Water issues in Afghanistan - CPHD

heehawultraMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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AFG
HANI
STAN


W
ATER

ISSUES

AND

A
CCESSIBILITY



S
OURCES

OF

W
ATER

IN

A
FGHANISTAN



Primary source of water is



Snow melt in the Hindu Kush Mountains


With runoff peaking in early summer



With few glaciers, the snow line is
between



4000 to 5000 m, so there is


Little permanent snow



Without sufficient damn and
reservoirs Afghanistan is pretty much
susceptible to



Flood and Drought


W
ATER

B
ASINS


The Amu Darya



The Helmand



The Kabul



The Harirud and
Murghab

T
HE

A
MU

D
ARYA

B
ASIN


the Amu Darya is on
the order of



250,000 km2
.



Estimates of average
annual flow also
vary from



13.3

19 km3,
depending both on
whether


Sub
-
basins are
included

H
ELMAND

R
IVER

B
ASIN


Helmand river basin has a total
area of



386,000 km2, of which about


321,000 km2 lies within
Afghanistan, about 78 percent of
the total



Approximately



20 percent of the basin is in Iran


2 percent in Pakistan



By area, this is the largest river
basin in Afghanistan, but the
river’s average annual flow



Is only about 14 bcm.

K
ABUL



B
ASIN


Its basin area is



79,360 km2


And the river’s average
annual flow is 24 bcm



Irrigates about



0.55 million hectares of
agricultural land



It has the largest flow of all of
Afghanistan’s rivers



T
HE

H
ARIRUD

M
URGHAB

-

B
ASIN


The Harirud flows
generally west to the



Iranian border, turns north
and forms the border
between


Iran and Afghanistan



The Murghab River
flows from



Afghanistan directly into
the Qaraqum desert of


Turkmenistan

W
ATER

SHARING

AGREEMENTS



No treaty exist for Amu
Darya Basin



In 1973, a transboundary
water allocation treaty was
signed between Iran and
Afghanistan



Agreements among post
soviet independent republics



Agreements between Great
Britain, Afghanistan and
Russia/Soviet Union

U
SES

OF

WATER

-

I
RRIGATIONAL

P
URPOSE


Irrigated agriculture:
93% of the country’s total water
use


Traditional irrigation system:
Irrigating up to
100 ha



Shallow well system
:
Altogether, about 6600
shallow wells irrigate about 12,000 ha



Springs:

There are about 5560 springs in the
country irrigating 188,000 ha.



Karez:
There are 6741 karezes in Afghanistan,
irrigating about 163,000 ha of land.




L
OW

P
RECIPITATION

& D
ROUGHTS


Afghanistan during late 2007 and early
2008 have led to the worst drought
conditions in the past 10 years.



Wheat production in 2008/09 fell at 1.5
million tons, down 2.3 million or 60
percent from last year.



The government of Afghanistan and the
United Nations appealed to the world
community to donate



$400 million to cover the sizable
wheat import and food aid needs of


Approximately 4.5 million affected
Afghans

S
NOW

C
OMPARISON

FROM

2007
TO

2008

W
HEAT

S
TATISTICS


D
AMAGE

DUE

TO

F
LOOD


According to the UN
Office for the
Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs,
at least
3,508

people
were killed,
661

injured
and about
1,015,935

affected in the 46 floods
in the country from
1954 to 2007

Institutions

Role

Coverage

The Ministry

of Water and
Power

Mapping, monitoring and
management of surface water
and groundwater resources

The

Ministry of Public Works

Urban water supply

Water supply and sewerage to
the Microrayon area of Kabul
is the responsibility of the
Microrayon Maintenance

Department

Central Authority for Water
and Sanitation

Mandate is for urban water
supply within the areal limits
of the Master Plan of the city

Kabul, Mazar
-
e
-
Sharif,
Jalalabad, Ghazni,

Laghman) and Shiberghan
(Jawzjan)

Ministry of Mines and
Industries

Groundwater investigation and
survey, especially of “deep”

hydro geological mapping

strategic plans for optimal
exploitation of resources.

Such plans are, however,
rather focused on Kabul and, to
a lesser extent Mazar
-
e
-
Sharif.


Ministry of Irrigation

Municipalities

Responsible for surface water
drainage and solid waste
disposal.

Ministry of Rural
Rehabilitation and
Development

RRD is active in designing
deep wells and networks for
parts of Kabul City outside of
the Master Plan, where
shallow groundwater is salty.

