How a computer thinks?
New module

programming
Objectives for today
You will be able to explain the concept of a
computer program.
Explain the idea of intelligence
–
especially
as it relates to computers.
Bring out your journals
Activity one
Complete the “Following Directions” quiz.
Use a page in your journal
You have 5 minutes
Times up
perfect paper is one which has only the
word “December” written in the top left
corner.
The directions said to read all parts of the
test before doing anything and step 14
says to only complete step #3.
Activity 2
Complete the Drawing Pictures Activity. 5
minutes
show your picture

Did anyone draw it differently?
explain why you drew the pictures as you
did?
what does following directions has to do
with computers?
It’s a machine
is necessary that a computer follows a
specific set of directions (or instructions)
called a computer program and must
follow all of the directions precisely.
Now we are going to design a
program
Write down a set of instructions in your
journal for a computer to make a peanut
butter and jelly sandwich. You have 5
minutes
Need to be precise with
instructions
instructions for making a
peanut butter and
jelly sandwich are open
to interpretation.
how do we could overcome this problem
so that a computer could follow the
instructions and make a perfect sandwich
each time. Write your ideas in your journal.
You have 5 minutes
Need a better language
English doesn’t work for describing the
instructions.
There needs to be a limited set of
instructions which define very precisely
what the computer does.
For example, we can have a computer turn on a
“dot” of a specific color in a specific location on the
screen.
By having the computer turn on many different dots
in different colors, we can have the computer draw a
picture.
We don’t have an instruction for the computer to
“draw a picture of a house”
that’s much too general and too open for
interpretation
Operating system

is a big program
Makes the hardware work for you by
giving it instructions. Specific instructions
If we look at robots the need to give
specific instructions becomes very
evident. We have to give the
bot
a
program to function. Some bots are given
intelligence this way.
There will be a
microprocessor
somewhere in
the
bot
For example
Link to game:
http://www.kongregate.com/games/Coolio
_Niato/light

bot
Play for 10 minutes
Enter in your journal
what you discovered
by playing?
Point is
need of commands (software) to make
the hardware (robot in this case) to
perform a task.
Answer these as a group and enter
your results in your journal
What is intelligence?
Are computers intelligent?
Why or why not?
Intelligence
is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand,
and interact with one’s environment.
By the above definition computers are intelligent
The computers will become more intelligent than
the human beings within the next 20 years. That is
2030.
Do you believe this? How old will you be ?
Humans are intelligent differently then computers
http://www.dennisgorelik.com/ai/ComputerIntellige
nceVsHumanIntelligence.htm
Turing Activity
This activity explores just how we might
recognize whether a system is truly
"intelligent". It involves reasoning about
what it means to be intelligent, and even
what makes us human.
Last Time
We looked into what a computer
program is in general terms.
What intelligence is.
Objectives for today
You will be able to
Name and explain the steps in the
problem

solving process.
Describe what an algorithm is
First
Write in your journal, the steps you
presently use to solve a problem. We will
go back to it later
Task
Is to determine how many "breaks" it will
take to tear a rectangular piece of paper
into 12 equal pieces. One break will result
in that one piece being divided into two
pieces. And so on
Write in your journal how many breaks
you will need to tear the paper into 12
pieces
At this point
Determine a problem solving plan.
Write it in your journal
Implement your plan
Answer these questions

in your
journal
Was your initial guess correct?
What process did you use to come up with
your guess?
Did working with your group and creating
your plan change your guess??
How many breaks did it take?
Did your plan work?
Did it match what you wrote in your
journal?
Formal problem solving
Understand the problem
–
read or listen to the
problem statement.
Make a plan to solve the problem
–
use pictures,
charts, graphs, systematic lists, objects, or act out
the solution to help you devise a plan to solve the
problem

In Computer Science we call this plan
an
algorithm.
Carry out the plan
–
once the plan is conceived
and understood, follow the plan. If you have
planned well, this is the easy part.
Review and reflect on how the problem was
solved
Extend the problem to account for
N pieces

enter into your journal
Pieces
Breaks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
N
One problem

solving strategy used in solving
a problem is to solve a problem for specific
values, find the pattern and then generalize
the solution.
The generalized solution is the algorithm
Why is this problem an important problem
to solve for a carpenter?
Handout
Complete the handout given to you
You have 10 minutes
Solution 1
This one is just like the paper problem
I will shake N

1 hands because I can’t
shake my own hand
Solution 2
This problem often gives the fence post
error with beginner programmers
When you complete a span you add one
Answer is 12 posts + 1 or generally
N +1 where N is the number of
measurements in the span
Project
This project reinforces the
The steps in the problem

solving process.
Your ability to solve a problem by applying
the problem

solving process.
Your ability to express a solution using
standard design tools.
Your ability to determine if a given solution
successfully solves a stated problem
Talks about data needed by
the
computer
http://richannel.org/christmas

lectures/2008/2008

chris

bishop#/christmas

lectures

2008

chris

bishop

the

ghost

in

the

machine
Algorithms used in programming
In the video yesterday, the speaker
explained the idea of divide and conquer
to find a number.
He used it for finding a number but it can
used other ways as well.
Another example
a pair of dirty socks have accidently been
wrapped in one of the presents that Santa
is about to deliver, and he needs to figure
out which one to avoid a child getting a
nasty surprise.
Some elves were wrapping a thousand
and twenty four toys, roller skates for a
thousand and twenty four students
One of the elves dropped a pair of dirty
socks in one of the thousand and twenty
four boxes!
No time
—
the presents have to be
delivered in a couple of hours
What would you do?
weigh each present??
They’ll all weigh the same except for one,
and that one’s the culprit!
It’ll take a jolly long time.
could make one comparison every second
and there is 1024 boxes
Instead use divide and conquer
Put half the boxes on one side of the
scale, and half the boxes on other
whichever side goes up, that pile we
dismiss!”
How many comparisons will you need to
make before you get to the last 2 boxes?
Solve it in your journal
512
256
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