Genetics and Biotechnology Notes - Lewiston School District

hollandmercifulBiotechnology

Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

219 views

Chapter 13: Genetics and Biotechnology Notes

13.1 Applied Genetics

Selective Breeding

The process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to
their future generations is called
_______________________________________
__________
.

_______________________________________________

are not restricted to animals alone.

Plants are also breed to produce desired traits, such as larger fruits and shorter growing times.

Through the processes of
____________________________________
_______
, desired traits
can be passed on to future generations.

Hybridization

Hybrid organisms can be bred to be
______________________________________________

________________________________________________
.

A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is

_________________________________________
.

Because hybrids can be bred to be more nutritious, to have the ability to adapt to a wide range
of changes in the environment, and to produce greater numbers of offspring,
______________

_________________________
___________________________________________________
.

Inbreeding

The process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have
_____________________

____________________________________________________________________________.

Pure breeds are maintain
ed by
___________________________________________________
.

A disadvantage of inbreeding is that
______________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

Inbreeding
________________________
__________________________________________
.

Test Cross

A test cross involves breeding an organism
that has
___________________________

with one that is
_____________________

__________________________________
.


13.2 DNA Techno
logy

Genetic Engineering

Technology that

involves _______________________________________________________

________________________________________________________
, called exogenous DNA.

For example, researchers have inserted a gene for bioluminescent prote
in called green
fluorescent protein (GFP) into various organisms.

Genetically engineered bollworm

Genetically Engineered Organisms are Used to:


study
________________________________________________________________
.


investigate
____________________________
________________________________
.


study
________________________________________________________________
.


select
________________________________________________________________
.

DNA Tools

An organism’s genome is
___________________________________________
____________
.

DNA tools can be used to
______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

Restriction Enzymes

Restriction enzymes recognize and
______________________________
__________________

and cleave
___________________________________________________________________
.

___________________________________________________

were discovered in the 1970’s.

An
_____________________________

(restriction enzyme) cuts the viral DNA i
nto fragments
after it enters the bacteria.

Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for
_______________________________

_____________________________________________
.

When the restriction enzyme cleaves genomic DNA,
___________________________
______

that are unique to every individual.

EcoRI

EcoRI

specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence
________________________________
.

The ends of the DNA fragments, called
____________________________________________
,
contain single
-
stranded DNA that is
complementary.


Gel Electrophoresis

An

electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in
a process called
__________________________________________
.

When an electric current is applied
, the DNA fragments
______________________________

_________________________________________________________
.

The smaller fragments move
____________________________________________________
.

The unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment
can be
________________

___________________________________________________________________________
.

Recombinant DNA

The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called
___________

____________________________________________
.

Recomb
inant DNA enables scientists to
___________________________________________
.

Large quantities of recombinant DNA molecules are needed to study individual genes.


Recombinant DNA Technology

A carrier,
__________________________

t
ransfers the recombinant DNA into a bacterial cell
called the
____________________________
. Plasmids (
______________________________

___________________________________________
) and viruses are commonly used vectors
because they can be
____________________
______________________________________
.

If a plasmid and a DNA fragment obtained from another genome have been cleaved by the
same restriction enzyme,
_______________________________________________________

and can be combined.

An enzyme normally used by c
ells in DNA repair and replication,
______________________
,
joins the two DNA fragments chemically. Ligase joins DNA fragments that have sticky ends as
well as those that have blunt ends.

The resulting circular DNA molecule contains
_______________________
_______________

___________________________________________________________________________
.

This recombinant plasmid DNA molecule now
______________________________________

so that large quantities of this type of recombinant DNA can be made.

Gene Cloning

To make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA,
_______________________________

are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA.

Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called
_______________________________
.

Large nu
mbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be
produced through a process called
_______________________________________________
.

____________________

containing copies of the recombinant DNA can be identified and used
for
further study when the bacterial cells that do not contain the recombinant DNA die.


DNA Sequencing

To understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists
____________________________________
,
___________________________________________
_______________

A, C, G, T in a tube.

