This editorial supports tlie United Hations Sccrotary
Geaeral, Mr. D'ag'Hanmarsijccld's suggestion to re
(A ecsBteat oa Khrushchev' s
iaa ^ 8.7.61. (Edltorjall;
This editorial. urges Western Powers to Seed KiSita Khrushchev s "blunt
warning that if Uoi
tli Korea is attacked, Bassia would regard seeh attack as an attack on the
herself, aad wou
ld support 3orth Korea "seta all her
. She Busslaa Premier has clearly explained Ms stand without any doubts at all,
aad the Westora Powers should also do the same tida;; la their future dealings with Coaauaist
countries, opines this editorial. Unfo
rtunately, it points ' oat, the "Bestem Powers arc
±a their o&and, sucli as their 'attitude tcsards Laos, Germany aad West
The acstera Powers should also explain their staid oa the South Vietnam affair,
the editorial concludes.
She coming year is the
problem year .
for education ia
Chow Jit Poh
2.7.61. (Sunday Editorial)
laic the baaks which. close their accounts half
yearly, the schools arc
now making preparations fox the intcr
school graduatioa. examinations at the cad
this year aad the admission of now students for next year. Lookin
,' forward to
1962 we feci t
hat it will he a year in whicli Singapore will he facing the greatest
aumher of educational problems:
1. According to figures officially published, :icw .primary I students
already registered number 55,000,
i^jf .Thich 30,650 are for
, 20,17h for Chinese schools, U,369 for Malay
schools aad 161 for Indian schools. The excess
. of students registered for English schools over those registered
for other schools is the largest yet ia the history of Singapore.
calls for freedom from colouiclism and proclamations of
equal..treatment to education ia the various
language streams, the English schools have expanded ia such abnormal
way. This undoubtedly is a reality that saust he faced scuaroly.
;As for secaaiary sehoolsj there will hie two Jdals
. of iaterrschpol examinations for the Chinese
, seec^ary schools this yeari one for the seaicsT ' middle II asid III cad the
other, for the.jBeccsiaaEg?.
year secoadary system
middle I).. These students will gr^adnate at the ~ "same
time hut .with different standards. ^ Sow
question of outlets he
soXvedS How" are
the.. proposed two
to., ho run? These are also problems awaitingsolution.. : "
lastly, tier© is the gjHestioit of the universiiic
The Hanyang tthivessity
_issBe is still pending sad
.fpom next year .the SSagsgorS hranch. of:■.■■SSie
of Halaya wSli:T6e separated
3tede£atiQn "braaelu What pise, is beiog
Shis is a greater problem:."
Daring the past two years the Singapore GeysisHBent
has taken positiv
e steps to tsaify the national edsacafcioiial
system and has achieved eomaendahle results. . Atiother
encouraging thing is that equal trcatMent to edueatioa in
the varices language streams has. always been the watcsbword
of the new CHyeernoent since its
coming into poser
has promised that this would not' he mere lip service
However, the number of now students registered f or EsgXish
schools for next year is even greater
than for any of the
previeaB Tears How is this pheaoaeaoa to h
Ia our editorial of Xh>561 we already drew public
to this problem. Unless we wish to allow the poison eftbe
colonial period to remain.forever' we must solemnly re
this problesu ' ,
The" change of the Chi
school system into
four years is caesiag
a grciat headache. EcsEaorly, s
of Chinos© middle' schools had to' complete a course of six
years. Whca thoy graduated they would have reached, the ags
of 1$' or above liiich would 3
ust "be the age for stepping into
How they graduate two years earlier
the question of outlets to he solved? many are the prohlemB
here. QoDPrally speaking, to catci? into society at the; age '
of 16, is a hit too young.
But hesr tq. give them an pppofctuoit;
for further training? So far this profilem lias not been solved.
Technical schools which oaa absorb the Chinese Aiddle IV
graduates and give then commercial and vocational training
are not available.
Even if they wish to become school
teachers, they are not qualified because the government has
laid down that teachers should, have attained the fall age"of
If thoy wish to go for higher studies whether in the Ntnysng University or
ersity of Malaya they" have to join the pre^uuiversity classes first. Evea,
if special arrangements can bo made by the Hanyang tfetiversity to aocoBttodate
HF graduates it is likely the the tuition fees and other aiscella
cost as much for them as for students taking regular courses. Furthexaoro, as
the'university is far sway, from the city they have to li6 in the university campus.
Because they arc not students taking the regular courses they are not qvialifled f
tae oxpenscs for paying students will be too groat
and beyond the capacity of papenta ia general. The University of Malaya dees not here
raiivcrsity classes sivich can take ia the secondary IT .^rcjiivatcs.
The Goveimiiieiit should organise rn'o
for these students. However ^ tine is short and so far 3,0
goveisamoat plan lias been published. Accordingly to the
of a middle school, the Government will
25^ of the secondary IV graduates to Join the pre^univcrsity
classes If this is true then the majority of these students
mil ""he deprived of the opportunity for'iiijbcr studies merely
the change in the middle school system. We hope
that Goverameat sill give this matter its careful consideration
and publish its plan early so as to set the minds of the people
at case. "'
.533©: quSstioa of outlets for the middle II
equal importance. Since the ehaogs in the. secondary education system
these students arc virtually predestined to face 'unemployment shortly.
This problem has to he solved and its solution again rests in the ;provisica of
iversity classes. " The itinistry of Baucatio& should
Tjablish the det
ails of the
the eUiU^LCuia^thc recr
jitment of teachers and the enrolment . of stadeats so that
the management, teachers sad the students
themselves" in the middle schools can, in
accordance with the plan'of the ministry make preparations in advance.
ffoblem of universities is even more .real. In any.event, the
separation.hetween Singapore and the. Federation (university of Mal
aya) will coae te
pass next year. The Government must have plans for the Singapore
university after it becomes independent. Recently quarters connected with the
university have been discussing on whether or not the university standard should
scrcd. We arc not quite clear of the ccatcatSi Apart from waiting f
or;_tbe cxplunct:'... of the authorities concerned wc wish to mate tlMfe following
humble suggestions: (l) The separation should OBEIy ncea 2 separate
nts but the tradition of close cc
operatic . should be maintained;
(2) .After independence the Singapore university should comply vrith the bcoic spirit
of Singapore education policy, i.e. respecting equal treatment to all language
streams and the
door of the Singapore university should be open to students of all
language streams without any discrimination
The ogpblem of. outlet for
secondary IV graduates
ganyang Slang Pau
During the past few years,
,es and improvements
made to the educational system in the self
governing State of Singapore to ;acct
the requirements of the varioos races, so that a ;.eod foundation has now been laid
for univcx'sal primary education as all chi
ldren of school
going age can enjoy tlic
op^ortv;iity of free education. The phenomenon oi children bciu. shut
out froffl school because of lack of vacancies now no longer exists. There
arc now enough places even in the secondary scho
ols for children who have
completed iheir primary cdi^cation.
^Sihc'o" "the setting up of evening secondary classes ' by the
Government, t/ic _,roblcm of schooling posed by overugc students is temporarily
settled. Bat there arc still a great n
umber of those who en account of their
with bad elements, have neither gone to seek admission to these
classes nor tried to find useful cmp?.oyme it to do.
Bis a well
known fact tbat. juvenile d^iis^aessey has
& grove threat
a headache £0 oar spciai;=<Mrdei> As there ase a grefefe number.of yoeS&s wb©
ase uaswpStoyeS arod who have
lost the ogsrarteaity of schooling^ soiae of ^feem ake
bound to be induced by secret societies
^go Join thsSr/SE^g^ to
rt in. aati^pcaai sctionsv' is believed
that the ^eesait. laeroaae' 3ii lihe aHibe '
<^'biirrg3ry cases too is tied upTrlth. the problem of outlet foi? i&se youths. There
other factors, but the unsoussd
educational system, of the past hag
TS3?t of the rospoasibilitgF for. causing such a phenomenon.
Sow, the first graduation exaaSaatioa of" tfe sepej^aary
TV" classes is to. be held" at the ead of the year and6^ithe aeir
year secondary system. ... Soon, over 3iO0C£ .secondary XV
Kill";be leaving school.
and. the peiople.concerned bave already shown deep coa^iisa over
the problems of farther edaeation aad outlet for tbese..
en these seebsflary IV students gE"fdHate> meet ;.of, them are at the
age of 16 or 17. .eaoag them, the Tirigbcfiea? ones may gain admission into the
or the Polytechnic. Bet w3hat about"those stajptents^!a
iare less bri
ght? It is feared that they may meet
with the sane
"of those ov
crage students wbo base been weeded out by the various
Even, tie hrigbter
staaests may not be able to "Join the ttaiversity. beewBse of fiasacsial
fficulties. . As such, the actual iisefalJess of the ]s
uaiversity class to
them is very
It is learat that the principals of all goveas
acat aided agid govesnaent
CSiiaesc _mi.ddje schools in. Siskgapore
will hold a meeting on. July 6
. to exchange
vieas on tbe pa?oblems o^
further ediocation and outlet for tie secondary TV graduates
and then to submit their vievrs to 13xe authorities. 33 Ministry of Education too
vdJLl hold a joint meeting of igEiasipals of the various Chinese mi
ddle schools ia
to discuss the setting up ef ;jre
la view of the fact that the. secondary IV graduates will be lesjring
scixjol at aa ags which is too yotsig for cmplpyaeat, aad to avoid the increase ip. the
another of youths
having ao eaploymoat sad soheollag, we hope that the cducctioaal
circles aad. the authorities coseemed will asks a serious review on this matter sad
find a good solution. The best way is to set up more professional sad trade schools.
Qa the other hand, mem
bers of tho public shoidtd also be . encouraged to set
schools of similar nature.
Barbaps _ practical remodlal" measure^ may
3ia Chew Ji
The expansion.plaa for tb&
Singepore Mvisioa of" . Ouiversity of
Malcys. as outlined "jy Dr. Sreeaivasaa, its ^cwly appoiated priacipal, and published
in. yesterday's Sin CJhew Jit Poh, touches on coloaialism, the autonomy of the
ffiiiversityj and academic stcsidsrd ete. We c
onsider . ^ils statement timely
because ti tso braaclics of tho Caivcrsity in Sia. ,opore and tho PsderiLtiaa will bo
itly by 1962.
The Government should organise pre
university classes for these
students. However]! tine is short and so far no government plan has been
published. accordingly to the principal of a middle school, the
allow only 2
5/a of the secondary IV graduates to join tlic
If tbis is true then the majority of these students
will he deprived
the opportunity JPor" higher studies mcrcly ■because of the
change in the middle sehccl syst
em. We hope that Gove
ent sill give
this matter its careful consideration and publish its plan early so' as to set the
minds of the people at case.
question of outlets for the middle II and III students is of'equal
e the changs in the. secondary education system these
students arc virtually predestined to face unemployment shortly. This
problem has to be solved and its solution again rests in the ~a?ovisicn
universi ty classes. The Ministry e'
f Education should Dubiish the deta
classes saeh as "the curi'xouj.a/"tEc recrvitment of teachers
and the enrolment of students so that tie mana
.cment, teachers and the students
themselves in the middle schools can, in a
ccordance with the plan of the
Ministry make preparations in advance.
universities is even 3
x'c real. In any event, the
separation between Sin, apero and the Federation (University
Malaya) will cone
to pass next year. Et
c Government must have plans for the Singapore
mivcrsity after it bcccmcs independent. Bcccntly quarters coxicctcd with the
university have been discussing on whcLhcr
net the university standard sJwoid
arc not jr
ite clear of the contents. Apart from
waiting for the cxplaacti
the authorities concerned vc wish to
OWi?ig humble suggestions: (1) The separation should only noon 2
separate cstablioijacnts but Ihc tradition
oporai,". should be
After independence the Singapore university should
comply riili tho baoic spirit or Singapore education policy, i.e. respecting
equal treatment to all languago streams and the door
of the Singapore
university should be open to students of all language s roans without any
problem of outlet for
During the past few
years, 3any chan
os and improvements have been
made to tfic educational systcn in the self
governing State of Singapore to
meet Lhc requirements of ihc various races, so that a cod foundation
has now been laid for universal primary educati
on as all children of
going age ccn enjey the oppprt'.v.iity of free education. The
phenomenon oi children bcr'.n shut ...''.. frora school because of lack of
vacancies new no 1c i.;er oxiots.. Tliorc arc new enough plac
es even in
the secondary schoo?_s for children who have completed their primary
Bincc the setting up of evening secondary classes "by the
Government, i.:>o .r^blcm ;.
.osed by ovoruge strdents is
1. thein: arc still a great avubcr of those who
:;n account o? L
icir association With bad elements, Have loithor
seek, iudmission to these
nor tried to find ooefl cmTJloymc ni to do.
It is a
known fact that juvenile
delinojasaey iias boon a
grave threat and a headache to oa? social order
. As there are a grflfat number
youths who are uasmployea aeS . who have lost the opportunity of schooling, some of
bound to be induced b
y secret societies to
their seats to eosmitv criaes
and take part in anti
social sctiansv " IV is believed that the recent increase ia the
burglary cases too is tied up with the problem of outlet for these youths.
lEhcxe may be
her factors, but the mm
edvcational system of the past has to bear
part of the responsibility for causing, such a phenomenon.
Kow, the first graduation examination of the secoadary
IV classes is to be held at the end of the year node the new
dary system. . Soon, over 3,000? seeoadary X"
graduates will be leaving school". She education circles
and the people, concerned have already shown deep concern oyer
the problems of farther education and outlet for these
se secondary IV stadents graduate, most
them are Tit the ago of
16 or 17. among them, the harighfcea? ones may gain admission into the
university classes os
the Polytechnic. But what about those students who are
less "aright? It i
s fbarod that they may sect with the same . unfortunate fate of
those overage students who have been weeded out by the various schools. Even the
brighter students may not be ablo to join the university because of financial
difficulties. As s
uch, the actual usefulness of the pro
university class to them is
very much, reduced.
