecture. [Middle English
surmisen, to accuse, from Old French surmise, feminine past parti
ciple of surmettre : sur
, sur

+ mettre, to
put (from Latin mittere).]

: tac∙it (tàs¹ît) adjective 1. Not spoken: indicated tacit approval by smiling and winking. 2. a.
Implied by or inferred from actions or statements: Management has given it
s tacit approval to the plan. b.
Law. Arising by operation of the law rather than through direct expression. 3. Archaic. Not speaking; silent.
[Latin tacitus, silent, past participle of tacêre, to be silent.] . tac¹it∙ly adverb . tac¹it∙ness noun

: te∙mer∙i∙ty (te
tê) noun Foolhardy disregard of danger; recklessness. [Middle English
temerite, from Old French, from Latin temeritâs, from temere, rashly.] Synonyms: temerity, audacity,
effrontery, nerve, cheek, gall. These nouns refer to st
riking, often aggressive boldness. Temerity implies a
foolhardy flouting of danger: Conducting the premiere of a symphony without a rehearsal requires temerity.
Audacity suggests heedlessness of the restraints imposed by prudence, propriety, or convention:

. In war
nothing is impossible, provided you use audacity. (George S. Patton). Effrontery and nerve denote
impudent, arrogant, or shameless boldness: He had the effrontery to suggest that she enjoyed being
unhappy. A raise? When your work is so slipshod?
You do have a nerve! Cheek connotes cool
impertinence and brashness: Do you really have the cheek to insult your hosts? Gall suggests brazenness
and unconscionable insolence: With unmitigated gall he crashed the party and then criticized the food.

: tem∙pes∙tu∙ous (tèm
es) adjective 1. Of, relating to, or resembling a tempest:
tempestuous gales. 2. Tumultuous; stormy: a tempestuous relationship. [Middle English, from Late Latin
tempestuosus, from tempestús, tempest, variant of temp
estâs.] . tem∙pes¹tu∙ous∙ly adverb .
tem∙pes¹tu∙ous∙ness noun

: thew (thy¡) noun 1. A well
developed sinew or muscle. 2. Muscular power or strength. Often
used in the plural. [Middle English, a virtue, from Old English thêaw, a custom, habit.]
. thew¹y adjective

: twain (twân) noun & adjective & pronoun Two. [Middle English tweien, twaine, from Old
English twêgen.]

: ur∙sine (ûr¹sìn´) adjective Of or characteristic of bears or a bear. [Latin ursìnus, from ursus,

: u∙surp (y¡
zûrp¹) verb u∙surped, u∙surp∙ing, u∙surps verb, transitive 1. To seize and hold
(the power or rights of another, for example) by force and without legal authority. 2. To take over or
occupy without right: usurp a neighbor's l
and. verb, intransitive To seize another's place, authority, or
possession wrongfully. [Middle English usurpen, from Old French usurper, from Latin úsúrpâre, to take
into use, usurp.] . u∙surp¹er noun . u∙surp¹ing∙ly adverb

: ve∙rac∙i∙ty (ve
tê) noun plural ve∙rac∙i∙ties 1. Adherence to the truth; truthfulness. 2.
Conformity to fact or truth; accuracy or precision: a report of doubtful veracity. 3. Something that is true.
[Medieval Latin vêrâcitâs, from Latin vêrâx, vêrâc
, true.]


: vi∙cis∙si∙tude (vî
ty¡d´) noun 1. a. A change or variation. b. The quality of
being changeable; mutability. 2. Often vicissitudes. One of the sudden or unexpected changes or shifts
often encountered in one's life, activities, or

surroundings. [Latin vicissitúdo, from vicissim, in turn,
probably from vicês, pl. of *vix, change.]