Each nucleotide is tagged with
__________________________________________________
.

Every time a modified fluorescent
-
tagged nucleotide is incorporated into the newly synthesized
strand,
________________________________
__
.

The sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments
___________________

_________________________________
.


Polymerase Chain Reaction

A technique called the
______________________________________________

(PCR)
can be
used to make millions of copies of specific region of a DNA fragment.

Genetic Engineering


Biotechnology

Biotechnology


the use of genetic engineering to find solutions to problems


makes it
possible to
________________
__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________
.

Organisms genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called
________________________________________

Transgenic Animals

Scientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research.

Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm
Caenorhabditis elegans
to study
____________________

_______________________________________________________________
_____________.

Transgenic livestock


_________________________________________________________
.

Transgenic goats


____________________________________________________________
,
which is used to prevent human blood from forming clots during surgery.

Transg
enic chickens & goats to be
_______________________________________________
.

Transgenic fish


_____________________________________________________________
.

Future transgenic organisms might be used as a
_____________________________________
.

Transgenic P
lants

Plants have been genetically engineered to be
______________________________________
,
such as herbicide
-

and insecticide
-
resistant soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola.

Researchers also are developing peanuts and soybeans that
_________________________
__
.

Other crops are being
________________________
: sweet
-
potato plants that are resistant to a
virus that could kill most of the African harvest; rice plants with increased iron and vitamins
that could decrease malnutrition; and a variety of plants to sur
vive extreme weather conditions,
produce vaccines, and biodegradable plastics.

Transgenic Bacteria

Insulin, growth hormones, and substances that dissolve blood clots are made by
___________

__________________________
.

Transgenic bacteria also
_____________
___________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

13.3 The Human Genome

The Human Genome Project

The goal o
f the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to
________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

Sequencing the Genome

Each o
f the 46 human chromosomes
______________________________________________
.

These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make
many copies, and sequenced
____________________________________________________
.

Computers analy
zed the overlapping regions to
_____________________________________.

Decoding the Human Genome

______________________________________________________________

can be compared
to reading a book that was printed in code.

The Human Genome

____________________
________________________________________________________

code for all the proteins in the body.

The genome is filled with
______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

T
hese regions are called
________________________________________________________
.

DNA Fingerprinting

Protein
-
coding regions of DNA are
_______________________________________________
.

The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are
_____________________
____________
.

DNA fingerprinting involves
____________________________________________________

to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.

Identifying Genes

Researchers have identified genes by scanning the sequence for
__
______________________

(ORFs).

ORFs contain at least
__________________________________________________________
.

Algorithyms use information, such as the sequence of the genomes of other organisms, to
_______________________________________________________
_____________________
.

Bioinformatics

______________________________________________________

of biological information.

_______________________________________________________________________

and
developing methods to
______________________________________
__________________
.

DNA Microarrays

Tiny microscope slides or silicon chips that
________________________________________

Help researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by
___________

__________________________________________
___________
.

The Genome and Genetic Disorders

Variations in the DNA sequence that occur when a single nucleotide in the genome is altered
are called
__________________________________________________________________
.

Regions of linked variations in the hum
an genome are known as
______________________
.


The HapMap Project

Assembling the HapMap involves
________________________________________________

______________________________________________
.

________________________ will ena
ble geneticists
to take advantage of how SNPs

and other
genetic variations
are organized on chromosomes.

Pharmacogenomics

The study of how genetic inheritance
______________________________________________

is called pharmacogenomics.

The benefits of pharma
cogenomics include
________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
.

Gene Therapy

A technique aimed at
__________________________________________________________

is called gene therapy.

S
cientists
___________________________________________________________________
.


Genomics and Proteomics

Genomics is the
_____________________________________________________________
.

It is used to
_______________________________
__________________________________
.

Genes are the
_________________________________________________________
, whereas
proteins are the
______________________________________________________________
.

The large
-
scale study and cataloging of the structure and
function of proteins in the human
body is called
_________________________________
.