It is learnt that the principals of all goveBnatent aided and government
Chinese middle schools in Singapore ' will hold a aecting on July
to exchange views
on the ps
oblems o:.' further education and outlet for the secondary IV gradtsatcs and
then to submit their views to the authorities.
Ministry of Education too will hold
a Joint meeting of principals of the various Chinese middle
schools in Singapore to
discuss tho setting up of pro
In view of the fact that the sccoadary IV graduates will be leaving school at
an age which is too young for employment, and to avoid the increase in the number of
youths baring n
o employment sad schooling, we hope that tho educational circles and the
authorities concerned will make a serious review on this matter and find a good solution.
The best way is to set up more professional and trade schools. On the other hand,
the public should also be encouraged to set up schools of similar nature.
Perhaps a practical remedial measure may be found soon.
Our humble opini
he Singapore Division of
e university of Malaya
She expansion plan for t'c Singapore Division of University of Malaya
as outlined "jy Dr. Sreciiivasan, Its icv.Iy appointed principal, ^:id published
in yesterday's 3in Clew Jit Poh, touches on cplonialisai, the
autonomy of the
University, and academic sta
iderd etc. We consider
>is statement timely
becarse t'c tjo branches of the University in Sin aporc and tlie Federation will
bo separated sad vill sec:
ide;xvi;Ic"it?,y by 19
Government should organise pro
nnlvcrsity classes for t
students. However^ tine Is short and so far ao government plan, has been
published. Accordingly to the principal of a middle school, the Government
will allow only
the secondary IV graduates to join the pre
classes." If this is true then the majority of these students will he deprived of the
opportunity forhijicr studies merely because of the chaasc in the middle school
system. We hope that Gove
gill give this natter its careful
and publish its plan early so as to set the minds of the people at ease.
3336; QjsSstion of outlets for the middle II and III students
importance. Since tic change in the secon
dary education system these students
arc virtually predestined
face unemployment shortly. Shis problem has to be
solved aad its solution again rests in the Torovisicn of pre
^Hhiversity classes. '
The Ministry of Ea
oeatSen should publish the d
ails of the
the eui'iieula, "the recr^itmentof teachers and
the enrolment of students so that the. management, teachers and the students
themselves in the middle schools ean, in accordance with the plan'of the Mini
mate preparations in advance.
oblem of universities is even sore real. In anyevent, the
separation between Singapore aad the Federation (university of Malaya) Vill cone to
pass next year. She Government must have plans i"or the Sin
university after it becomes independent. Hcccntly quarters connected with the
university have been discussing on whether cr not the university standard should be
icscrcd. ^&. arc not qvitc clear
pf the contents. Apart from waitin
fC0 the cxpluncti . of the"'author! tics concerned ye wish to mate the following
humble suggestions: (l) The separation should only noon 2 separate
establishments but the tradition of close co
operatic should be maintained;
(2) .After i
ndependence the Singapore university ohould comply vriiii the bcaic
spirit of Slag
pore education policy. I.e. respecting equal treatment to ail
language streams and the door of the Singapore university should be open to
students of all language s
treams without any discrimination whatsoever. .
nroblem of outlet for
secondary IV" graduates
ffaayang Slang Pau
During the past few years, many changes and improvements have been
made to the educational system in the
governing State of 3ingaporc to meet
the reguiroacats of the various races, so that a .ood foundation has now been
laid for universal primary education as all children of school
going age ccn enjoy
the opportvnity of free education. H<c p
henomenon oi children boinf;
shut out from school because of lack' of vacancies now no longer exists.
^licre arc now enough places oven in the secondary schools for children who have
completed their primary education.
~ Slued the setting up of even
ing secondary classes by the Government,
the problem of sclioollng nosed by overage students is temporarily settled.
Bat there arc still 6 great ntisbci' of those wire on account of their association
with bad elements, bavc neither ^,'Q'io to
seek admission t° these classes nor
tried to find useful employment to do.
It is a well
iaowa fact that. juvenile deli&gussKfy has bocn..
threat and a headache to our socafcal.
are a great number of youths
who are uaem|&e
yesa. £a§U who have;
lost■ the■ 6^o3rfcuaity
; sehooiiag^ some
fihaa ajpp bound to be Inducedby secret ■societies, "to join their SfeBl.
criaes and take part in anil
social aetjanisi.";: is believed that the reesait
ineaseaae ill th
e msaheai :of
cases too is tied up with the problem of outlet
for; ,45fese youths, Ebere "may be other fahtbrs, but the unsound educational
system of the past has to bear part of tie responsibility for. causingsuch a pfienoaettGEw
, the first graduation exanaation of
IV classes is to be held' at the end, ojfe thfr year tEtdfe ifehe iteir
yea£ secondary jsystem„ . SoonV_ oveip 3'S0ef secondary::!
graduates ill. be leaving schooli Sie education
nd the 'people concerned, base aisa^tdy shoasideep ca63qE£a oser
the "problems of
further education and. outlet for these .
'■■ ■.■■ ■
Shea these secondary
stadeats graduate, aoet of them are at the age of 16^
ones may gain admission into ti
^^^veSsity classed sir the Polytechnic. But what aboutTthose students wSb are
less hri^tiW It is feared that .the
y say meet with the saae unfortunate fate "of those
overage students mho ha^e heea weeded out by the various
sehoola^ Even fee
brightest Btodests may not be able to join the universitybecause
of financial difficulties.
As such, the actual usefo
iaess of the pre
university class to them is very much reduced.
It is learnt that the principals of all gjarsejHssesrfc aided, and government
Chinese middle schools In Singapore
will hold a meeting on July 6. to exchange views
further "eduoatloa aid outlet, for tie secondary IV" graduates and
then to subfclt their views to the authorities. Ste Ministry of Bducation too will
hold anoint aeetiag
psiaeipals or the various Chinese middle schools ia Singapore to
discuss tho s
la view of the fact that the sccoaaiary
graduates will be leaving
school at an age which is too young for , employment, aad to avoid Uae increase, in
the amber of youths having ao employaent sad sohoollagi we hope
educational circles and ihe authorities concerned will afce a serious review on this
matter sad" find a good solution. 33ie best way is to set up more professional aad
trade schools. On the other hand, aeatbers of the pablic should also be encoura
set ug sahpola of similar nature. Perhaps a_ practical remedial" measure may be
3ia Chew j^
fr Pnt^ ^ u
53ic oxpaasion plan for the; Sing&pore Mvisioa of" Gaivcrsity of
Malays as outlihcd ^y Dr. areeaivasan., its
acwly appointed principal, ^nd published
in yesterday's Sin Chexr Jit Poh, touches on colonialism, the autonomy of the
university, and academic stendard etc. We consider nis statemcEit timely
becarse Uie tao brsaches of the Uaivcrsity in Sin. apore
cad the Pederaiion will
soeiT "cvclopoont iadepe
itly by 1962.
aniTersi^ _ "It is
purpose of "cringing up good Malayan
and naturally it should give equal treatment to candidates
streams of education' who arc to take part in the
Br. Sreeaivasan farther gave the figures showing
^"creafring'auabor of students admitted every year since 1959' to prove that the door
was wide open. Eraffl this we
see that efforts had been made "by the
University authorities to, follow the trend of the time and to comply with public
opinion. This is a temporary phenomenon at the moment; hut in crdoi
meet fature jagglity, the limited number of pla
ces ariotied for the j&9missio:i
of studeatB from noa
English schools is only KM as a decoration in the wake of
withdrawing colonialism. If i we are
really doing things in the right direction,
we would suggest that we must define our future a
im in a concrete way:
In the future enrolment of students, the
university of Malaya should at least base
on the ratio of actual numher of graduates from J.1 secondary schools and should
not continue to £ive special treatment to graduates of a partic
stream, while discrininatins against others. This may he a rather
complicated issue because it involves expenditure, organisation, equipQcnt and
the problem of ,teachers which cannot he solved in. a short period of time. However,
ause of giving equal treatment to all streams
education and to thoroughly
eliminate the spirit of the colonial time, this minimum aim.should not he
Another point in Dr. Sreemvassn' a statement also deserves our
attention. It is on
the issue of English education. So said "receiving
English education is not a had thing and uhat is had is the lack
other languages". This is a comment which has hit on the mark. We
his intelligent view and at the same
time, wc would like to suggest: In order
to enable the English educated to really understand other
a time limit
should he set on the f.it
ore carolnc'it of students to the
s time limit, the university should
to accept English candidates w.'io are
not qualified in one of the vernacular languages or at least tbey should make it up
within a time limit.
. This may "be a mor
e eoaplicatsd issue becaase it wSTT. gradually
involve, th^fainr© ae®im
of iiainBtiOT. ia
i$e r uaiverai'fcy. After a.
certain aaiber' of years "the jfelijeaisiLfgr of Malaya must sooner or later diseoatiaue
to use Saglisht as
the medium of inst
raetiisa. It is a satural tehdeaKyi^ We
can not longer insist that English is a
language far he; is^ndy of science. This,
tdae sa^eass4atutaat5S&i^:iites used in defence .of colonialism,. S&e
knowledge ".pfX/aa^iGsae single lan
guage including Eiglish. which is. based ixt
<teee . and latin is not a snffieient weapon for the.v
stata^of"..JSpieabe..' (fa the
contrary, any wernaeolar iaagaage is ssffieirait: to provide the ppe
the^mcdliBa of nst
^i^y instruction heca
use from the scientific
in the world can he regarded as baekwai?ai
Erececisajs of using the vecpnacuiar (language as.
instruction can he found;. 2 #apan ^ja'fPsBt;. Even ia the. newly
fiadaaesia, Indonesian iaagsaga is being
as the main language. Sow that
Sangjaxsore is ca
the road to la
deaeadenep why ' csnant: rvrrr; rinn:g^
Open wide the outlet for the continued
schooling of the young ncy blood
din Chew Jit Bah
principals of nearly j>G GMaesp middlei schools in. Singapore arc to
hold a joint ccEsfercsice fomosrascw and the, central topic of discussion will he
tise employaent and the
further schooling of the graduates of the if
. school system. This is an issue closely connected with young students,
their, parents as well as local society.
It is estimated that more then 3,000 students, hoti.
hoys and girlsi will h
ave completed the four
school course by the cad of this year.
roan the present
number of students.in. Middle I, II and HI, it
that next year's graduates will be more than 4,000 and this
ill increase with the year.
These youngsters are the new blood of the nation .
and society. After going through 1Q years of primary and
secondary education only a small minority of them will get
employment. Where is the outlet for further educ
the rest if they wish to continue their studies?
. The answer to this mainly lies on the setting p of a two
secondary course or a post
secondary course to accommodate as many of the youths
as possible. With less tha
n half a year to go' before they complete the four
secondary course after the chanrjc
over from the original six
year course, the
Ministry of Education has
far not announced any plan concerning their future
position. Wo are aware that . it t
akos time to prepare the syllabus, to arrange
the ourricului to recruit teachers and get ready the classrooms and egauijant. It is
already late to catch things up and no time should, be ■ further delayed.
let us concentrate oar attention on the problem of
setting up higher
secondary or post^secondary or pre
is hot confined
university classes but to include the essential educational arrangements which
modem nations shcrld not he lacking. Persons iio are
pay special attentioa to his statement abput "the "concept of
colonialism lias already disappeared". We are not i sure
abort the accuracy of
the wording of the newspaper report Anyway we choose to disagree that the task of
ngiag the~ colonial qaiversity'iato an independent university has teen
■complete". However, we agree that the concept of coionialis:: ia lieT
University is "disappearing™ because this is a fact.
lb? Srecnivassa said that he hoped that the expansion
plan would he
such an extent as to he able to accommodate a^ students of academic value and not
to reject them because of lack"
of .vacancy. We welcome this point.' As
pointed out by llr. Sreenivasaa, in the past the university of Malaya
solely;for British subjects and,, therefore, only graduates fiwmifeglish schools were
How that it is an JTgiependent university, the door is thrown wide,
open to admit' also graduates from vernacular schools. A, local
Tor the p
urpose of "bringing up good Malayans" hould give
fr.|j|4i(f .jfrjferln jjj.
successful iii obtaining i<
bG Cambridge Schools Certificate or the Chinese Secondary IV
Certificate under tie new system, can be said
have only attained tiie "basic national
education according to _thc general educational level of modern countries. As "most of
arc generally of tie age of 16 or 17, tbey nave still not reached tic stage for
receiving technical training as primary teachers, au
scs, policeaai' etc. Pu^rthcrmorc,
because of tie universalisation of education, tie phenomenon, of overage students
gradually been" eliminated and this sort of phenomenon is qnitc obvious la Singapore
Tie wheel of
me keeps on turning and tie level of national education is
steadily raising. She two years added to tie IX)
year basic education arc
net only a
reouircjaent for promotion: to universities and technical colleges but also a condition for
Joining public and private ser^ces jln modern
commercial port. Wo need an educational
level higher than ether crdiaary nations.
According to observers, tic t^ro years of higher, secondary in addition to tlx;
ycar secondary system should' not be considered as a reproduction
tie former senior
middle. It should be nearer to Highe
r School Certificate system of tic English schools
yicro there is a separation of courses, suci as arts and science. for this reason, tic
standard of textbooks and tic allocation of subjects will be different from those of tic old
schools. Moreover, because of the separation of courses, there is a need to
expand tic laboratories and libraries quickly. Aad the
recruitment of capable teachers is
a jnatser of urgency.
■ Time is running out quickly before the ncir academic t
erm starts again.
No matter what tic name we call it, the substance and the purpose are the same: it
is to open wide the outlet for the co:iinued Bchcoling of tic thousands of secondary
students every year.
