Physics: what we think we need to know, based on NC Essential ...

hornbeastdanishMechanics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Physics: what we think we need to know, based on NC Essential Standards


Unit 1: one
-

and two
-
dimensional kinematics


1.1.1analyze motion graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs, and calculations

1.1.2 analyze motion in dimension using time,
distance, and displacement, velocity and
acceleration

1.1.3 analyze motion in two dimensions using angle of trajectory, time, distance,
displacement, velocity, and acceleration




Know difference between scalar and vector quantities



Be able to deduce what th
e frame of reference is for a given situation!



Know how to add vectors, what a resultant vector is




Be able to read position/time graphs…know how to distinguish between distance and
displacement


o

Be able to tell position, average velocity, instantaneous
velocity






Be able to read velocity/time graphs





What is the difference between + acceleration and


acceleration?



Projectile motion

o

What is it?

o

What components are acting on the projectile?

o

What do we really know about gravity?

o

How do we integrate
trigonometry into these calculations?



Acceleration

o

What is it? A change in velocity, which means…changes in speed or direction, or
both.

o

Centripetal acceleration…which direction?



Return to frame of reference

o

Relative motion…where is the observer?

o

Circula
r motion…what is happening?






Unit 2: forces

1.2.1 analyze forces and systems of forces graphically and numerically using vectors,
graphs, and calculations

1.2.2 analyze systems of forces in one
-

and two
-
dimensions using free body diagrams

1.2.3 explain

forces using Newton’s laws of motion as well as the universal law of
gravitation

1.2.4 explain the effects of forces, including
weight, normal, tension, and friction, on objects

1.2.5 analyze basic forces related to rotation in a circular path (centripeta
l force)



Free body diagrams




What is equilibrium?



Newton’s second law: f=ma



What is net force?



What is normal force?



What is friction? What direction does it operate in? different types: static, kinetic, rolling;
where does friction operate?



What is
tension?



Newton’s third law…just what is inertia?



Universal law of gravitation…it is everywhere.



Action
-
reaction pair


Unit 3: energy

2.1.1
interpret data on work and energy presented graphically and numerically

2.1.2
compare the concepts of potential and
kinetic energy and conservation of total
mechanical energy in the description of the motion of objects

2.1.3 explain the relationship among work, power, and energy




How do we define work (in physics)?



What is the difference between potential and kinetic en
ergies?



What is mechanical energy?



How does gravity work? Why does this frequently define potential energy?



What is elastic and/or spring potential energy?



How is energy converted from potential to kinetic (and vice versa) when objects move in
up/down, b
ack/forth harmonic motion?



How is energy conserved? What does this really mean?



How does friction belong in any conversations about energy?



How do power, work, time, applied force relate to each other?



Unit 4: Momentum

1.3.1 analyze the motion of
objects in completely elastic, completely inelastic collisions by
using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy

1.3.2 analyze the motion of objects based on the relationship between momentum and
impulse



What does conservation of momentum mean
?



What is the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions?



What is the difference between ideal gases and real gases?



What is the kinetic
-
molecular theory?



What is impulse?




What is the difference between momentum and impulse?



What is a force vs.
time graph?


Unit 5: Waves

2.2.1 analyze how energy is transmitted through waves, using the fundamental
characteristics of waves: wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude, and wave velocity

2.2.2 analyze wave behaviors in terms of transmission, reflection
, refraction, and
interference
:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/u10l3b.cfm

2.2.3 compare mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of wave characteristics
and behavior
(specifically sound and light)







How do waves transfer energy through a medium?



What are the relationships between frequency, period, wavelength, and energy?



How do we see the frequency change based on the position of the observer relative to
the sou
rce of the waves (think” Doppler effect” here)?



What type of waves needs a medium? What don’t?



What happens when waves encounter a new medium?



How can you tell whether light will be reflected or transmitted through a medium?



What are the similarities
/differences between mechanical and electromagnetic waves?



What are the similarities/differences between longitudinal, transverse, surface waves?



Unit 6: Electricity

2.3.1 explain Ohm’s law in relation to electric circuits

2.3.2 differentiate the behavio
r of moving charges in conductors and insulators

2.3.3 compare the general characteristics of AC and DC systems without calculations

2.3.4 analyze electric systems in terms of their energy and power

2.3.5 analyze systems with multiple potential differences

and resistors connected in
parallel and series circuits, both conceptually and mathematical, in terms of voltage,
current, and resistance

3.1.1 explain qualitatively the fundamental properties of the interactions of charged
objects

3.1.2 explain the geome
tries and magnitudes of electric fields

3.1.3 explain how Coulomb’s law relates to the electrostatic interactions among charged
objects

3.1.4 explain the mechanisms for producing electrostatic charges including charging by
friction, induction, and conducti
on

3.1.5 explain how differences in electrostatic potentials relate to the potential energy of
charged objects




What is the relationship between electrical potential (voltage), current and resistance?





What is the difference between a conductor and an
insulator?



What is the difference between AC and DC?

http://science.howstuffworks.com/electricity8.htm



How is electrical power related to voltage, current, resistance, work, energy, and time
?



What is the behavior of/relationship between voltage, current, resistance in series, parallel,
and combination circuits?

(see above, right)



What is the nature of electrical charge?



How can you illustrate electric fields?

(see next page)



How could you
determine the strength of electric fields?



How is the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges related to the magnitude of
the charges and their distance of separation?



How can an object become charged?



How is work done on an object similar/dif
ferent from work done via an electric field?



What is electrical potential energy?



How are electric fields similar/different from gravitational fields?




Unit 7: Magnetism

3.2.1 explain the relationship between magnetic domains and magnetism

3.2.2 explain

how electric currents produce various magnetic fields

3.2.3 explain how transformers and power distributions are applications of
electromagnetism





What causes magnetism?



How are magnetic field lines shown?



What are magnetic domains?



What is a solenoid?
How does it work?



What causes electromagnetism? What factors can affect it?



How does electromagnetic induction occur (think “Faraday’s law”)?



How do generators work, producing AC?



How do transformers alter current, voltage?


Electromagnet: note field
lines, just like regular permanent
magnet.


Right hand rule: