NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service PADM-GP Politics of International Development Fall 2012 (TAKE 1)

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NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service




PADM
-
GP



Politics of International Development
Fall

2012

(
TAKE 1
)


Instructor:

John Gershman

john.gershman@nyu.edu



Tuesday

2:00
-
4:00

Bobst LL1
-
38


Office:


#3018, Puck Building

Telephone:

212.992.9888


Office Hours:

Monday
s
, 4:00
-
6:00

and by appointment


INTRODUCTION

The study of the politics of development is more than an academic exercise. Following World
War II, “developm
ent” largely supplanted 19
th

century ideas of “progress,” at least as far as the
poor countries of the “Third World” were concerned. Increasing the “Gross National Product”


the overall output of goods and services as valued by the market


was the standard proxy
for progress and in
creased well
-
being. This solved a number of problems, both intellectual
and practical. Intellectually, it avoided trying to define progress in terms of some kind
aggregation of utility or happiness. Practically, by equating accumulation with universal
incr
eases in well
-
being, it ratified the hegemony of the existing structure of economic power.
Nonetheless, it was still an uncomfortable syllogism. In the 1980s and 1990s, the “Washington
Consensus” was widely viewed as the dominant paradigm, although its heg
emony was
challenged by a series of major financial crises among its putative “stars” (Mexico in 1994,
Asian Crisis in 1997
-
98, Argentina in early 2000s) as well as sustained rapid growth in China
which did not pursue a Washington Consensus development str
ategy. These developments
gave rise to ruminations on a “Post
-
Washington Consensus” which continue to the present.


Until the terrorist attacks of 9/11, globalization had seemed to be displacing development as
an overarching framework at least among powerf
ul policy elites, but at least since 9/11 the
notion of globalization as an inevitable historical force, and the virtues of weakening nation
-
states, have been dealt a blow. This process has only deepened since the financial crisis that
began in 2008. Globa
lization has been exposed as a
political

project


as opposed to a
technical or “natural” tendency. The parallel development of the Davos Forum and the World
Social Forum have created two different poles on the debate over globalization and
development in
the broader business and activist communities. The financial crises of the
1990s and 2008 through the present challenged many of the orthodoxies relating to
development, and in particular to the finance
-
driven Anglo
-
American model of development.


In the p
resent context much debate over development has focused on Africa and on the
Millenium Development Goals. But too much of the development debate focuses on aid as
opposed to the myriad of other issues that influence and shape “development” in countries,
wh
ether recipients of aid or not. A number of policies (“free” markets), or programs such as
microfinance, new technologies ($100 laptops) or others have been promoted as panaceas

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(although more by the development industry than by their most informed and ref
lective
practitioners or advocates). These programs all have their place, but none of them are, or can
be, the magic solution for development. No such magic key exists.


The development debate needs to be enlivened. Alternative propositions must be grounde
d in
analysis of past dynamics of socioeconomic and political change, but they must also reflect the
ways in which the current global political economy creates obstacles and opportunities
different from those encountered in the past. This course tries to e
xplore possibilities for the
kind of redefinition of the politics of development that “anti
-
development” theorists feel is
impossible and neoliberal triumphalists feel is not only unnecessary but hazardous to global
well
-
being.


A central theme to this
di
scussion

is the relationship between what is sometime referred to as
“global justice” and
the more conventional
issues

associated with “development” such as

growth, equity, vulnerability, and empowerment.


Learning Objectives
:

By the end of this course stu
dents should be able to:


1.

Craft and
defend

a definition of “development” or some other goal/objective (eg, well
-
being, prosperity, human development, sustainable development, global justice
, etc.
) as
a goal of policies aimed at
reducing global poverty

and an ethical stance for a public
service practitioner towards that
definition

2.

Describe the major competing approaches that aim to explain why some
countries/individuals within countries are wealthier and/or have better human
development outcomes than ot
hers

3.

Discuss the role of politics in these processes and identify ways in which the politics
and policy of development incorporates concerns about equity, efficiency, and
effectiveness in the allocation of opportunities, resources, and rights

4.

Explain the r
ole of power in the political process and how interests, institutions, ideas,
and individuals interact to create and transform power relations in the context of the
politics of development

5.

Identify the major lessons learned from successful interventions an
d the challenges to
scaling up effective interventions


Outline of Class
: Classes will initially involve roughly 60
-
80 minutes of lecture, followed by
30
-
40 minutes
-

of discussion. Finally, 10
-
15 minutes of concluding remarks will pull together
some of the key points, highlight ongoing areas of empirical and theoretical debate
, and frame
the readings for the subsequent class. Lectures will
NOT

summarize what is in the readings.
Class participation will constitute a significant percentage of the final grade. Over the course
of the semester we may alter the proportion of lecture
and discussion time. My lectures are
typically interactive and I have the right to call on anyone during class. If for some reason you
have not been able to do the readings or do not feel able to respond to being called on in a
specific class, please let m
e know. It is understandable that on a rare occasion this will be the
case. If it becomes a regular event, it will severely affect your participation grade.



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Syllabus
: The syllabus is large in order to provide students with a semi
-
annotated
bibliography of

key materials and resources in the field. This may be helpful if you are
interested in a particular topic and would like to explore it in more depth, as an initial starting
point for papers, or simply as a reference for things you should get around to rea
ding in your
career.


GRADES


There is no curve in this course. Everyone may receive an A or everyone may receive an F.

This course will abide by the Wagner School’s general policy guidelines on incomplete grades,
academic honesty, and plagiarism. It is t
he student’s responsibility to become familiar with
these policies. All students are expected to pursue and meet the highest standards of academic
excellence and integrity.

