Artificial Intelligence & Natural Language Processing - National ...

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THE
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND MAYNOOTH
AUTUMN EXAMINATION
2005-2006
Artificial Intelligence
&
Natural Language
Processing
Dr. P. Morrow, Prof. R.
Reilly,
Dr. D.
0
Donoghue
Time allowed: 2 hours
Answer
three
questions
All
questions
carry equal marks
125
marks]
1
(a) Discuss the difference between query dependent document retrieval and
5
marks
query independent document retrieval. What are the main advantages and
disadvantages of each?
(b)
Discuss how citations can be used to identify quality document in
5
marks
database of documents. Compare and contrast citation-based ranking on
the web with collections of academic
papers/books.
(c)
Write down the
PageRank
function, explaining each of the terms.
5
marks
Describe the distinction between
inlinks
and
outlink,
using an appropriate
diagram to illustrate your answer.
(d)
What are the main differences between ranking documents based on a
10
marks
simple citation count and ranking them based on their
PageRank
value?
Illustrate your answer by use of a suitable example. Under what
circumstances will there be significant differences between these two
ranking systems?
[25 marks]
2
(a)
What is a look-ahead
parser
and how would it help resolve ambiguity
5
marks
when parsing natural language? What is the main problem with
look-
ahead parsers?
(b) Describe the operation of a Chart
parser.
10
marks
(c)
What is meant by the features of words in natural language and how do 10 marks
registers make use of features? What is agreement and how do registers
enforce agreement? Make use of appropriate examples to illustrate your
answer.
[25
marks]
3
(a)
What is an analogy? What role is played by graph isomorphism in the
10
marks
interpretation of analogical comparisons? What is the relevance of pattern
completion to the interpretation of analogies?
(b)
Describe in detail one algorithm for identifying the inter-domain mapping,
10
marks
for domains given as collections of predicates.
(c)
Discuss the role that analogies play in science. How can analogies be used
5
marks
to summarize various scientific discoveries? Make use of appropriate
examples in your answer.
Page
1
of 2
Autumn
2006
Answer Either Question
4.1
OR Question
4.2
(below)
[25
marks]
4.1
(a)
What is heuristic search? Describe a simple heuristic that might be useful in
5
marks
solving the Farmer-Fox-Goose problem (or the 8-tile puzzle). Briefly
describe what problem is presented a local minimum and a plateau.
(b)
What
is meant by a zero-sum game? Describe how the MiniMax algorithm
5
marks
can be used to solve adversary-search problems, such as chess or the
OX0
game.
(c)
Describe the operation of the
MiniMax
algorithm when presented with the 5
marks
following search tree. (Letters refer to search states while the numbers
represent the heuristic's evaluation of that state). What heuristic values will
be associated with nodes
B,
C
and
D?
Which move (letter) will ultimately
be selected by MiniMax?
(d)
Describe each of the steps in the
A*
search algorithm.
10
marks
OR
[25
marks]
4.2
(a) Describe how case frames can be used to represent the semantic
10
marks
commonality between two distinct sentences. What is the "beneficiary"
case role and
how
might it be used in the following sentence?
"Tom
got
the
book for
Mary
for
$5.
"
(b) What is a transformation grammar and how do they differ from
5
marks
traditional grammars? Use an appropriate example to highlight the use of
a transformation rule.
(c)
What is
WordNet
and how does it represent information? Make reference
5
marks
to the relationships that are used by WordNet in your answer.
(d)
Describe any two similarity metrics used to compare
WordNet
synsets.
5
marks
Why would one attempt to quantify the similarity (or difference) between
any two concepts?
Page
2
of
2
-P
Autumn
2006
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