COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing

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Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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COMP6005 An Introduction to
Computing

Session One: An Introduction to Computing

History of Computers

COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing
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Session One: History of Computers

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History of Computers


First mechanical calculators


1623


William Schickard built first
mechanical calculator


1642


the Pascaline by Blaise Pascal


1671


Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

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History of Computers


1801: Punch card technology


Joseph
-
Marie Jacquard developed loom in
which pattern woven controlled by punch
cards


1833: Charles Babbage began designing an
analytical engine based on punch cards for
programming


1890


US Census Board used punch cards
and sorting machines designed by Herman
Hollerith to handle data from decennial
census


Hollerith’s company eventually became the
core of IBM

COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing
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History of Computers


1835
-
1900s: First programmable
machines


1835


Babbage described analytical
machine

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History of Computers


1930s
-
1960s: Desktop calculators


1930s


Desktop calculators able to add,
subtract, multiply, divide


1948


the Curta; small, portable
mechanical calculatir approx. size of pepper
grinder


1961


first electronic desktop calculator
considered to be by Sumlock Comptometer
(Anita C/VII)


1963


four
-
function EC
-
130 with 13
-
digit
capacity; $2200


1965


LOCI
-
2 by Wang Laboratories

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History of Computers


Pre
-
1940: Analog computers


Used continuously varying amounts of
physical quantities (voltages, currents,
rotational speed of shafts) to represent
quantities being processed


Not very flexible and needed to be
reconfigured/reprogrammed manually to
switch from one problem to another


Most widely developed used for aiming
weapons; e.g: Norden bombsight and
artillery aiming for battleships

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History of Computers


1940s and early 1950s: First electrical
digital computers (First Generation)


Electronic circuits, relays, capacitors, vacuum tubes
replaced mechanical equivalents; by 1954, magnetic
core memory replacing most other forms of
temporary storage


1940


first computing machine used remotely over
phone line


1945


US
-
built ENIAC 1,000 times faster than
contemporaries


Colossus was first totally electronic computing
device


1941


Z3 by Konrad Zuse becaome first functional
program
-
controlled computer

COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing
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History of Computers


1940s and early 1950s: First electrical
digital computers (First Generation)


1947


invention of transistor to replace valves


1950


MESM became operational


1951


LEO I ran the world’s first regular routine
office computer job


1951


UNIVAC was the first ‘massed produced’
computer; 46 machines sold at more than US$1
million each


1955
-
1957


FORTRAN developed and released


1955


microprogramming invented by Maurice
Wilkes


1956


IBM sold its first magnetic disk system
(RAMAC: Random Access Method of Accounting and
Control)

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History of Computers


Late 1950s and early 1960s: Second
Generation


Transistorized computers normally referred to as
Second Generation


Computers became smaller


IBM 1620 was size of
office desk, as opposed to IBM 650 which weighed
over 900kg with power supply of 1350kg, both held
in separate cabinets of approx. 1.5 metres by 0.9
metres by 1.8 metres


Second generation computers still expensive
however


Mainly used by universities, governments and large
corporations

COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing
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History of Computers


Late 1950s and early 1960s: Second
Generation


1959


12,000 medium scale IBM 1401 shipped;
most successful machine in computer history at the
time


1960


2,000 IBM 1620; smaller, transistor based


1960


DEC launched the PDP
-
1 to be used by
technical staff in labs and for research


1961


first dual processor and virtual memory
computer released (B5000)


1962


IBM S/360 series able to run same software
at different combinations of speed, capacity and
price


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History of Computers


Post
-
1960: Third Generation and
beyond


Use of computers became more popular


Invention of microchip (integrated circuit)
by Jack St. Clair


Microchip later led to invention of
microprocessor at Intel


1970


Microprocessor led to development
of small, low
-
cost computers for ownership
by individuals and small businesses
(microcomputer)

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Timeline


http://www.scsite.com/dc2005/index.
cfm?action=time&chapter=home


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Links


References


http://www.computernostalgia.net


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_comp
uter


http://www.scsite.com/dc2005/



Of Interest


http://www.picotech.com/applications/colos
sus.html


http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/research/pubs/boo
ks/papers/133.pdf

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Assignment


Go through the online Timeline as
referenced on the relevant slide



Together with these slides, develop a
general understanding of the steps
that brought us to current day levels
of computing



Be ready to discuss in class