Incomplete Grades:
htt
p://www.nyu.edu/wagner/current/pol5.html

Academic Honesty:
http://www.nyu.edu/wagner/current/pol3.html





Course Requirements:

1.
Class Participation
: (30
%) The course depends on active and
ongoing participation
by all class participants. This will occur in three ways:


a).
Weekly Participation

(2
0
%): Participation begins with effective reading and
listening. Class participants are expected to read and discuss the readings on a weekly
basis.
That means coming prepared to engage the class, with questions and/or
comments with respect to the reading.
You will be expected to have completed all the
required readings before class to the point where you can be called on to critique or
discuss any rea
ding
.


Before approaching each reading think about what the key questions are for the week
and about how the questions from this week relate to what you know from previous
weeks. Then skim over the reading to get a sense of the themes it covers, and, befo
re
reading further, jot down what questions you hope the reading will be able to answer
for you. Next, read the introduction and conclusion. This
(usually) gives you a sense of
the big picture

of the piece
. Ask yourself: Are the claims in the text surprisi
ng? Do you
believe them? Can you think of examples that do not seem consistent with the logic of
the argument? Is the reading answering the questions you hoped it would answer? If
not, is it answering more or less interesting questions than you had thought

of? Next
ask yourself: What types of evidence or arguments would you need to see in order to
be convinced of the results? Now read through the whole text, checking as you go
through how the arguments used support the claims of the author. It is rare to fi
nd a
piece of writing that you agree with entirely. So, as you come across issues that you are
not convinced by, write them down and bring them along to class for discussion. Also
note when you are pleasant
ly (or unpleasantly) surprised or
when the author
produced a convincing argument that you had not thought of.


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In class itself, the key to quality participation is listening. Asking good questions is the
second key element. What did you mean by that? How do you/we know? What’s the
evidence for that claim?

This is not a license for snarkiness, but for reflective,
thoughtful, dialogic engagement with the ideas of others in the class. Don’t be shy.
Share your thoughts and reactions in ways that promote critical engagement with
them. Quality and quantity of pa
rticipation can be, but are not
necessarily
, closely
correlated.


b). Précis/Response Papers
: (5
%

X2
) Each week
2
-
3

people will take responsibility for
preparing response papers to one or more of the readings. This includes writing a 3
-
5
page précis of the reading that a) lays out the main argument(s), b) indicates what you
found provocative and/or mundane, and c) pose
s 3
-
4 questions for class discussion.
These handouts will be distributed via email to the rest of the class by
Sunday

at
8

PM
(using the course website). Everyone will prepare
two

précis over the course of the
semester. Everyone who prepares a précis for t
he week should be prepared to provide
a brief (2
-
3 minute) outline of thei
r reaction to the readings as a
contribution to
discussion.


2.

Op
-
Ed


(15
%) One op
-
ed length (700
-
750 words) on an important current issue
relating to development [for guidance see the

resource under “Writing Materials”
section of the
Sakai

site]. This is due
September

23

via Sakai
.
PLEASE PUT YOUR
NAME AND WAGNER MAILBOX # IF YOU HAVE ONE ON THE OP
-
ED. PLEASE
LABEL YOUR ATTACHED FILE “Yournamedevelopmentoped.”



3.

Policy Analysis
Exercise

including
Statement of Focus, Stakeholder Analysis,
Background Memo, and Strategy Memo

(see the
PAE folder

on
Sakai

for more
details). This counts for
55
% of your grade. (
20
%
background

memo, 25
% for
strategy

memo
, 5%
for stakeholder analysis
).




Late Policy
. Extensions will be granted
only

in case of emergency. This is out of respect to
those who have abided by deadlines, despite equally hectic schedules. Papers handed in late
without extensions will be penalized one
-
third of a grade per day.


Grading Breakdown
: Class participation (
30
%, includes gen
eral participation and précis
)
Op
-
ed (15
%), Policy Analysis Exercise (55
%).


Prerequisites:

“Introduction to Public Policy” (P11.1022) or “History and Theory of Urban
Planning”(
P11.2600) or equivalent, Microeconomics, and “Institutions, Governance, and
Development” (P11.2214). [Lacking these, permission of the Instructor is required]. A prior
course in the politics/sociology/economics/management of development would be helpful
bu
t is not required.


Required Books

(available at the Professional Bookstore)
:


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Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom

(New York: Norton)

Paul Farmer,
Pathologies of Power

(Berkeley: UC Press)

Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion

(Cambridge: Cambridge U Press, 200
7)

Duncan Green,
From Poverty to Power

(Oxfam 2009)

Peter Evans,
Embedded Autonomy

(recommended) (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

James C. Scott,
Seeing Like a State

(recommended) (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Additional readings will made av
ailable either online or in class.

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OVERVIEW OF SEMESTER



WEEK 1

September

4

INTRO: WHY A
POLITICS

OF DEVELOPMENT?



WEEK 2

September 11

THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT






WEEK 3

September

18

POLITICS, POWER, AND LEARNING











WEEK 4

September

25

HISTORY
AND GEOGRAPHY


WEEK 5

October 2

CULTURE




WEEK 6

October 9

STATE
-
BUILDING



OCTOBER 16


NO CLASS




WEEK 7

October 23

POLITICS OF EXPANDING OPPORTUNITIES:
MARKETS,
COMMODITY CHAINS, INDUSTRIALIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT





WEEK 8

October 30

EN
GENDERING

DEVELOPMENT: SEX, GENDER,
POLITICS, AND DEVELOPMENT





WEEK 9

November 6

POLITICS OF GLOBAL RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION:
WHAT IS FAIR AND FEASIBLE IN THE GLOBAL
DEVELOPMENT SPACE


WEEK 10

November 13

DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT


WEEK 11

November 20

EMPOWERMENT
: SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND RIGHTS
-
BASED APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT


WEEK 12

November 27

POLI
TICS OF SANITATION


WEEK 13

December 4

VULNERABILITY AND THE POLITICS OF
MANAGING
RISK AND RESOURCES


WEEK 14

December 11

INEQUALITY, REDISTRIBUTION, AND AGRARIAN
REFOR
M
PLUS

WRAP
-
UP







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I: INTRODUCTION


WEEK 2: INTRODUCTION: WHY A
POLITICS

OF DEVELOPMENT?