Tic four proposals by t
of Chinese middle
Sin Chow Jit Poi
Tic four proposals adopted by
lie principals of Chinese middle schools in
Singapore at a meeting held two days ago on tie.creation of ave
opportunities of further studies for graduates under tic now four
year secondary system arc to
a _xcat extent in agreement with the views expressed by this paper during the past four or
As to tie'establishment of apprentice
ship system by local factories aid
commercial organisations tc provide employment opportunities for these students wo
bclicvo that the appeal will receive sympathetic response particularly in. tic present stage
of economic construction.
ic is using English, as tic medium of instruction and because
of language difficulties graduates under tic new i'cur
ycar system cannot Join the classes
directly after graduation. Tic proposal by the principals for tic setting up of a
olytechnic is to~rcmcdy
this gteat defect. Another practicable way is to run. additional course in. the
Polytechnic using Chinese as ^fee Hcdium of. inslsrafffeibn so as to provide direct
avenues "of hij^er studies and' opportunities .for teciaical
teai^ag . for tiousandsof
youths who graduate from tic sebOEsdary schools every year
At present teeinical education, is distressingly
. inadeg;iate and there is
urgent need fos? farther education to be givesi to graduates la the s.eeaadary IV classfes
. will be passing out ia less "than six Months. Beace tie proposals Nasi 2
and 3 are all tie more important.
Although tie pre
uaivsrsi'ty "classes, tie Mg
e secondary classes and the
secondary classes are. different
in name^ they are generall
y tbc_ samq^all mtijJbe;_^H
Uier "edues/Eoafbr students who have already rcccivcd a 12
edueatioa in tie primary and seeomdary schools. In modem, countries those students who
have received 12 years of school training form
tie basic group for enrolment in universities
and at the same
time are tie minimus rcgnixeaeni for entering public ssorviees.
We should have as asiy youths as possible
bo iavo roecived 12 years of primary,
and secondary education. Sot only should th
ere be no restriction bat every eaepuTegemeat
for further studies should also be given. Normally youths who iavc.received 12 years of
education trill be only be about 16 or 19 years old. We siould never allow: those students
who iave received on
ly 10 years ■ of education, sad arc about 16 or 17 years of age to become
vagrants in "the streets.
The prospects of tic two
year higher secondary system
secondary or pro
arc very bright. With tie' ajlc guidance of
utors and the students' own efforts, they should iavc no difficulty cither in
getting admission into tic national university or Nsayang University or even
SPEAKING FROM SBB ENGAGEMENT OF AN
BBGgCSKSR ?0R Tat SlflGAPQKB POF
^ Pau .
2.7.61. (Sunday Editorial)
The Singapore Government has decided to build a large
scale electric power station
at Pasir Paajaag.
construction of. this new power station will take" four stages. Tic
t stage of construction wiici will involve an expenditure of $32.6 million is expected
to be smoothly carried out within the four years of tic economic coastructior. plan.
And oa acco.
nt of tic building of this large
scale power station, the Sio/apor
Government ias specially sent out its Blcetricity Engineer, Br. 2.K. Piuesck to visit
Japan, Europe and ^aerica
witi tie object of finding a trustworthy electricity engineer
to take charge of this work. Prom £ais event, we come to realise that to
Goverrstoat is not so di.'.iicult as to find specialised people to take charge of tic
"various tyics of vrork after tie
Dotcr oi govemooat is well in iand. ~Aad it is tiis
type of specialised technical people that Singapore needs in order to
" carry out her
la view of the, difficulty in getting scientific and Leal personnel, we
propose that the
Governmeat should some attention "to the following two
(X) The salary should be raised. At present most of the young
engineers who return from their studies ia Britain., Australia, sad
Hew Zealand dislike working for the Government
ise of the
salary. Par the first few years after their return,
perh^s they may serve the, Govcraacnt. But after they are
conversant with the local conditions', they often go away to work for private
flrmsi Prom the point of
thc.Governiacat, tliis is a great loss. Ia order
that young engineers may stick in Government service for. a loag time,
as far as
Greater aad faller facilities should he srsovjded. Although politically
tr.S. aad Bussia hare stood opposed to each other after the second
world war, their kcea desire
to seek advancement ia 1he academic field
is "truly laudable. Even with her progress in "science, the TJ.S.
still takes great pains to traaslate a
ll the important hooks aad aagaziaes
relating to science and technology published hy the Soviet Ualoa in
order to £pt new knowledge from them. Therefore, from this we
can understand that if we want to make progress, we most have greater
aad fuller fa
kles ia hooks aad eguipneat. Otherwise, we will
forever he backward ia science sad technology.
While toe Singapore Electricity Eagiaecr is making
his trip to various countries to look for an electricity expert., a Japanese is already
ing iavostigatioas oa tlie invitation of the Singapore Governmcat. Ho
has now . completed his missioa aad is returning to Japan to present his report. .
It is learat from reliable sources that Japan will probably scad a few electrical aad
ical engineers to serve ia this State.
The problem of aatioa
buildiag is extremely complex and the Question
of an Electricity Engineer is only one of the most evident examples.
'; JOvBHIIE IgljaQPEH
IMER0VOT6 PPBIJC Mpgflia
Chow Jit Poh
7.7.61. (Editor ial):
Pivc eases of face scratching 5iave been confirmed by the police
after investigatioas. As this sort of criminal act has beca exaggerated,
the shadow of fear has caused great
anxiety to school girls arid women who
have to leave homes with the result that market is also affected to a certain
extent. For this reasoi the police have issued a h
point statement asking
people to maintain a calm acid', ..reasoned attitude.
; . To surrender to
the crime peipetratars by staying at home is aot. a
goodmeasure, for: this abt oaly cannot ensure one's safety hut also will
encourage the bad. fiats to fors?> ahead.
Proa the viewpoint of erimiaology
, "face aoratehiag
' is a very
crime. Although ao one has been easghfc so far for committing this crime, we.
pan definitely say that this is another
phenomenon of juvenile delinojBsacy,
When we look at the crime perpetrators, we find, t
hat their erimln£i act is the result
of. what they haire loarat from yeans. Pos? example: when a child is
aeenstased to take other people
s thiags as his ova, .he will easily become a
pocket or a fiief or even a rdjhcr or a kidnapper, when he
grows up. When a
persoa in his younger days is aceustomed to "bully the
scratching or even indulge in sexual crimes, whea he grows up. Prom
we can understand that "face scratching"" is aot a separate crime by
itself. It has an inseparable rclatioaship with other crimes.
Ia our daily strolls in the streets, we can at say time see numerous
children doing their preliminary exercises ia Gr
imes, such as loafing around,
gaaoliag, stealing, destroying public or private properties, fightiag and teasing passer
shy. Their activities are Just alarming. He often read ia newspapers that
whoa these children grow up they" ■38ng themselves
up ia. fightiag aad kOHag
involving even school children. Hot all of these juvenile delinquents are
children from poor
families or they are
use of mental deficiency or
We must take a serious view ia this criminal act o
because the perpetrators are not forced by economic living or personal grudge to
commit such an act. Tbc real reason is to.show off their "anti
"immoral" behaviour. They do aot deserve our sympathy at all.
„ We agree wi
th the view of the police that by our maintaining a high dc.rcc
of calmness and alertness, we
must deal a fatal blow on those unlswfsl attackers.
However, we arc aware that people ia general, particularly woaca aad girls, lade
defence. The main TTOtcctiag strength is still
dependent oa the uniformed or piaia
clothcs police cad detectives.
Purthcrmore,. we can imagine that these culprits.arc few in number and it is possible
that they will be rooted out early.
fa) SSX2. the .
nile delinquents quickly
>vccbrding to statistics compiled by experts ia criminology., most of the
young people brougrt to the Juvenile Court for Questioning are "between
ttie ages of
5 <ad 17. Of these 35JS have committed oac or taro o}^?baccs before,
and about half of the confirmed juvenile delinqucats '■■"ill inevitably become
crimiaals when they grow up.
Young people arc very susceptible to all kinds of i'lflucnccs.
Oacc they ha
ve acouircd bad habits, it is very difficult to rectify thca.
"In fact, the main cause for producing juvenile dsl^agueirte lies. with,
family ana societ
y. ". It has little
with, the juvenile deliaguejats
put it .more precisely, juvenile delinquents are the
pi___rfcs of unhappy____l_es and bad soeieiy. As such, if juvenile
dellpquents arc to b^teaved, a probe has to
he madeV into their family and soeial
Poverty is the greatest misfortune in.a family.
family, the parents," are usually busy in. earning a living aad sill
tfierefore have no time to tafce care of __£__ ch?idr__. As a result
children become easy prey to.secret societies.
.To prevent rapid increase in. the number of
juveniie deliagjieats j we
should tackle the problem, at the ropti In other words, we should create
_ealtlr/ c_v_r__m__ts. In order to create he
althy _avjLrq_mea_s, the most
important thing is: to clear away all slum areas, prompts
more, aSfi hettej
53_re are many cinemas in Singapore, but very few of _fe films
shown are good. People who
have d^ep concern over healthy cultural
entertainment all hope that the Ba£ioaal Saestre will be completed early so
that good and proper programmes can he arranged.
Owing to insufficient family education at __
, most people place the
educating their children an the school. But owing to pressure
work:, most teachers ia schools have „_c__seious_3r.adopted an apathetic
. 'As long as their lessons are taught, they have done their work.
They do not cajffe much about t
he e_a_s work of their students or the
culti'MSefeiaa of their cfiaracter.
3!o most primary and 8Ccaad_ry students, teachers are their
exemplary figures. If the quality is raised, the henefit which the students will
get from t:>o exemplary conduct of
their teachers will he greater than from learning
Eiloy, a U.JT. consultant, has arrived in Singapore recently to
help the 3i;ir3_ x>re Oovormnent solve juvenile deliqucncy.
It is learnt that his
"first task is to set ijp a junior approve
d school,for accommodating juvenile
deliqraents between the ages of 8 and 13. We agree with this plan because
deliqucats of this ago group are easier to be reformed. We hope this scheme can
be smoothly Carried out and the number of juvenile dcligucn
ts will docroase day
by day as a result of 1_d.s scheme.
Wiae of arsonists ahoald
It has been foaad that attempts have beon made time and again to sot
xirc on attap
.. As a result, the life, property t__ safety of the
houso dwellers arc seriously threatened. People in these areas arc
virtually liviag in fear. Althou^i several attempts of arson were discovered
recently, no culprit h_s so f_r been arr
ested. ___s is because
a fire alarm
was given, the acoplc __£© a__uy_ busily c
igagod ii irttin out t'tc firci
incident, of arson is difficult to the motive of the crime can be
established. Eherc were indications to show that the several "big fires which,
Singapore recently were ea_sod as. a result of arson.
Strictly spcakiag^ arson is a serious'
If the ,
culprits of,the.recent fires are caught, it is 'believed they
sill be dealt with severely. It is indeed difficult
understand the active of the arsonists. If the motive is
not on account of personal dispute or grudge
, __ea. I nay
"oemore complicated. Perhaps, people may be led "to f.Mak /
that it may have something to do with polities, ec__o_yy
abcrratioa or other _±s___ofs, ___ iastaaee,there wiere
traces beforeand after the fire to show that the recent
fire ia Bufcit Ho Swee was an act of arson. It Is a pity
that the culprit was aot caught aad the motive was aot
established.. Otherwise, couater
aieasurcs can be adopted
to prevent sach. attests
It is learnt that another four at
tempts had been made in the last few
days to set fire to the attap !___ in. Carey Bead
behind the Hong lam Market.
of these attempts had prevented these fires from developing
into grave disaster
Again the culprits managed to escape while the people
were busily putting out the fires.
Firebrands had been found after the several attearots to set fire on the
attap iuts in the Hong Tom Market, _a_pc_g Tiong Bahra and Jalaa Haya near
were foiled. It is obvious that there arc people tryiiig to create
disasters by arson.
he Co_atry People's Association has already issued a
statement pointing out that from the variolas traces found, it Is believed that the
arson. b_d§ arc
not the work of one or two heartless thugs, but the intrigue, of
aa organised group.
We therefore feel that "the people should ec
operate with the Police
_a.o_c_esrtcd_y to prevent fire from happening again and to bring the culprits to
Uhat is acre important is to find out the active of these thugs in committing
these vicious acts.
o strep. :U~n the work of
________§ ______ morals
The news about a thug
has been going round
scratch, the f_cc of our teenage girls has put our womenfolk very much ill at
case. Although, no official report has
yct been received by t.Uc Police,
we caaaot regard this with iadiffcrcioe.'
tfc always feci that boys end girls ia this
country arc much too orccocious.
_;_s is perhaps due to the tropical climate. Some of them start to fall in love
whoa they arc __ the senior middle classes and scsic o.vca ia the junior middle
classes. Besides physical precocity, loca
l social _aviro__e_.ts too.have induced
them to embark on the path of love carlicr thaa they avould.
In the pre
war days, Singapore was _ city with good public morals.
But it has ae? hcccmc Uic breeding place
of crimes _ad evils. _Jjaost eve
day we rcr.d of reports __
the newspapers about murder, arson, rape, robbery, kidnap'
in^, smuggling etc., .
This undoubtedly is due to the fact that" man sls
eart is no longer what it was since it
Jbas gone through the baptism of war. On. the other hand, it is ;}ust as true to
.say that bad cinema shows have led our nrocoeious youths astray. Apart from
the cinema shows, story books of chivalry' const
itute yet aiother factor in
However, pur immediate problems concern the further
education and employment Of ihe senior middle graduates 'who
are leaving school this year.
are going to have three
different examinations at
tie end of the year for students
middle II and III and secondary IV. These three
exadaatiaas arc. of different standards and will lie held at
the same tome. . She question of further education and
employment of these students will be.a
tens ofthousands of' parents.
Should they lot lieir
chilurtJU gii fur further studies?
Avenucs~.ia. this direction
are pitiably few. Par. only those senior middle graduates with good results
may. gain admission into the
rsity .classes of the University of Malaya or
University, While the remaining, it Is feared, will have to be shut out.
Even then, how these 2
univcrsity c?_asscs are to be run Is still hot known.
