Machine/Network Security / Internet Security - Cs Mwsu

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Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Information security

refers to the
protection of
information systems
and the information
they manage against
unauthorized access,
use, manipulation, or
destruction, and
against the denial of
service to authorized
users.



Information Security



Machine
-
Level Security


Network Security


Internet Security

Concepts > Information Security

In this section:

Machine
-
level security

refers to
actions taken to protect information on
a computer that may or may not be
connected to a computer network or
the Internet.

Machine
-
Level Security


Authentication


Encryption


Data Backup

Concepts > Information Security > Machine
-
Level Security

In this section:

Authentication

is a security
process in which the identity of
a person is verified.


Authentication

Facial pattern recognition

is a form of
biometrics
that uses
a mathematical
technique to measure the distances
between points on the face.

Concepts > Information Security > Machine
-
Level Security > Authentication


Form of
Authentication

Description

Something you
know

Information such as a
password

or personal identification number
(PIN)

Something you
have

An item such as an ID card, smart
card, badge, keychain fob, and
other items designed to be used to
authorize access to secure areas
and systems

Something about
you

Unique physical characteristics
such as fingerprints, retinal
patterns, and facial features that
can be scanned and used for
authentication

Encryption

Encryption

is a security
technique that uses high
-
level mathematical functions
and computer algorithms to
encode data so that it is
unintelligible to all but the
intended recipient.


When sending confidential data
over the Web,
make
sure
to use a
secure
connection, indicated by
the https:// in the address bar and
the closed lock icon at the bottom
of the
screen
.

Concepts > Information Security > Machine
-
Level Security > Encryption

Data Backup

Data backup

is a process in which
copies of important computer files
are stored in a safe place to guard
against data loss.



Concepts > Information Security > Machine
-
Level Security > Data Backup

With the advent of cloud computing, users are storing increasing amounts of
data
in
services provided by Google, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Flickr, Facebook,
and other Web 2.0 applications.

Businesses sometime use a technology called
Redundant Array of
Independent Disks (
RAID
)

to keep a mirror copy of all data on the system.
Should the primary system fail, the RAID kicks in, allowing uninterrupted
operations.

Operating systems usually provide a backup utility for data files. Typical
backup software collects the files you wish to back up into a compressed file
called an
archive
.

Data Backup

Data backup

is a process in which
copies of important computer files
are stored in a safe place to guard
against data loss.



A
system recovery disk
, sometimes
called a
rescue disk
, is used to
regain access to a computer that
has lost its ability to
boot

normally.

Concepts > Information Security > Machine
-
Level Security > Data Backup

With the advent of cloud computing, users are storing increasing amounts of
data
in
services provided by Google, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Flickr, Facebook,
and other Web 2.0 applications.

Network Security

Network security

is concerned
with addressing vulnerabilities and
threats in computer networks that
may or may not be connected to the
Internet.

Concepts > Information Security >

Network
Security

Permissions

Permissions
, or

file system permissions
, refer to the
specific access privileges afforded to each network user
and each system resource in terms of which files,
folders, and drives each user can read, write, and
execute.


Concepts > Information Security > Network Security > Permissions

The system administrator has full
access to the
system

and sets
the
access rights of
users or groups
of
users for system
resources.


Users
have the power to set
permissions for the files they own.

Interior Threats

Interior threats

are network security threats that
originate from within a network, typically from registered
users.

Concepts > Information Security > Network Security > Interior Threats


Unintentional threats
can
occur when users make
mistakes, such as
data entry
errors,

or exceed their
authorization.



Intentional threats
come from
registered users who desire
to do the system harm or
steal information
.

Information Theft

Information theft
refers to the access of information by
an unauthorized person for financial gain or other
benefit.

Concepts > Information Security > Network Security >

Information Theft

Such
stolen information can be used by



identity
thieves to make purchases
using the victim’s
identity


by
unethical businesses to gain an
advantage in a competitive
market


hackers
to illegally access computer
accounts


spammers
to target advertisements at
consumers


competing nations
in cyber warfare.

Network Usage Policy

A
network usage policy

is a document, agreement, or
contract that defines acceptable and unacceptable uses of
computer and network resources for a business or
organization.


Concepts > Information Security > Network Security > Network Usage Policy

Midwestern State
University
Resnet

Acceptable Usage Policy

Wireless Security

Concepts > Information Security > Network Security > Wireless Security

Wireless security

refers to the unique threats and
defenses associated with wireless computer networks.

Wi
-
Fi networks are centered on
a telecommunications device
called an
access point
.
The
access point sends and receives
signals to and from computers
on the wireless local area
network or
WLAN.


By
default, access points are set
to broadcast their presence.

Wireless Security

Concepts > Information Security > Network Security > Wireless Security

Attackers
located within the range of the wireless signal,
perhaps on the floor above or in a car parked outside, can
attack a wireless network to gain access.

To protect your
wireless home
network:


Change the default password for your access
point to something unique


Add encryption to your network
communications through settings on your
router, preferably WPA2 encryption


Set your router to connect to only the SSIDs of
your computers


Set your access point so it does not
automatically broadcast its existence

Internet security

refers to the
unique threats and defenses
associated with computers
connected to the Internet.