Ross Coggins, The Development Set [
Sakai
]

Binyavanga Wainaina, “How to write about Africa,”
Granta

92: The View

from Africa

www.granta.com/extracts/2615

Christian Science Monitor, Five Myths About Africa

http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/
2011/0806/Five
-
myths
-
about
-
Africa




Nicholas Kristof, DIY Foreign Aid Revolution

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/magazine/24volunteerism
-
t.html?pagewanted=all

Pranab Bardhan, “Who Represents the Poor?”
Boston Review

http://www.bostonreview.n
et/BR36.4/pranab_bardhan_who_represents_the_poor.php

Samantha Power, “The Enforcer,”
New Yorker
, January 19, 2009. [
Sakai
]

Kent Annan, “
Poverty Tourism Can Make Us So Thankful”

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kent
-
annan/poverty
-
tourism
-
can
-
make
-
_b_803872.html


Ivan Illich,

To Hell With Good Intentions


[
Sakai
]


Paul Farmer,
Pathologies o
f Power
, Preface by Amartya Sen, Preface to Paperback Editio
n, and
Introduction (pp. xi
-
22)

Peter Singer,

Singer Solution to World Poverty


[
Sakai
]

Dale Jamieson,
Duties to the Distant

[Sakai]




Thomas Pogge,
Poverty and Human Rights

(2007), Expert Commen
t for the Office of the United
Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, [
Sakai
]


Recommended:

Global Ethics Corner,
Am I My Brother’s Keeper?

http://www.cceia.org/resources/audio/data/000421

If you have time and want to see Peter Singer discuss his latest book,

The Life You Can Save

http://www.cceia.org/resources/video/data/000231






Discussion Questions:


What Do We Mean By Development?

How is Development Different
(is it)
than Growth?
Progress? Modernization?
Global Justice?


What Ethical Issues Frame the Development Debate?


How do we conceive our roles as development policy
analysts,

practitioners, and/or citizens

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in the context of deep inequalities of income, power, and privilege?


For further reading:

Some of the issues are grounded in Paolo Freire’s classic
Pedagogy of the Oppressed

and
various works on the theology of liberation, by Gustavo Guttierez, Leonardo Boff, Karl Gaspar,
Edicio dela Torre, among others. For a discussion of one attempt to apply this framework to
Northerners, see
Alice Frazer Evans, Robert A. Evans and William

Bean Kennedy,
Pedagogies
for the Non
-
Poor
by, Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books (1987).
For more philosophical discussion
see the symposium on World Poverty and Human Rights in
Ethics and International Affairs

19:1 (2005), and work by Thomas Pogge, Peter Singe
r
One World
, Peter Unger
Living High and
Letting Die
. (
If you have time and want to see Peter Singer discuss his latest book, Peter
Singer,
The Life You Can Save

http://www.cceia.org/resource
s/video/data/000231

Also see
work by
Iris Marion Young, Matthias Risse, Des Gaspar, Jon Mandle, among others for work on
global justice and its relationship to development.



WEEK 2
: THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT


Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion
, Chapter 1


Duncan Green,

From Poverty to Power, Part

1
(pp. 2
-
16
)



Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom,
Introduction and Chapter 2


Gilbert Rist “Development” in
Development in Practice

[
Sakai
]


Nancy Birdsall
,
Reframing the Development Project for the Twenty
-
First

Century

[
Sakai
]


Nancy Birdsall,
Ten Zero
-
Cost Ideas for Development Progress in 2011

http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2011/01/10
-
zero
-
cost
-
ideas
-
for
-
development
-
progress
-
in
-
2011.php



Discussion Questions:


Is ther
e anything worth rescuing in the concept of development? How do we know?


Is development about outcomes or processes? What are the costs or benefits in focusing on
one or the other? What indicators would we use? Is there a difference in the
politics

of
development if we focus on either outcomes or processes? Or on the importance of both?


What is the scale at which “development” is an important phenomenon? Individuals?
Communities? Countries? Regions? The global economy? Humanity? What are the politi
cal
implications of choosing to privilege one of these over the other?



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What about the agents of development
?
Are they different than the objects of ethical concern
in development?


For further reading:

If you want to follow up on the “post
-
development” p
erspective, see
Wolfgang Sachs,
Development: The Rise and Decline of an Ideal

Wuppertal Institute Paper #108 (August 2000)
http://www.wupperinst.org/Publikationen/WP/WP108.pdf

Arturo Esco
bar,
Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995);
Jan Nederveen Pieterse,

Twenty
-
first
Century Globalization, Paradigm Shifts in

Development” in
Doing Good or Doing Better
, pp. 20
-
46.
Gustavo Esteva. “Development” pp. 6
-
25 in Wolfgang Sachs (ed.)
The Development
Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power.
(London: ZED Books, 1992, second edition); James
Ferguson,
The Anti
-
Politics Machine: Development, Depoliticization, and Bureaucra
tic Power in
Lesotho.
(Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1994); Arun Agrawal,
“Poststructuralist Approaches to Development: Some Critical Reflections” in
Peace and Change
24(4) [October, 1996]:464
-
477; Michael Watts “Development I: Power,
knowledge, discursive
practice” in
Progress in Human Geography 17(2):257
-
72
and his
Liberation Ecologies:
Environment, development, social movements
(London and New York: Routledge
, 1996), which
also contains a nice selection of articles by Escobar and others. Edward Said’s
Orientalism
(New York: Pantheon Books, 1978) was one of the earliest influential critiques of Western
discourse on the Third World. See also
The Post
-
Development

Reader
.