S
AFE

WATER

AND

S
ANITATION


The great majority of Afghanistan’s
population lacks access to safe water
or sanitation



Afghanistan has a population of



26 million people


70% of which is undernourished


And one in four children die before the age
of five


According to UNICEF, nearly 50,000
children die from diarrhea in Afghanistan
every year



Only 13% of people have access to
improved water sources and the
situation has worsened due to



Inadequate rainfall over the last two years

W
ATER

SHORTAGE


The United Nations and the Afghan government
have warned that



Some 2.5 million people face an “imminent food crisis”
due to the water shortage and have called for nearly US
$76 million in aid



Farmers lose some 70 percent of their water as it flows
towards their farm fields during irrigation because of the
water infiltration into the ground

D
AMAGE

TO

THE

WATER

RESOURCES


Conflicts & Drought



Mismanaged Extraction



Uncoordinated and unmanaged extraction of both ground and surface
water resources



Urban Development



Water quality is threatened by contamination from



Waste dumps


Chemicals


Open sewers and urban rainwater runoff



Due to mismanagement of surface water, many of
Afghanistan’s wetlands are completely dry and no longer
support wildlife populations or provide agricultural inputs

L
ACK

OF

M
AINTENANCE


The
Karez

system is not in good shape. The country
receives



Less than 300 millimeters of rain each year.



The irrigated area of Afghanistan is now only half
what it was in 1980.



With a per capita water use of



1,700 cubic meters


And a national per capita water resource of 3,200 cubic
meters


The Afghans have a comfortable amount of water, if
managed properly.


I
MPACT

OF

W
AR

AND

N
EGLECT


The intake structures of modern irrigation schemes
are out of function



Due to the missing of mechanical parts looted during the
war


And lack of professional staff to repair and operate these
systems



The migration of farmers to other countries left
behind the irrigation schemes unattended



Farmers have abandoned about



40% of the land due to lack of maintenance


And 10% of the land is completely destroyed due to war.

D
AMAGED

-

I
RRIGATION

S
TRUCTURES


About 46% of the irrigation structures are
damaged



And 88% of the irrigation structures are
traditional which are responsible for the 40% of
the total water loss.



For example, irrigation provided under the Parwan
project declined from 25,000 ha to 10,000 ha due to
sedimentation in canals and poor maintenance.


D
AMAGE

DUE

TO

P
URE

N
EGLECT


Desertification/ flood generation in the country



Unlawful ownership of water rights by influential
personalities i.e. Warlords and Maliks



Degradation of natural resources



Massive destruction/ cutting of trees and intentional
burnings of forests



Degradation of rangelands for fuel collection



Changing of pastureland to rain
-
fed cultivation


R
ECONSTRUCTION



WATER

PROJECTS


Kadjaki Dam



A $16 million project



330
-
foot dam and power plant



The structures provided electrical
power and helped irrigate tens of
thousands of acres of farmland



John Shepherd, one of the
American engineers



"We rehabilitated the first turbine
and brought it back online in
October 2005 at full capacity, and
then, due to the security situation,
we weren't able to move forward
with the other unit…”

W
ATER

S
UPPLY

P
ROJECTS


In addition to wells and hand
pumps,



7,400 families will benefit from
latrines and hygiene education with
the help of DACAAR



DACAAR has begun
constructing



300 water points in Nangarhar,
Farah, Kunar and Laghman.



DACAAR's water and sanitation
activities have benefited an
estimated



5.5 million people across 26 of
Afghanistan's 34 provinces.

A
GA

K
HAN

F
OUNDATION


In 2002 Aga Khan Foundation and its
implementing partner, FOCUS Humanitarian
Assistance, started



The Water and Sanitation Program (WATSAN) in the
provinces of Badakhshan, Samangan and Kunduz



Some 1,000 wells have been built or
reconstructed and more than 30 piped drinking
water supply systems have been installed and
maintained in seven districts.



Community labor built and maintains water supply
systems that benefit more than 100,000 people


UNHCR


W
ATER

P
OINTS

D
EVELOPMENT



In 2008, UNHCR implemented the
construction of 375 water points.



Each water point is complemented
with two model latrines.



In the years 2002
-
2004, a total of
8,119 water points have been
completed.



It is estimated that these
interventions benefit over 1.1
million Afghans.