Using Unfair means

hesitantdoubtfulAI and Robotics

Oct 29, 2013 (4 years and 10 days ago)

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Using Unfair means

What is it?

How can you avoid it?

Reports, Assignments, Other
assessments


Why do we ask you do these?


To help you learn


To help you assimilate all the things you have
learned


To help you learn to apply your knowledge


To give us (the markers) evidence that you have
learned

Referencing

In any assessment, when you use ideas from
another source, you need to reference these
ideas.

Referencing Styles

Harvard


In the body of the report:


Several numerical algorithms have subsequently been proposed to
unwrap the phase spectrum for a given signal (
Tribolet
, 1976;
McGowan and
Kuc
, 1982;
Moura

and
Bageroer
, 1988).


In the list of references at the end:


McGowan, R., and
Kuc
, R. 1982
.
A direct relation between a signal time
series and its unwrapped phase: theory, example and program.

IEEE Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing,
ASSP
-
30, 719
-
726.


Moura
, J.M.F. and
Baggeroer
, A.B. 1988.

Phase unwrapping of signals
propagated under the Arctic ice crust: a statistical approach.

IEEE Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing, ASSP
-
36, 617
-
630.


Tribolet
, J.M., 1977. A new phase unwrapping algorithm
. IEEE Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing
, ASSP
-
26, 170
-
177.

The citation

The
reference
list

Referencing Styles

Numeric


In the body of the report:

Several numerical algorithms have subsequently been proposed to
unwrap the phase spectrum for a given signal [1
-
3].



In the list of references at the end:

[1]
Tribolet
, J.M. A new phase unwrapping algorithm.
IEEE Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing
, 1977, ASSP
-
26, 170
-
177, ASSP
-
26,
170
-
177.

[2] McGowan, R., and
Kuc
, R. A direct relation between a signal time
series and its unwrapped phase: theory, example and program.
IEEE
Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing
, 1982, ASSP
-
30, 719
-
726.

[3]
Moura
, J. M. F. and
Baggeroer
, A.B. Phase unwrapping of signals
propagated under the Arctic ice crust: a statistical approach.
IEEE Trans.
Acoust
., Speech, Signal Processing
, 1988, ASSP
-
36, 617
-
630.

The citation

The
reference
list

Referencing from the Web:

Website Reference, Harvard Style:

Author, Year.
Title

[online]. [Date accessed].
Available from World Wide Web : <
url

of site>

Website Reference, Numeric Style:

[n] Author.
Title

[online]. Year [Date accessed].
Available from World Wide Web : <
url

of site>

The citation will have the same format as for a
non
-
web source.

Why is referencing important?


It shows the source of material that is not your own.


It shows that your material has been assembled after
consideration of other published works.


It allows the reader to study a subject in more detail
by reading your referenced sources.


Correctly referenced work avoids the use of unfair
means.

More help with referencing


Library
-

Information Skills MOLE course


Williams, K. And Carroll, J., 2009.
Referencing &
Understanding Plagiarism.
Pocket Study Skills. Palgrave
Macmillan.


Fisher, D. and
Hanstock
, I., 1998.
Citing References.
The
Nottingham Trent University.


ACSE Academic Skills MOLE course

Avoiding plagiarism and collusion

(the two main forms of unfair means)


What is plagiarism? What is collusion?


Why do you have to avoid it?


How do you avoid it?

Plagiarism is a form of theft:

What is plagiarism?


Is the using of ideas or work of another person
and submitting them as your own.


Submitting work which includes even a small
amount of material written by others, unless
this material has been correctly referenced.


Submitting work containing paraphrases of
others’ work, unless this material has been
correctly referenced.

What is collusion?


It is where two or more people work together to
produce a piece of work, all of part of which is then
submitted as their own individual work.


This include passing on work in any format to
another student.


Consenting to another student copying material from
you, or making your material available for other
students to use or copy. This is also known as aiding
or abetting other students to use unfair means.