For the Millenium Villages Program see
Kent Buse, Eva Ludi and Marcella Vigneri, ODI,
Sustaining and scaling up Millennium Villages: Beyond rural investments

[
Sakai
] and
Sam Rich,
“Africa’s Village of Dreams,”
Wilson Quarterly

Spring 2007 pp. 14
-
23 and Victoria Schlesinger,
“The Continuation of Poverty: Rebranding Foreign Aid in Kenya,”
Harper’s Magazine

May 2007
pp. 58
-
66. Also see
McCulloch and Sumner, “Will the Global Financial Crisis Change the
Development Paradigm?” [
Sakai
] and
Forrest Colbu
rn, “Good
-
Bye to the Third World,”
Dissent
,
June 2006

http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=446

and




WEEK 3:

POLITICS, POWER, AND LEARNING


Owen Barder
,
The Implications of
Complexity for Development

http://www.cgdev.org/content/multimedia/detail/1426397/


This American Life
, Gossip

http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio
-
archives/episode/444/gossip

Listen to the whole thing if you’d like, but the assignment is Act One on the Malawi Journals
Project.


Duncan Green,
From Poverty to Power
, Part 2

and Annex


Paul Farmer,
Pathologies of Power
, pp. 23
-
50.


Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion
Chapter 4 “Bad Governance in a Small Country”


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David Damberger,
Engineers Without Borders,
What Happens When an NGO admits failure?

http://www.ted.com/talks/david_damberger_what_happens_whe
n_an_ngo_admits_failure.ht
ml


Engineers Without Borders, 2011

Failure Report

http://legacy.ewb.ca/en/whoweare/accountable/failure.html


Ian Smillie

http://www.admittingfailure.com/2011/01/ian
-
smillie
-
failing
-
to
-
learn
-
from
-
failure/


Global Giving

http://www.admittingfailure.com/2011/01/global
-
giving
-
detecting
-
and
-
learning
-
from
-
failure/




WEEK 4
: HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

Review

from IG
I
D: Mick Moore, “Political Underdevelopment: What Causes Bad Governance?

Public Management Review
, Vol. 3 (2001), No. 3, pp. 385
-
418 from Institutions Class. [
Sakai
]


Development outcomes may be shaped by long
-
term structural factors as well as by more
short
-
term policies. If politics is the art of the possible, then understa
nding the constraints
and opportunities created by long
-
term structural factors gives us insight into how large the
realm of that possible is. What are the implications for development politics and policy
at the
national and global levels
? What are the ethical implications if people are born in countries
whose economies
may

not do well because of the disadvantages of geography and the legacy
of colonial boundaries and institutions
, even if they have good leaders and work hard
?


Jared Diamo
nd,
Guns, Germs, and Steel

[
Sakai
]


Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion
, Chapter 3 “Natural Resource Trap” and Chapter 4
“Landlocked
with Bad Neighbors”


Why Nations Fail
, Chapter 9


Easterly and Alesina, “Artificial States” [
Sakai
]


For further reading:

For
more on climate see:
Bryan Walsh, Green is the New Red, White and Blue
http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1730759_1731383_1731363,00.
html
, Oxfam GB, adapting to Climate Change who pays
http://www.oxfam.org/en/files/bp104_climate_change_0705.pdf/download

and

Greenpeace India Hiding behind the Poor

http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/hiding
-
behind
-
the
-
poor.pdf

and Action Aid ,
We Know What We Need: South Asian Women Speak Out on Cl
imate Change

and
The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities


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http://www.ecoequity.org/docs/TheDebtOfNations.pdf
.

See the follow up by Diamond,
Colla
pse

and the overview in Andrew Rosser, “Political
Economy of the Resource Curse,” IDS Working Paper #268
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp268.pdf

and also see David Landes,
The Wealth
of
Nations
.




WEEK 5
: CULTURE

We explore the issue of culture with respect to the practice of female genital mutilation and
the efforts of grassroots groups in sub
-
Saharan Af
rica to eradicate the practice as well as that
of corruption.


Chapter
Lawrence Harrison, “Culture Matters,”
The National Interest
(Summer 2000), pp. 55
-
65.

[
Sakai
]


Why Nations Fail,

Chapter 1

[Sakai]


David Landes, “Culture Makes Almost All the Difference,”
The Wealth and Poverty of Nations

[
Sakai
]


Ha Joon

Chang, “Lazy Japanese and Thieving Germans” in
Bad Samaritans

[
Sakai
]


Raymond Fisman and Ted Miguel, “Nature or Nurture: Understanding the Culture of
Corruption,” and selection on Witch Killings in
Economic Gangsters

[Both on BB]


Peter Easton, Karen Mo
nkman, and Rebecca Miles, “Social policy from the bottom up:
Abandoing FGC in sub
-
Saharan Africa,”
Development in Practice

13(5) November 2003, pp.
445
-
458.


Kwame Anthony Appiah, “The Art of Social Change,”
New York Times

October 24, 2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/magazine/24FOB
-
Footbinding
-
t.html





For further reading:

For a classic culturalist modernization view see Lawrence E. Harrison.
Underdevelopment is a

State of Mind: the Latin American case

(CFIA, Harvard University and University Press of
America, 1995), pp. 1
-
9; also Robert Putnam’s
Making Democracy Work
and
Bowling Alone

who kick
-
started the contemporary social capital debate in the U.S. Also see Rob
ert Kaplan,
“The Coming Anarchy,”
Atlantic Monthly

44
-
76. For a post
-
colonial, post
-
structuralist view see
Sarah Radcliffe and Nina Laurie, “Culture and Development: Taking culture seriously in
development for Andean indigenous people,”
Environment and Pla
nning D: Society and Space

24, pp. 231
-
248 (2005). See also James C Scott,
Seeing Like a State
, Chapter 3.