: vi∙ti∙ate (vîsh¹ê
ât´) verb, transitive vi∙ti∙at∙ed, vi∙ti∙at∙ing, vi∙ti∙ates 1. To reduce the value or
impair the quality of. 2. To corru
pt morally; debase. 3. To make ineffective; invalidate. [Latin vitiâre,
, from vitium, fault.] . vi¹ti∙a∙ble (vîsh¹ê
bel) adjective . vi´ti∙a¹tion noun . vi¹ti∙a´tor noun

: vit∙ri∙ol (vît¹rê
el) noun Bitterly abusive feeling or
expression. verb, transitive vit∙ri∙oled
or vit∙ri∙olled vit∙ri∙ol∙ing or vit∙ri∙ol∙ling vit∙ri∙ols or vit∙ri∙ols To expose or subject to vitriol. [Middle
English, from Old French, from Medieval Latin vitriolum, from Late Latin vitreolum, neuter of vitreol
of glass, from Latin vitreus.]

: vo∙li∙tion (ve
lîsh¹en) noun 1. The act or an instance of making a conscious choice or
decision. 2. A conscious choice or decision. 3. The power or faculty of choosing; the will. [French, from
Medieval La
tin volitio, volition
, from Latin velle, vol
, to wish.] . vo∙li¹tion∙al adjective . vo∙li¹tion∙al∙ly

: wan∙ton (wòn¹ten) adjective 1. Immoral or unchaste; lewd. 2. a. Gratuitously cruel;
merciless. b. Marked by unprovoked, gratuitous m
aliciousness; capricious and unjust: wanton destruction.
3. Unrestrainedly excessive: wanton extravagance; wanton depletion of oil reserves. 4. Luxuriant;
overabundant: wanton tresses. 5. Frolicsome; playful. 6. Undisciplined; spoiled. 7. Obsolete. Rebelli
refractory. verb wan∙toned, wan∙ton∙ing, wan∙tons verb, intransitive To act, grow, or move in a wanton
manner; be wanton. verb, transitive To waste or squander extravagantly. noun 1. One who is immoral,
lewd, or licentious. 2. One that is playful or f
rolicsome. 3. One that is undisciplined or spoiled. [Middle
English wantowen : wan
, not, lacking (from Old English; akin to wana, lack).] . wan¹ton∙ly adverb .
wan¹ton∙ness noun

: wax (wàks) verb, intransitive waxed, wax∙ing, wax∙es 1. To increa
se gradually in size, number,
strength, or intensity. 2. To show a progressively larger illuminated area, as the moon does in passing from
new to full. 3. To grow or become as specified: . could afford . . . to wax sentimental over their heritage.
(John Si
mon). [Middle English waxen, from Old English weaxan.]

: wel∙kin (wèl¹kîn) noun 1. The vault of heaven; the sky. 2. The upper air. [Middle
English welken, from Old English wolcen, weolcen, cloud.]

: wont (wônt, wont, wùnt) adjec
tive 1. Accustomed or used: . The poor man is wont to complain
that this is a cold world. (Henry David Thoreau). 2. Likely: chaotic as holidays are wont to be. noun
Customary practice; usage. verb wont or wont∙ed wont∙ing, wonts verb, transitive To make ac
customed to.
verb, intransitive To be in the habit of doing something. [Middle English, past participle of wonen, to be
used to, dwell.]

: yearn (yûrn) verb, intransitive yearned, yearn∙ing, yearns 1. To have a strong, often
melancholy desire. 2
. To feel deep pity, sympathy, or tenderness: yearned over the poor child's fate.
[Middle English yernen, from Old English geornan, giernan.] . yearn¹er noun . yearn¹ing∙ly adverb
Synonyms: yearn, long, pine, hanker, hunger, thirst. These verbs mean to hav
e a strong desire for
something. Yearn and long both stress earnest, heartfelt, often melancholy desire, as for the return of
something lost or the attainment of something unfulfilled or beyond reach: . She yearned for reconciliation.
(W.H. Hudson). . You
don't really long for another country. You long for something in yourself that you
don't have, or haven't been able to find. (John Cheever). Pine implies a lingering, often nostalgic desire that
saps strength or spirit: . Like all sailors ashore, I at last

pined for the billows. (Herman Melville). Hanker
refers to a persistent or restless desire: . What business had he to be hankering after this girl at all!. (John
Galsworthy). Hunger and thirst are applied to compelling desire likened to the need for food
or drink: The
child hungered for approval. Actors thirst for acclaim.