Internet Security


Hacker


Firewall


Software Patch


Malware


Antivirus Software


Botnet

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security


Cyber Warfare


Identity Theft


Internet Fraud


Digital Certificate

In this section:


Phishing Scam


Spam


Virus Hoax

Hacker

A
hacker

is an individual who
subverts computer security
without authorization.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Hacker

Hacking Tools

Key
-
logging software


Packet
-
sniffing
software

Wireless network
scanning software

Port
-
scanning
software

Social engineering

Hacker

Some of the most common types include
:



Black
-
hat hacker
: Take advantage of security
vulnerabilities to gain unlawful access to private
networks for the purpose of private advantage


White
-
hat hacker
:
Hack
into networks in order to call
attention to flaws in security so that they can be fixed


Gray
-
hat hacker
: A hacker of questionable ethics


Script
kiddie
: A person with little technical knowledge
who follows the instructions of others to hack
networks.

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Hacker

A
firewall

is network hardware or
software that examines data
packets flowing in and sometimes
out of a network or computer in
order to filter out packets that are
potentially dangerous.



Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Firewall

A firewall acts as a barrier that examines and
blocks specified data packets from a network or
computer.

Firewall

Malware

is short for
“malicious software,” and
includes any software
designed to damage,
corrupt, or illegally
manipulate computer
resources. Common
forms include


Viruses


Worms


Spyware.

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Malware

Malware

Antivirus Software

Antivirus software
, also known as
virus scan software, uses several
techniques to find viruses, worms,
and spyware on a computer
system; remove them if possible;
and keep additional viruses,
worms, and spyware from infecting
the system.

Besides using antivirus software, knowledge and caution play a big part in
protecting PCs against viruses and worms.

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Antivirus Software

Botnet

A
botnet
, or
botnet army
, refers to
a collection of computers
autonomously or automatically
working together toward some goal;
often zombie computers that are
synchronized to perform illegal
activities on the Internet.

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Botnet

In 2007, a
botnet

was used to bring down the
information infrastructure of the country of
Estonia, in an act that the country viewed as
a military attack.

Identity Theft

Identity theft

is the criminal act of stealing information
about a person to assume that person’s identity to commit
fraud or other crimes.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security >

Identity Theft

People can protect
themselves from identity
theft by being cautious
with their personal
information

Identity Theft

Identity thieves use several methods to steal personal
information.


In
a technique called dumpster diving, personal
information can be found by going through someone’s
trash.


Phishing
is a technique used to trick a person into
providing personal information on a fake Web site that
looks like a reputable Web site
.



Social
engineering is a technique that uses social
interaction to manipulate individuals to give up personal
information.

Cyber Warfare

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Cyber Warfare


Cyberterrorism

extends traditional
forms of terrorism to
the Internet and the
Web.

Cyber
warfare
extends
traditional forms of warfare to the
Internet and the
Web,
including espionage, psychological
warfare, and attacks.


Internet Fraud

Internet fraud

is the crime of
deliberately deceiving a
person over the Internet in
order to damage them or to
obtain property or services
unlawfully.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security >

Internet Fraud

The most common form of Internet fraud is
Internet auction fraud, accounting for a little
more than one third of fraud cases. Auction
fraud involves being swindled by sellers or
buyers on auction sites like eBay.

Digital Certificate

A
digital certificate
, also called an
SSL certificate
, is a type of electronic
business card that is attached to
Internet transaction data to verify the
sender of the data.


An
SSL connection
is when digital
certificates
are combined
with
Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL
)
. It enables
encrypted communications to occur
between web server and browser.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Digital Certificate

Digital certificate information includes the name of the company to whom the
certificate was issued.

Phishing Scam

A
phishing scam

combines both fraudulent
e
-
mail and Web sites in
order to trick a person
into providing private
information that can be
used for identity theft.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Phishing Scam

In the criminal act of
pharming
,
hackers hijack a Domain Name
System (DNS) server to
automatically redirect users from
legitimate Web sites to spoofed
Web sites in an effort to steal
personal information.

Spam

Spam
refers to unsolicited junk e
-
mail
typically sent to advertise products and
services.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Spam

Virus Hoax

A
virus hoax
is an e
-
mail or popup window that warns of a virus that
doesn’t exist in order to confuse or get users to take actions that
harm their own computers.


Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Virus Hoax

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Software Patch

Software Patch

A
software patch
, sometimes
called a security patch, fixes
software bugs and flaws, and is
typically distributed to software
users through online software
updates
.



The vast majority of hacker exploits take advantage of the security holes in
Internet software. Keeping software up to date and using firewall software
are two of the most important steps to take to ensure information security.

Concepts > Information Security > Internet Security > Software Patch

Software Updates


Software
updates are distributed to
customers over the Internet, and the
process of applying them is typically
automatic.


Many
programs use the Internet to check
periodically to see if an update is
available.


When
an update is discovered, the patch
may be downloaded automatically or the
user may be prompted to download it. In
either case, the user is then asked to click
to install the update.



Most software companies offer free and regular
software
updates

for their products.

Getting software for

Security

Ninite

has a nice convenient place to download software

safely.