Division of Air Quality

hopeacceptableSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

50 views

Division of Air Quality

--

Ambient Monitoring
--

EMC Member Continuing Education Session

Donnie Redmond

Section Chief

March 7, 2012

Topics to be Covered

Ambient Monitoring


Why do we do it?


Who determines how many to operate?


How do we decide where to put them?


What do monitors look like? (Pictures!)

Improvements and Challenges

2

Toxics monitoring

The Division does some Toxics monitoring

That’s another group


You’ll see them another time

3

Ambient Monitoring: Why?

EPA requirements


Highest concentrations


Population exposure


Background

Research


Public health effects re pollutant levels


To better understand control strategies


Public interest

4

Ambient Monitoring: What?

EPA regulations lay out minimum
requirements


Number of monitors


Where to locate them


How long to operate them

Different rules for each pollutant

Same standards apply across the nation

5

Example: Ozone requirements

Any metro area (MSA) with 350,000 people


Must have at least one ozone monitor


If >85% of the standard, must have two

Any MSA with at least 50,000 people


Must have a monitor
if

>85% of standard

At least one monitor in each area must be
for maximum concentration


6

Ozone monitoring
req’ts

(cont.)

Nine NC metro areas have >350,000 people


Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, Winston
-
Salem, Asheville, Hickory, Fayetteville, Wilmington


Each must have at least one monitor


Second monitor required if near ozone standard

Five other MSAs with <350,000 people


Greenville, Rocky Mount, Jacksonville, Goldsboro,
Burlington


One monitor required if >85% of standard

85% of the standard (75ppb) is ~64 ppb

7

Ozone monitoring
req’ts

(cont.)

Other considerations


Additional monitors may help reduce the size
of a nonattainment area


How do you know if you’re >85% if you don’t
have a monitor?!


Number of required ozone monitors can add
up quickly!


8

Example: Fine particles (PM2.5)

Population and concentration standards


2 or 3 monitors if >1 million people


1 or 2 monitors if >0.5 million people


0 or 1 monitor if > 50,000 people


At least one monitor must be in population
-
oriented
area of expected maximum concentration


Co
-
located continuous monitors also required

At least one site for background

Another for regional transport

Speciation monitors also required


9

Fine particles (PM2.5)

Federal Reference Method or “FRM”


Traditionally/historically, this is the monitor to
determine attainment or not


24
-
hour sample, usually every 3 days


Filters returned to lab for analysis


Results are not known for weeks or months

Continuous monitors (new technology)


1
-
hour samples, runs continuously


Results available immediately on website


10

Other pollutants

NO2


Population and traffic volume

SO2


Population and emissions weighted index

Lead


Emissions
-
based

CO


No population
-
based requirements

Additional background monitors in support of PSD
permitting


11

Ambient Monitoring: Where?

http://ncair.org/monitor/data/monitorsites2011.pdf

12

Ambient Monitoring: Who?

Statewide network


Regional office staff operates the monitors


Electronics calibration/repair shop in Raleigh


Two labs in Raleigh


Central office does QA, SOPs, and reporting

Local programs


Mecklenburg, Forsyth, Western NC

Cherokee tribe

13

Ambient Monitoring:

http://xapps.enr.state.nc.us/aq/ambient/AmbtPollutant.jsp

14

Particulate monitor at Spruce Pine

15

Particulate at Goldsboro

16

Ozone at Mocksville

17

Whole bunch of ‘
em

at Raleigh

18

Gaseous monitors

19

Continuous particulate monitor

20

Hydrocarbon sampler

21

SO2 at
Bayview

(my favorite!)

22

Ozone at Purchase Knob

23

Site Characteristics

Must meet EPA requirements, including


Distance from trees, buildings, roads


Nearby emissions sources


Prevailing wind direction


Height of sample probe above ground

Other considerations


Safety of technicians (traffic, terrain)


Access to power and phone


Cost to use site (free is good!)


Co
-
located with other instruments


24

Miscellaneous Notes

Not all monitors run all the time


Some are seasonal, some year
-
round


Some continuous, some every six days


Some operate every third year

Meteorological sites

Pollen monitor


Not required, but people like the daily tweet

Network plan public review every June


25

Quality Assurance requirements

Chemists/statisticians review, validate, and
report all the data


Calibrations


Power failures


“Exceptional events”, i.e., fires


Monitor performance issues


Temperature, humidity, leaks


Insects


Completeness


26

Challenges

It’s expensive!


Every pollutant uses different box


Must undergo EPA certification


Each box typically costs $10k
-
20k


Special materials that don’t react with sample


Stuff breaks, need inventory of parts and spares


Field operations, travel, phone, utilities, critters

Ever changing EPA requirements


Standards getting closer to background levels


Accuracy becomes more important


27

Improvements

Reviewing long
-
time way of doing things


Automating some functions, revising others

Public demand for instant accurate info


Looking into wireless web
-
based polling

Newer technology analyzers


Less manpower intensive

Cooperative agreements with other agencies


28

Questions?


Donnie Redmond


Ambient Monitoring Section Chief


919
-
707
-
8468


donnie.redmond@ncdenr.gov



References


40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D


http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2010/julqtr/pdf/40cfr58AppD.pdf


DAQ website


http://www.ncair.org/

29