What about employment? Graduates of the se
nior middle II and
secondary IV are in f^ct still too young for Are the parents going to let their
children join the ranks of vagabonds aid hecome members of the reserves unit
of the unemployed? Of course, no one would like lidSto happen. But, how
have heard of no concrete measures of
Empty talks will not hclo and the host measure is to he gin with
First, increase our technical knowledge. At present. the
teaching staff and equipment in primary schools seem to ho quite adequate.
But the position
not quite tic same when one comes to the secondary level
and above. Apart froo
a fe.v well
established secondary sc)>ools, the
adequacy of the teaching staff and equipment in the other secondary schools arc
questionable. Excuse us for saying so
the stsadard of many graduates of
secondary schools too is far from satisfacto
ry. The education and school
authorities should therefore pay special attention to how their standard can be
Second, create more cnroloyiacut opportunities. Industrialisation will
definitely be carried out in Singapore. This
is, in fact, a piece of good
news. But, as far as we kaow, modern machines will be used in modern industries
and the main intention of all modem machines iB to cut down human labour. In
view of this fact, oven if our industrialisation can be
carried cut smoothly the
absorption of workers into industries will still bo unable
to catch up with rapid
increase of our population.
Therefore, to aakc uo for what industrialisation cannot provide,
we surest it will he well for capitalists to
establish some handicraft or lijit
industries so as to create more employment opportunities.
Only bysolving the problem of the rice bowl.on one;
band and by assiihiausly Isanciiiab' an anrtl
(including strict censorship of
etories" of chivalry)
only by the simultaneous applics±a5aa
of both these measares csa the work of" isproving public
morals be strengthened and the, level of good law sod order
GCIP HESBSBSS ABD
TEB BBOSSgSCTS OFTBB
Hanyang Slang: Pan
Selwyn ELoyd, British Catasneellor
of the Exchequer,
expressed^ his worry qvo^tho^ectooicLe conations of Britain
at the House of 'tSbaatcei's a few days
ago" and 'said that &iaan was facing an
unpleasant sltuafcioa. He has hot decided On any remedial step, bu his
proposita.oa includes two ■easures designed to cheek inflation. One is
the purchase tax on a number of goods by 1056, and th
e other is
bo levy a ^.s.
salary tax on wage
. ' It Is difficult, to say at the moment whe
Eber or not
these two Measures will be effective in checking inflation. However, the
wavering and the downward trend of the sterling are ca
used not by her revenue
receipts but by her external trade. As such reacdial measare should
be applied to
the soureo of trouble. lax increase seems to be of secondary importance.
The deterioration of i
hc economic, conditions of Britain began
from today but earlier. That the deterioration has suddenly come to the
surface is certainly connected directly with the sharp drop in the gold reserves
which ■ occurred last month. During this year, the British reserve fund has
ng almost monthly. And it has fallen below the £1,000 jsillloa
mark at the end of last' mor.tji. The £1,000 million mark has been
considered by people as the minimum safety level for tbo reserve fund. Anxiety
from various quarters is expected, on
ce the fund has fallen below this level.
As a matter of fact, the fall in the British reserve fund is a natural
phenomenon.. The situation may deteriorate further if the British Government
does not Beck positive co'imtcr
on the Britishs external
trade :.or last year will provide us with the conclusion on this point. Britain'
suffered an unfavourable balance of
million in her external trade last year.
This deficit should have been sufficient to Influence th
e economy of Britain.
But owing to the concentration in land on of the floating capital from all parts of the
world, British sterling was able to'malntain its position. However, this situation
took a sharp turn, at the beginning of this year, par
ticularly after the increase in the
value of the West German marks. Britis.'" reserve fund plunged s.
iarply down when
the floating capital of the various countries left Iioadon for Europe. In oticr words, the
crisis in. British sterling should have occu
rred last year, but, awing to the support of
great amount of forol
floating capital, its stability was temporarily aaintalacd.
How that the floating capital lias moved to' ether places, the instability of British
sterling caused by unfavourabl
e external trade lias at once been revealed
. . . .'.^ .
The British Government lias tried its host, to maintain . the exch
rate and the ;ppc8ti
e of the pound by carrying oat economic stringency with the
hope of balancing her trade. But this economic stringency has failed not only to
avert the unfavourable balance in her external trade, but also to stimulate industrial
production. Another measure in cc
oirdinatloa with the economic stringency
policy was to raise the bank rates. . .tilthough, this had attracted great amount
of: floating capital, from forcisp countries thus enabling Brl;tain to get over several
crises, yet, the day will come when Britain will find herself at the end of her wits.
Whether or not British sterling should be devalued is another question, but it is
basically wrong for the British Government to maintain the status quo by stringency
easures without, resorting to encouraging ir
Ho doubt, it is an undeniable fact that British
sterling will face the danger of devaluation once her reserve fund has fallen, below
the £1,000 million mark. But Britain still has
two weapons in her bends which
can help her tide oyer her crisis. One is the economic strength of the British
Cofflnonwealth countries. As long as British adopts
jgolicy and is prepared to start afrqsh,
ontr2S"s^ say be able, to offer some help to
avert the entire situation..
But. Britain must first win the
confidence of other Commonwealth countries by abandoning part
of her overseas investment interests.
The other is to
relax certain terms and
Join the Sicst Europe Common Market . directly. The
status of the British sterling must first be stabilised with the financial support of
the six West European countries; the next step will then be to solve the
problems of industrial produc
In short, there is nothing to woirj^ft9D.t ten a
1LH :"_ tlie_rese:.
art, it i3_
Le balance in
external trade that Britain should worry about. To improve this situation, it is
believed no other course
is better than to develop quietly again her industrial
nationhood. It is Sy,ao accident that our oveirwhelaing majority of the
voters have maintained the same eosifidessse in and give the same support to
as they did before.,
How that the town and ■village council ©Sections have concluded,
the following facts
as reflected. by the election results deserve our
The political rallying strength of the Alliance is being steadi
o^olidated aa# expanding. The:' to ^asic notions, of racial harmony and.
progress througi security, have gone deeper and deeper Sato the miads of. 14ie_
people from day to day and the doctrine of narrow .ecaaiEalisia, on the other' hanci,
oa the^wsae. This is
happy way in whiehihings are evolving.
Important thou^i the policy sad stand of a political party may be, the
pessoaal conduct sad efforts of its leaders and members arc 3ust as important if aot
reflected in the degree of success the Alliance has
achieved in various areas.
to the success or failure ia political rivalry lies ia whether or
not a political party csa aaintain, its internal unity. Only a united party can win
confidence and. support of the masses. The MCA., one of the
partners of t)>e Alliance, suffered repeated internal split which
the political setbacks of the Alliaaee in the larger cities on the West Coast.
This drew severe critic
isms from inside sad outside the party. With the
conclusion of the local elections, the political prestige
of the Alliance has been enhanced.. This should he the time xor the BCA to
make greater endeavours to order its owa house and expand and .c
AFTER Tffi COHCLPSIOM 0? THE FEIERATIOH' 3
Sia Chew Jit Poh
Of the 578 scats in" the town Kid village councils in the 11 states of
the Federation t."c Alliance has won U2U or
of the total. Althou^i t.'icsc
arc only local clections, in which a victory cr defeat .aay not directly affect the
f national policy, they undoubted:.;/ reflect.
the will of the
electors and determine the ftJtfrorp fortune of the various political parties and
I From the results of tjese elections we can also sec the
' general political tend
ency in Malaya.