For something

-

-

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on the relationship between science, technology and cultural practices see Burkhard Bilger,
“Hearth Surgery,”
New Yorker
, (December 21

& 28, 2009) pp. 84
-
97 and Philip Gourevitch,
“The Monkey and the Fish,”
New Yorker
, (December 21 & 28, 2009) pp. 98
-
111.

See also
Peter
Evans, “
Collective capabilities, culture,

and Amartya Sen’s
Development as Freedom

Studies in Comparative International Development

(SCID)
, 2002
,
Volume 37, Number 2
, Pages
54
-
60. [
Sakai
]





WEEK 6
:
STATE BUILDING

We explore the processes of state
-
building by looking first at the European experience, where
the first
nation
-
states

(not the first
states
) were forged after years of conflict. Then we l
ook at
the export of these types of states elsewhere and explore the issues associated with building
effective political institutions. Should all countries have nation
-
states, or should we enable the
creation of other types of states?


Charles Tilly,
Capi
tal, Cities, and Coercion
. [
Sakai
]


Jeff Herbst,
States and Power in Africa

[
Sakai
]


Why Nations Fail,
Chapter 11


Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion

(Chapter 2 “The Conflict Trap”
and
Chapter 8 “Military
Intervention”)


Somaliland Case

[
Sakai
]


Alex De
Waal

Fixing the Political Marketplace

[
Sakai
]



For further reading:

Tilly’s other work is exceptional, such as
“War Making and State Making as Organized Crime,”
in Evans, Rueschemeyer and Skocpol, eds.,
Bringing the State Back In
. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge UP, pp. 169
-
189.

Also
Charles Tilly. "Violence, Terror, and Politics as Usual."
Boston
Review

(Summer 2002): 21
-
4
http://www.bostonreview.net/BR27.3/tilly.html See also
Francis Fukuyama,
"The Imperative of State
-
Building,"
Journal of Democracy

15

no. 2, April
2004 and
Georg Sørensen, “War and state making

why doesn’t it work in the Third World?”
Failed States Conference, Purdue, 2001.[
http://www.ippu.purdue.edu/fail
ed_states/2001/papers/Sørensen.pdf
] and Ann Leander,

Wars and the Un
-
Making of States: Taking Tilly Seriously in the Contemporary World”
http://www.copri.dk/publications/Wp/WP%20200
2/34
-
2002.pdf
. Stephen Krasner, “Shared
Sovereignty,”
Journal of Democracy

(Jan 2005) [
Sakai
]; also Fearon and Laitin in
International
Security
. See also
Michael W. Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis,
Making War and Building Peace

(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006).
Joel Migdal, S
tate in Society

(Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2001). Also
David Leonard, “
‘Pockets’ Of Effective Agencies In

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Weak Governance States: Where Are They Likely And Why Does It Matter?”
Publ
ic
Administration and Development

30, 91

101 (2010).

See also,
L. Pritchett; F. de Weijer,
Fragile
States: Stuck in a Capabili
ty Trap

(Background Paper for WDR 2011).




WEEK 7
:
MARKETS, COMMODITY CHAINS, AND INDUSTRIALIZATION


Recall from Institutions


Dani Rodrik
, Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? A Review of the
World Bank’s Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform"
Journal of
Economic Literature

XLIV (December 2006): 969
-
83.
http://www.wcfia.harvard.edu/node/3509



Duncan Green,

From Poverty to Power,
Part 3 (pp. 107
-
196)



Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion
, Chapter 6 “On Missing the Boat” and Chapter 10 “Trade Policy

for Reversing Marginalization”


Peter Evans,
Developmental State for the 21
st

Century

Optional: For more, see Peter Evans, chapter in Haggard and Kaufman, [
Sakai
] and for a
full treatment see Evans’
Embedded Autonomy,

chapters. 1
-
3, pp. 3
-
73; then skim

chpts.
5
-
7, pp. 99
-
180.]


Rodrik and Haussman, I
ndustrial Poli
cy (May 2008) (pp. 1
-
17 only)

[
Sakai
]


Why Nations Fail
,

Chapter 3 [Sakai]


Ha Joon Chang,
Bad Samaritans

(
Sakai
)


Classroom Exercise
: The Banana Game


For further reading:

On institutions, see Adam Przeworski
, “The Last Instance: Are Institutions the Primary Cause
of Economic Development?”
Archives of european sociology

2004 XLV(2): 165
-
188. Dani
Rodrik, “Getting Institutions Right” (April 2004)

http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~drodrik/ifo
-
institutions%20article%20_April%202004_.pdf

and Pranab Bardhan, “Institutions and Development”

http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/macarthur/inequality/papers/BardhanInstitutionsandDev.
pdf
; James C. Scott,
Seeing Like a State
, pp.
309
-
319, 328
-
341 and
Conclusion. Also Douglas C.
North,
Understanding the Process of Economic Change

Chapters 8 and 9 required, chapter 7
recommended [
Sakai
]. See
Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom
, Chapter 5.


