2012 / 03 / 23 Andy Wang

hurriedtinkleAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

58 views

2012 / 03 / 23

Andy Wang

2012/3/23

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Introduction


Performance and Experience in Mobile
Learning


Method


Security Guard Training


Result


Conclusions and Discussion


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Benefits of using mobile devices for mobile e
-
learning?


Cheaper? Easy to use?


Outdoor classroom, a new way to learn?


The
affordance
of mobile devices?


The affordance of alternatives may achieve similar outcome
in same situation.


What’ s the contribution of mobile devices?


Flow experience


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Learning has been characterized in a number
of ways.


Intrinsically internal and personal
, involving the generation
of new understanding and knowledge and active changes in
conceptual understanding.


Self
-
control,

find their own way to make a learning situation
personalized and sensitized to them.


Learning as an active, social process
, learner
-
center or
collaborative interactions.

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new learning environment, outdoor
collaborative learning


Mobile learning seems to cater for certain curricular areas.


Mostly measured learning performance using
some quantitative
metrics.


Nintendo DS console, an multimedia game
-
based English
learning
tool


Need to be interpreted together with individual cognitive
differences


The best learning moments?

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Measuring learning experience


Less mobile learning project explicitly address how we can
present learners with appropriate learning experience.


Flow
: holistically controlled feeling where one acts with total
involvement or engagement with particular activity, with a
narrowing of focus of attention.


Self
-
control

is intrinsic to mobile learning, the relative levels
of challenge and skill may either facilitate or block the
motivation to learn.


It is a subjective experience, not easy to see.

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Four dimensions


The learner perceives a sense of
control

over the learning
activity


The learner perceives that his
attention is focused
on the
learning activity


The learner’s
curiosity

is kept aroused during the learning
activity


The learner finds the learning activity intrinsically
interesting


Research here focus on flow experience and whether
or not it would be a useful construct for characterizing
and measuring the subjective mobile learning
experience.


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Performance, Spatial Cognition, and Flow


Experiment Tasks


Mobility determines the usefulness of mobile learning


However, navigation through a physical world is a task that
consumes the majority if a person’s attention resources.


Some studies:


high
-
spatial

individual is good at constructing a model of the
organization and
structure

of embedded learning content


Low
-
spatial

individual is more directed to
semantic

content

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Pilot Study


Spatial ability should be regard as an independent variable
or not? How it could be associated with the dependent
variables?


Using the same task and mobile learning material.


Some potential variable that may interact with performance
were not fully controlled.


Separate individuals into two group with different Spatial
ability.

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Though there is some different, almost all participants
are pleasure in the test.


Flow experience
v.s

Cognitive capability?

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Three group


Traditional map
-
based instruction, control group


Game
-
based system, assumed to have the best performance.


Mobile learning system


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Participants


53 subjects, 19~26 years, half of them are female(25/53)


Participants are assigned in a random way


Only 9 subjects are in the control group, in order to show the
power of experiment group.


Experimental Design


Mobile
-
based and paper
-
based group are not sitting at a desk


Game
-
based learning group are
not allowed to physically visit
the
rooms, so that some environment cues might not be memorized.


The dependent variables used the rating on 12 questions
regarding the flow experience.

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Procedure


First provided with instructions regarding the experiment.


All the participants are
first time to take block rotation test
.


According to the score of test, participants are separated
into two group.


Learning session, including 23 rooms, guidance from
learning system, and some security information.


Write down the five rooms, security codes, other norms
regarding security rules, and their names on the map.


12 questions relating to flow experience were rated on a
five
-
point
Likert

scale.

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Individual difference in spatial cognition
should be considered as an important factor
when assessing the performance benefits of
mobile learning.


Game
-
based learning performs not so well.


Contrary to the two performance measures
above, the ratings of flow experience revealed
a rather different pattern.


Mobile learning and game
-
based learning is better.

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Learning control


Attention focus


Cognitive curiosity


Intrinsic interests

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Traditional way
v.s

N
ew way (mobile or game)


Flow experience is a better way to measure
mobile learning.


Analyzing user experience before learning outcomes are
applied.


Mobile learning seems to be encourage people
to have more cognitive curiosity and intrinsic
interest.

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Knowledge acquisition and situated learning


The type of the task, Security Guard could
acquire
knowledge through constructing and internalizing their own
cognitive structures

through the learning activities.


Building up knowledge by active participation
, directly
gained by through participating in a social process, and
learning is displayed by becoming more central in these
process.


Mobile learning should be seen as situated within both
physical and psychosocial context and distributed between a
person and the tools he is using.

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Limitation


Do not have any direct evidence from real
-
world mobile
learning applications that our accounts are practically
applicable.


How the flow experience will scale up to handle real
instruction designs.


Further Research


Different class may not have the same result.


Need to explore other individual differences


Pursue a longitudinal study

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