In a parliamentary system it is'SdixTiouXt cnou.jh for a party to
win the elections and be returned to power, but it is even harder to gain the
sustained confide ..cc and support of the masses of the electors after it !ias
assumed office. The Alliance lias been in pc.vcr for six years from the
time when the first elected government was formed and more than two years
since Malaya achicvoc i
The tmszllag South Korea
git Chow Ji
After the coup d" ctat on May 16 by
the army which snccocdcd in
overthrowing the elected South Korean. Government of John M. Chang, another
coup took place last Monday in which a so
far unknown gene
ral came out in the open
to lie ad tic military junto and a new
premier is to replace the old one. .
According to the report of an American correspondent, a young South
Korean student has said "In the present circumstances we need a dictator; i
order to fight for a better faturc wo must sacrifice the
principles of dcmocr.acy
Eros the development in the political situation of South Korea during the past two
months, the strange idea of this youth has itB partial truth based, on social co
Since the conclusion of the second world war, South Korea has never really been
democratic politically; the govooxuiont was corrupt and economy bankrupt.
There has been great disparity between
rich and the poor. In such
apart from letting Communist ideology tlirivc .vidcly, the other extreme is natural^.
lo produce a dictatorship in Govcmacnt. Shis was the back
cour> "as ■=v>c:cessf
"'. en May 16.
In the editorial of this paper on 16.5.63. we had this to sayr "After
shaking off the colonial yoXo^ the people ape generally confronted with new
who. ape more fierce ,aad erucl than their foreiga rulers. Som
countries take to dietatoEship while others are in
turmoil continuously. When the
government and the people ape opposed to each other, those, who
fished in troubled
waters are either foreign enesnlcs or the armed fopces" inside the country itself.
s is the situation todsir in South Korea."
However," since the military junta has "become a reality, why is it
that they lake Syngmaa Khee and John tt, Chang cannot prevent political
upheaval in the country?
. There is only one reasonable explanation:: After 13ae dictatorship is
set up, the first step is to purge Hereiiessly an opposition forces. After the
opposition f drees are put out of function, the conflicting interests
egression in the
internal split of that
dictating force jTiftheinterests of the people in
the eouofejy are not placed on a common basis;. Therefore, it is possible:, to
achieve "no party outside a party" hut no one can "avoid cliques inside a party".
It is :Jor
this reason tha^.a second coup has tafcea place after the first military coup
in South Korea. If such explanation is nearer to truth, then the second coup is
only the beginning aad not tlse end.
Kuwait, the aetrolcua kingd
t cr i si s
ffaayanft Siaag Pan
. The Middle^ East is tlic aaia
world producing yetrly about 2/3 of the
total requirement. On a
ccount of the struggle to
gain possession of petroleum resources, tlie
Kiddle East has all along been a troubled region. And among the
producing countries in the Kiddle
Bast, Kuwait, which started to open.up oil
fields in 191
the first place
in oil production. It is the 2nd largest oil
producing country in the world,
second only to Venezuela. Shis little sheikdom, possesses more than 1/5 of
the total oil resources in the whole world. It is therefore not unex
Kuwait has become "tic object < of dispute. .
Kuwait was a poor country with a small land area and. a population of
less than 210,000. Owing to gcographical factcrs, Kuwait became a
protectorate of Britain, as ft was an ideal base for
controlling the Middle East
being situated between Iraq,. Saudi Arabia and Iran. Howovcr," after the 2nd
World War, large quantities of petroleum wore suddenly found in Kuwait and it
became rich almost over
night. Wealth alone is enou^i to cau
se troubles in
places Tvhcrc _jroblcms do not usually arise. Moreover, for Kuwait, whose
status is so vague, disputes can more casi?.y be caused.
, ' Speafcing from the point of population, the majority of the people
in Kuwait arc"Iraqi.
But Saudi Arabia has a much bi._^er influcacc in
economic relations. For instance, until now tierc is still no independent
currency in Kuwait and India's rupee is being used'in town aroas while 8audi
Arabia's currency is being circulated in r
ural districts in Kuwait. But Britain
id .America iiavo t)>c closest relations with, few
ait in resrject of jctrc?_eu
After the Suez Canal incident, Kuwaitis future status reee'yed the
close, attention feoa various quarters. There was
a secret move for merger with
either Iraq or the U.A.R. Independence
,too was aaother way out i'or
Kuwait. As aa independent Kuwait would be <&ore advantageous to Britain,
Kuwait finally attained independence after an agreement was reached between
tain and. Kuwait.
As a matter of fact, the panting of independence
to Kuwait is a compromised measure aiaod at aeeting the
requirements of the political environments in the Middle
East. ■ Its effect is to put aside all internal diffeseace
of Kuwait and
the clashes between the various couata^ee la
the Middle East. The first country afitected by this' aev '._
development is Iraq..
On point of International law,
whether as? not Kuwait should serge with Iraq is disputalbie.
But the merger plaa be
tween the f bpmer Premier of Iraq aid.
the King of Saud^ Arabia se<GJi.tQ_hasDe;, oMaiaed the tacit
understanding between the various .quarters concerned. It
is oaly after the political coup which took place in Iraq
aad after Kassem eapturcd powers th
at the original plan
was abandoned. It is on account of this reasoa that Kassem,
the Iraqi Preaior., has announced. that Kuwait is an unaHcn
able part of the xraqi territory.
According to Kassem, the 1899~British Protection Treaty is a false treaty
and is therefore illegal; "and as Kuwait was a part of Basra which is now a
province of Iraq, Iraq, therefore, has the real rights over Kuwait. The problem
has suddenly become serious when Kassem s demand rccei
rod the support from the
yi Britain sad Saudi Arabia have sent troops to Kuwait in response to
a request by its ruler. The situation has now developed'to
such a state that
direct military clashes may not be possible. Both Kuwait and Iraq have already
handed their disp
ute to the u Jf. Security Council
. It is therefore .believed that
the crisis will case after the Security Council' s meeting tonorrow.
Prom various indications at the moment, the present demand of Iraq for
Kuwait scens to be untimely. At least
, this demand cannot be fulfilled without
the sympathy of the Middle East countries. Now even C.A.K. is against Iraq.
When this matter is discussed by the Security Council, Iraq will inevitably be in an
isolated position. Various countries in the
world have already recognised one
after aaother the independence of Kuwait^
. It is therefore not easy for Iraq to jot rid
of this established fact. The Iraq
Kuwait dispute may go on, but it has already
passed the real crisis aad will act develop into
a serious international issue.
I. HAMTfilft fW
Waddell' s statesmanship
Hailinr the statcnent made by the Governor of Sarawais: °ir Alexander
Waddcll at the op
of the Colombo Plan exhibition in which he has compared
the Tcagxu's Mighty