Allen J. Scott and Michael Storper, “Regions, Globalization, and Development,”
Regional Studies

37(6&7): 579
-
593.
For some classics on comparative development of Europe try Alexander

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Gerschenkron,
Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspectiv
e. (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1962). Barrington Moore's
Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy
(Boston: Beacon

Press, 1966) is probably the single most influential book in the comparative
historical tradition. Charles Tilly's
The Vendee
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964) is
also a classic. Gordon White, “Constructing a Democratic Developmental State,” in
Mark
Robinson and Gordon White (eds)
The Democratic Developmental State

(NY: Oxford
University Press, 1998) is valuable, as are other classics with contemporary relevance include,
Karl Polanyi,
The Great Transformatio
n. Also see
Geoffrey Underhill and Xia
oke Zhang, “The
Changing State

Market Condominium in East Asia: Rethinking the Political Underpinnings of
Development,”

New Political Economy

March 2005.
Current works include Alice Amsden
The
Rise of the Rest

(Oxford, 2001) and
Ha
-
Joon Chang, “Kicking Awa
y the Ladder:


The “Real”
History of Free Trade,” available online at
http://www.newschool.edu/cepa/papers/workshop/chang_030419.doc

and
Mick Moore,
Political Underdevelopment,

http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/govern/pdfs/PolUnderdevel(refs).pdf
. For some other resources
see the papers and discussions at
http://www.othe
rcanon.org
. Also see Robert Bates, “The
Developmental State”
http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidpeople/bates/Weingast_Essay.pdf
.
John Williamson, “What Should the World Bank Think Abo
ut the Washington Consensus,”
World Bank Research Observer

(August 2000)

http://www.worldbank.org/research/journals/wbro/obsaug00/pdf/(6)Williamson.pdf

There is a monstrous literature on the Washington Consensus and Structural Adjustment. For
starters, the World Bank’s own reviews of adjustment by the OED. Also Joseph Stiglitz,
More
Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving Toward the Post
-
Washington Consensu
s The 1998
WIDER Annual Lecture
available online at
http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/extme/js
-
010798/wider.htm
. See also Stiglitz,
Globalization and Its Discontents
. William E
asterly, “
What
did structural adjustment adjust? The association of policies and growth with repeated IMF
and World Bank adjustment loans,” CGD WORKING PAPER NUMBER11 October 2002
http://www.cgdev.org/pubs/workingpapers.html (select either pdf or word form
ats). See
also Beeson and Islam,
Neoliberalism and East Asia

[
Sakai
]. See also Dani Rodrik, “How to
Make the Trade Regime Work for Development” (February 2004)

http://ks
ghome.harvard.edu/~drodrik/How%20to%20Make%20Trade%20Work.pdf

and
See World Bank,
Learning from a Decade of Reform
Chapters 1, 8, 9,
http://www1.worldbank.org/prem/lessons1990s/
. Also, Gavin Will
iams et al,
Development
Policy Review

(2009), Politics and Growth
[
Sakai
]



WEEK 8:
EN
GENDERING

DEVELOPMENT: SEX, GENDER, POLITICS, AND DEVELOPMENT

Whereas

the previous week explored the national dynamics of access to and control over
natural resource revenue, this week explores the community
-
level dynamics associated with
unequal patterns of control over land and water resources along gender lines
.


For re
ference:

Women in Parliaments, Inter
-
parliamentary Union [no précis]

World and regional data:
http://www.ipu.org/wmn
-
e/world.htm

National data:
http://w
ww.ipu.org/wmn
-
e/classif.htm



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Regular Reading

Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris, “The True Clash of Civilizations,”
Foreign Policy

(March/April 2003) [
Sakai
]


Jane S. Jaquette and Katherine Staudt, “Women, Gender, and Development,” in Jane S. Jaquette

and Gale Summerfirld (eds)
Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice

(Duke University Press, 2006) [
Sakai
]


Sylvia Chant, “Feminization of Poverty…” [
Sakai
]


Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom
, Chapter 8


Oxfam GB,
The Effects of Sociali
zation on Gender Discrimination and Violence

A

Case

Study

from

Lebanon


Naila Kabeer,
TBD


Recommended
:


The literature is vast, but good overviews include: Shahrashoub, Razavi and Carol Miller.
1995.
From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and
Development Discourse
. Geneva:
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. The classics include Ester Boserup
(1970)
Women’s Role in Economic Development
, Caroline O. Moser,
Gender Planning and
Development
. (New York: Routledge, 1993)., Gita
Sen and Garen Grown
, Development, Crises
and Alternative Visions
. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1987). Also Diane Elson. 1991.
"Male Bias in the Development Process: An Overview" In
Male Bias in the Development Process
.
Edited by Diane Elson Manchester,

England: Manchester University Press and Amy Lind,
“Gender and Urban Social Movements,”
World Development

[
Sakai
].

Also see the Eldis Gender Resource Guide (
http://www.eldis.org/gender/index.htm
), the

Association for Women’s Rights in Development (
www.awid.org
), IFPRI’s Gender Toolbox
(
http://www.ifpri.org/themes/gender/gendertools.asp
) and BRIDGE
(
http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/
). See also Millie Thayer, “Traveling Feminisms: From
Embodied Women to Gendered Citizenship,” in Michael Burawoy et al (eds)
Global
Ethnography

or Mille Thayer Feminists and Funding.
S
ylvia Chant and Matthew C. Gutmann,
“‘Men
-
streaming’ gender? Questions for gender and development policy in the twenty
-
first
century,”
Progress in Development Studies
2,4 (2002) pp. 269

282 [
Sakai
]

and Andrea
Cornwall, “Whose Voices? Whose Choices?”
World
Development

[
Sakai
]



WEEK
9

POLITICS OF GLOBAL RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION: WHAT IS FAIR AND FEASIBLE
IN THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT SPACE



Alex Evans, “
Resource scarcity, fair shares, and development,
Oxfam/WWF Dis
cussion Paper
(2011) [
Sakai
]



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Peter Singer and Bjorn Lomborg Debate in
Wall Street Journal
(hand
-
out)

“Does Helping the Planet Hurt the Poor?”


Ecoequity and Christian Aid,
Greenhouse Development Rights

htt
p://gdrights.org/wp
-
content/uploads/2009/03/gdrs_nairobi.pdf


Duncan Green,
From Poverty to Power
,
Part 5

(pp.
197
-
290).


Paul Collier,
The Bottom Billion
,
pp. 140
-
146
.