How can you avoid plagiarism and collusion?


Keep a list of sources (e.g. in a log book) and read widely,
assimilating ideas and gaining an understanding of the subject


Write up your
own

understanding and interpretation of the
subject. Cite the source of background material.


If a source expresses an idea particularly well, it may be OK to
include a quote from that source and reference it


unless you
have been told differently by the lecturer


Do not use material obtained from essay writing web sites


Do not work with other students on individual projects.


Take steps to safeguard your work from unauthorised access.


If you are doing a group project, make sure you follow the
lecturer’s guidelines for whether the material submitted for
assessment should be produced as a group or individually.


Why avoid plagiarism and collusion?


Learning is about acquiring, assimilating, and using
knowledge.


If you hand in work that is not your own, then you
have
not

acquired, assimilated and used knowledge.


Using unfair means undermines the standards of the
University’s awards and disadvantages those
students who have attempted to complete
assessments honestly and fairly.


Penalties for plagiarism and collusion


A student who hands in plagiarised work may get
a mark of zero for that work.


This may result in failing a module, or even failing
a degree programme.


A student who hands in plagiarised work may be
referred to the University’s Discipline Committee.


DON’T PLAGIARISE


DON’T COLLUDE

An example



Suppose you had to write an essay on “The
Application of Microcontrollers in
Automobiles”


You start looking for information on this topic

Let’s suppose you find:
http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm


You like the ideas expressed in the 5
th

paragraph:



Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the
automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many
benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems
standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real
-
time, thus
making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated
Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the
data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another
benefit of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier.
Second
-
guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check
the plausibility of the results of an independent system. This data could be
used as a back
-
up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed
and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system
could be used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the
event that GPS is lost.

If you put this
in your essay,
would it be
plagiarism?

How about this: is it plagiarism?


"
Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the
automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many
benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems
standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real
-
time, thus
making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated
Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the
data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another
benefit of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier.
Second
-
guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check
the plausibility of the results of an independent system. This data could be
used as a back
-
up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed
and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system
could be used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the
event that GPS is lost.
"

Why?!


I put it
in quotes!

How about this?


"
Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the
automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many
benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems
standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real
-
time, thus
making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated
Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the data
generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another benefit
of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second
-
guessing
is the practice of using data from one system to check the plausibility of the
results of an independent system. This data could be used as a back
-
up
under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle
directional information used in a Stability Management system could be
used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS
is lost.
"

(
Bannatyne
, 2004)


References:

...

Bannatyne
, R, 2004.
Microcontrollers for the Automobile
[online]. Micro
Control Journal 2004. Available at
http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm

[Accessed 21
November 2008]

...

Why?!


I put it
in quotes and
cited and
referenced it!

How about this?


Another factor supporting the increase in
microcontrollers

in the
automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many
benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems
standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real
-
time
across
a distributed system
. For example, an Integrated Chassis Control system
layer may be implemented by
managing

the data generated by the braking,
steering and suspension systems. Another benefit of these
distributed

networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second
-
guessing is the
practice of using data from one system to check the
reliability

of the results
of an independent system. This data could be used as a back
-
up under
certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle directional
information used in a Stability Management system could be used
by

the
Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS is lost. (
Bannatyne
,
2004)


References:

...

Bannatyne
, R, 2004.
Microcontrollers for the Automobile
[online]. Micro
Control Journal 2004. Available at
http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm

[Accessed 21
November 2008]

...

Why?!


I’ve changed a
few words (those in
bold) and I’ve cited
and referenced it!

How about this?


The fact that an electronic system in an automobile can be
networked and data shared in real time has contributed to
increased use of microcontrollers in automobiles. This
networking and coordination of real time data makes it
possible for one component of the system to support the
reliability of other components, thus improving overall system
performance.



Why?!


I’ve
written the
idea in my own
words!

How about this?


The fact that an electronic system in an automobile can be networked and
data shared in real time has contributed to increased use of
microcontrollers in automobiles. This networking and coordination of
real time data makes it possible for one component of the system to
support the reliability of other components, thus improving overall
system performance. (
Bannatyne
, 2004)


References:

...

Bannatyne
, R, 2004.
Microcontrollers for the Automobile
[online]. Micro
Control Journal 2004. Available at
http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm

[Accessed 21
November 2008]

...


Citation


Reference


This one is OK


it’s in
my own words, and the
idea is correctly cited
and referenced.

Things students have done in the
past….


(
anonymised

examples)

Example 1


Text from a student
submission:


The system provides
continuous control over the
RPM of each landing wheel
through air intake ducts
with servo motor driven
inlet vanes gating incoming
air to the wheel
-
mounted
impellers


This is a direct quote from
http://www.freepatentsonline.co
m/5104063.html


The quote was not enclosed in
quotation marks, and it was not
cited. The source was listed as a
reference, however.


This is plagiarism.

Example 2


Text from a student submission:

An autopilot is an example of a
control
system
. Control systems apply an
action based on a measurement and
almost always have an impact on
the value they are measuring.


and later on in the same submission…

This loop, shown above in the block
diagram, works continuously, many
times a second, much more quickly
and smoothly than a human pilot
could. Two
-

and three
-
axis
autopilots obey the same principles,
employing multiple processors that
control multiple surfaces. Some
airplanes even have
autothrust

computers to control engine thrust.
Autopilot and
autothrust

systems
can work together to perform very
complex maneuvers



These are direct quotes from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/
autopilot3.htm


The quotes were not enclosed in
quotation marks, and were not
cited. The source was listed as a
reference, however.


This is plagiarism.

Example 3


Text from a student
submission:

A fusion algorithm is used to
calculate the helicopter's
attitude. The main rotor
rpm is detected
magnetically at the rotor
axle and the distance to the
ground by an ultrasonic
sensor. Each of these
sensors is directly
connected to the
microcontroller.


This is a direct quote from
http://pdv.cs.tu
-
berlin.de/MARVIN/mark_ii_syste
m.html


The quote was not enclosed in
quotation marks, and it was not
cited. The source was listed as a
reference, however.


This is plagiarism.

Example 4


Text from a student submission:

Powerful and intelligently chosen
electronics embedded in the
microcontrollers can via
input/output devices ( switches,
push buttons, sensors, LCD
displays, relays…) control various
processes and devices such as:
industrial automatics, electric
current, temperature, engine
performance etc.

...
Following immediately in same
submission...

Basically, any product or device that
interacts with its user has a
microcontroller buried inside.


The first sentence is a direct quote
from
http://www.thishelps.net/2008/05/
architecture
-
and
-
programming
-
of
-
8051
-
microcontrollers.html


The second sentence is a direct
quote from
http://electronics.howstuffworks.c
om/microcontroller.htm


The quotes were not enclosed in
quotation marks, they were not
cited, and sources were not listed
in the reference list.


This is plagiarism.



When you are researching a topic, don’t just
copy/paste sentences from several different sources
and then combine these and submit this as your
own work. Instead, read several different sources,
take notes, and keep track of what the sources
were. Then, put all the sources away and write
your own understanding of what you have read.
Sometimes you might want to note similarities and
differences between authors. Having written up
your understanding, in your own words, cite the
ideas and include the sources in a reference list.

CTRL
-
C CTRL
-
V

AVOID!!

Turnitin


Turnitin

is a plagiarism checking tool endorsed
by the Joint Information Systems Committee
(JISC), an organisation that supports higher
education in the UK


Typically lecturers will create a
Turnitin

dropbox

on MOLE.


Link to Example
Turnitin

report

Summary


A
inquiring

approach to finding information
can stop you from plagiarising


When you find information, you then must
synthesise it and come to your own
understanding of it.


When you report what you’ve found, you
must do this in your own words.