WEEK 10:
DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT

There is a
long
-
standing argument that there is a
trade0off between development democracy,
at least at low levels of per capita income and in the early stages of industrialization. We will
examine efforts to answer that question and also explore issues associated with
understanding the effects of regime t
ype on growth, human development, and equality.


Tom Carothers, TBA


Jonathan Fox, Semi
-
Clientelism
[
Sakai
]


Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom
, Chapter 6


John Harriss (2005a):”Political Participation, Representation and the Urban Poor. Findings
from a R
esearch in Delhi” in
Economic and Political Weekly
, March 12: 1041
-
1054.


Mariz Tadro
,
Working Politically Behind Red Lines:

Structure and agency in a comparative study of women’s coalitions in Egypt and Jordan

[
Sakai
]





For further reading:

See
Peter
Evans, “
Development as Institutional Change: The Pitfalls of Monocropping and the

Potentials of Deliberation,”
Studies in Comparative and International Development

(
Winter
2004, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 30
-
52).
Larry Diamond, “Universal Democracy”
Policy Review
, June
2003 [http://www.policyreview.org/jun03/diamond_print.html], Thomas Carothers, “The
End of the Transition Paradigm,”
Journal of Democracy

13.1 (2002) 5
-
21 available online at
http://mus
e.jhu.edu/demo/jod/13.1carothers.html

and responses to Carothers piece in the
July 2002 issue of the
Journal of Democracy
, Philippe C. Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, “What
Democracy Is...and Is Not,”
Journal of Democracy
(Summer 1991) also Amartya Sen
,
“Democracy as a Universal Value,”
Journal of Democracy1

0.3 (1999) 3
-
17
http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/jod/10.3sen.html

, Samuel Huntington, “Democracy’s Third
Wave,”
Journal of Democracy
( Spring 1991)

and “After Twenty Years: The Future of the Third
Wave
Journal of Democracy
(October 1997
)
Classic statements also include Alexis de
Toqueville, D
emocracy in America
, and the numerous works of Robert Dahl. Other classic

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pieces include
Francis Fukuyama, “Th
e End of History,”
The National Interest

Summer (1989)
pp. 3
-
18.

Also see Ashutosh Varshney (1999): “Democracy and Poverty”. Paper for the
Conference on World Development Report 2000. The World Bank.
[
http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/dfid/varshney.pdf
]. Also, Larry Diamond,
“Can the Whole World Become Democratic? Democracy, Development, and International
Policies”

Hoover Institution, Stanford University

http://repositories.cdlib.org/csd/03
-
05/

(a
longer version of the piece above). Also valuable is Minxin Pei and

Sara Kasper

LESSONS FROM
THE PAST: The American Record of Nation Building

available online at
http://www.ceip.org/files/pdf/Policybrief24.pdf
.
Thomas Carothers,
Is Gradualism Possible?
Promoting Democracy in th
e Middle East

available online at
http://www.ceip.org/files/pdf/wp39.pdf

--

and Tom Carothers,
Promoting the Rule of Law
Abroad
,
http://www.ceip.org/files/pdf/wp34.pdf
.
Ballard, R. Social movements: Unoffical
opposition or voice of the poor? In Jones, P. and Stokke, K.(2005):
Democratising development:
The politics of socio
-
economic rights
.
Adam Przeworski and Fernando Limongi,
“Mod
ernization: Theories and Facts,”
World Politics

49, pp. 155
-
184. [
Sakai
] Carles Boix and
Susan Stokes, “Endogenous Democratization,”
World Politics

55 (July 2003): 517
-
549. [
Sakai
]
.
For other approaches see UNDP, Human Development Report, Chapters 1 and 2,

available
online at
http://www.undp.org/hdr2002/

and
John Gerring et al,
Democracy and Economic
Growth: A Historical Perspective

for a critique of Limongi and Przeworksi among others on
conceptual and methodolo
gical grounds
[
http://archive.allacademic.com/publication/docs/apsa_proceeding/2003
-
08
-
26/947/apsa_proceeding_947.PDF
] and supporting mat
erials
http://archive.allacademic.com/publication/supporting_docs/apsa_supporting_proceeding/2
003
-
08
-
26/184/apsa_supporting_proceeding_184.PDF
.

See also
World Bank,
Learning from a
Decade of Reform
,
Chapter 10
http://www1.worldbank.org/prem/lessons1990s/

and
Fareed
Zakaria, Illiberal Democracy,
Foreign Affairs

November/December 1997
[http://www.fareedzakaria.com/articles/other/democracy.html]
and
Jean Dreze, Democracy
and the Right to Food [
Sakai
]
.





W
EEK 11:
EMPOWERMENT AND
Rights
-
Based Approaches to Development

Rights
-
based approaches to development have been
increasingly

promoted as the
solution to
move beyond development as a series of hand outs and to address the need to create
accountable
political and economic institutions as the foundations of development while
expanding the respect for and promotion of internationally recognized human rights
standards. What

are the key elements of
rights
-
based approach
(es)
?

What evidence do we
have that
rights
-
based approaches are effective at achieving
their objectives
?

What are the
trade
-
offs associated with a rights
-
based approach?

Do they effectively incorporate concerns
for justice with concerns for economic growth?


World Bank, WDR 2000/2001, Empowe
rment


Banerjee and Duflo,
Mandated Empowerment

[
Sakai
]



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Amartya Sen,
Development as Freedom
, Chapter 4


Ravi Kanbur, 2007. ‘Attacking Poverty: What is the Value Added of a Human Rights
Approach?’ [
Sakai
]


Paul Farmer,
Pathologies of Power
, Chapter on
Health and Human Rights


Peter Uvin, TBA [
Sakai
]


Rights
-
Based Development: Bangladesh Case [
Sakai
]


Aryeh Neier, Economic Rights [
Sakai
]


Recommended
:

Hertel, Shareen and Minkler, Lanse. 2007 ‘Economic Rights: The Terrain’

Chapter 1 in Hertel and Minkler
, eds.
Economic Rights: Conceptual, Measurement and Policy
Issues
. Cambridge University Press. New York
. Also
Mutua, Makau. 2001. “Savages, Victims and
Saviors: The Metaphor of Human

Rights”
Harvard International Law Review

and
Mountains of
stuff available
. For a quick overview see
Caterina Ruggeri Laderchi, Ruhi Saith and Frances
Stewart, “Does it matter that we don't agree on the definition of poverty? A comparison of four
approaches,”
Oxford Development Studies

(September 2003) 31(3): 243
-
274. Also see
N
aomi
Hossain & Mick Moore (2002): “Arguing for the Poor: Elites and Poverty in Developing
Countries”,
IDS Working Paper
, No. 148.
[
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp148.pdf
]

For
interesting post
-
development examples see Karen Brock, Andrea Cornwall, and John
Gaventa,
Power, Knowledge, and Political spaces in the Framing of Poverty Policy
, IDS Working
paper 143,
http://
www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp143.pdf

and
Andrea Cornwall and
Karen Brock, “
What do Buzzwords do for Development Policy? A critical look at
‘participation’, ‘empowerment’ and ‘poverty reduction’,”

Third World Quarterly

2005
26(7):
1043


1060. [
Sakai
].

For a critique of the 2000/2001 WDR focus on empowerment see Mick
Moore, “Empowerment at Last?”
Journal of International Development

13 (2001): 321
-
329. For
others see
UNDP,
Human Development Report 2003
, and Judith Tendler, “Whatever Happened
to Poverty
Alleviation?”
World Development
, 17:7 (1989): 1033
-
1044. For a critique of
the
“best practice” model, see
Lant Pritchett and Michael Woolcock, “Solutions when the Solution
is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development,”

World Development

2003.
Shant
ayanan Devarajan and Ravi Kanbur, “A Framework for Scaling Up Poverty Reduction,
With Illustrations from South Asia,” (August 2005)
http://www.arts.cornell.edu/poverty/kanb
ur/DevarajanKanburAug05.pdf

and
Sakai
.
Jonathan Fox,
“Empowerment and Institutional Change: Mapping “Virtuous Circles” of State
-
Society Interaction,” in Power, Rights and Poverty, (World bank, 2004) pp. 68
-
92.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEMPOWERMENT/Resources/PPFinalText.pdf

See also
Fukuda
-
Parr, 2007, ‘Human Rights Based Approach to Development


Is it a

Rhetoric
al Repackaging or a New Paradigm?’ HD Insights 2007, Issue 7.

http://hdr.undp.org/docs/nhdr/insights/HDInsights_Apr2007.pdf

and
Livelihoods and
Security (ODI

Natural Resource Pol
icy Paper)
Human Rights and Poverty reduction
, especially
the c
hapters Labeled Meeting 2 and Meeting 7
.


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WEEK 12:
POLITICS OF SANITATION

Susan E. Chaplin, “Indian cities, sanitation, and the state: the politics of the failure to provide,”
Environment
and Urbanization

23, pp. 57
-
70 [
Sakai
].


Layla Mehta,
Shit Matters
, (TBA)


Crook, Richard and Joseph Ayee, “Urban Service Partnerships: ‘Street
-
Level Bureaucrats’ and
Environmental Sanitation in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana: Coping with Organizational Change i
n
Public Bureaucracy,”
Development Policy Review
, Vol. 24 (2006), No.1.


Community Led Total Sanitation

cases





WEEK
13: VULNERABILITY AND THE POLITICS OF MANAGING RISK AND RESOURCES

Naomi Hossain,
Rude Accountability
[
Sakai
]


Duncan Green,
F
rom Poverty
to Power
, Part 4, Vulnerability.


John
-
Andrew McNeis
, “Rethinking Resource Conflict”, Background Paper to the WDR 2011 on
Conflict, Security, and Development [
Sakai
]


Elinor Ostrom et al on Managing the Commons,
Science

[
Sakai
]


Ruth Meinzen
-
Dick et al, Le
gal pluralism..
[Sakai]




WEEK 14
:
INEQUALITY,
REDISTRIBUTION AND
AGRARIAN REFORM

While the distribution
of calories is much more equal than the distribution of land,
inequalities in the ownership of land and other productive assets is both influenced by
political power and influences politics. Is it possible to pursue a redistributive policy under
democracy that results in a real transfer of productive resources? What are the examples of
effective redistributive programs and what are the coalitional and i
nstitutional conditions that
make such efforts more likely?


Wade, Global Inequality


Roy Prosterman,
Land reform

[
Sakai
]



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Ronald Herring, “Beyond the Political Impossibility Theorem of Agrarian Reform,”
http://www.arts.cornell.edu/poverty/Papers/herring_beyond_polit_impos_theorem.pdf


Bina Agarwal, Land Reform [
Sakai
]


Wendy Wolford,
MST

[
Sakai
]


For more readi
ng:

James Putzel “Land Reforms in Asia: Lessons from the Past for the 21
st

Century”,
Working
Papers
, LSE Development Studies Institute, No. 004 (January 2000) available online at
http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/destin/workpapers/asiasubmission.pdf
, or Anthony Bebbington
et al, “Practice, Power, and Meaning: Frameworks for Studying Organizational Culture in
Multi
-
Agency Rural Development Projects,”
Journal of International Development

15 541
-
557
(2003). Selections from WDR 2005/2006 on Equity, [
Sakai
] Caroline Ashley and Simon
Maxwell, “Rethinking Rural Development,”
Development Policy Review
19:4 (2001): 395
-
425.




WEEK 14:
Wrap
-
Up

Revisiting
the Development
-

Global Justice debate

Readings based on suggestions from class and TBD





Final Papers Due


Due
5 PM May 10



via
Sakai