THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON Na TRANSPORT THROUGH HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES

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STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, PHYSICA, SPECIAL ISSUE, 2001


+
THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON Na TRANSPORT
THROUGH HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES


C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, ST.POPESCU
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular
Technologies, PO Box 700, 3.400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania


ABSTRACT. Human erythrocytes were exposed to magnetic field, the intensity domain
+
being 0.59-0.62T, and the Na efflux was measured. It was found that the loading of
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erythrocytes with sodium (Na erythrocyte) was higher in exposing cells than in controls.
+
The rate constant K of Na efflux by passive diffusion mechanism increased by about
+ +
60% and by Na - K pump mechanism decreased with about 50%.

+ + +
Key words: Na efflux, passive diffusion, Na -K pump, ion transport, erythrocytes,
and magnetic field.


INTRODUCTION
The efflux of natrium ions through human erythrocyte membranes is known to
occur through the following mechanism: a). passive diffusion along its electrochemical
+ +
gradient and b). active transport by the Na -K ATPase pump.
+
The present work is concerned with Na transport through erythrocyte
membranes under the influence of magnetic field.
The values of the magnetic fields in offices and homes reach no more than 0.3
T, while along the telephone wires and high tension networks they go up to 15 T.
The values of these magnetic fields tend to increase in the neighborhood of
plants using electric power engines or hating electric systems. For example in steel
industrialization production magnetic field of 8-70 mT may occur.
Considering the data above we have come to study the behavior of the human
erythrocyte membrane concerning the permeability of ions and water in a magnetic
field larger than the terrestrial one.
We have done research about the influence of the gamma radiation of the
+ +
electric and magnetic field upon the movement of Li - Na and the rate exchange of the
water through the human erythrocyte membranes /1-13/.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The human blood in citrate was collected from aparent healthy subjects.
Human erythrocytes were exposed to magnetic field, the intensity domain being 0.59-
+
0.62T, and the Na efflux was measured.
+ + +
The measurement in vitro of Na efflux by the passive diffusion and Na - K
pump mechanism was performed using the technique of Smith et. al. [14].
+
We adapted it to the investigation of drug effects on the Na efflux through
+
human erythrocyte membranes and the Na efflux alterations in various disease [15-19]. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, ST.POPESCU


The erythrocytes are washed in a solution (75mM MgCl , 85mM mannitol,
2
o
10mm TRIS, pH 7.4 at 4 C) with 5 times the erythrocyte volume. An approximately
50% suspension of the final erythrocyte pellet is prepared in the same solution and the
hematocrit was measured.
o
The two efflux media have a pH of 7.4 at 37 C and an osmolality of 290-305
mOs: (1) 75mM MgCl , 85mM mannitol, 10mM TRIS, 1mM ouabain and 1mM
2
glucose; (2) 72mM MgCl , 83mM mannitol, 10mM TRIS, 10mM KCl and 1mM
2
glucose. One mililliter of the erythrocyte suspension is added to 5ml of each of the
efflux media. Duplicate tubes of each solution are removed at t=0.5 and 15 min. The
suspension are immediately centrifuged at 4000 rot/min. for 5 min. and the supernatants
+
removed and stored in capped tubes until the Na concentration is measured by atomic
+
absorption spectrophotometry. The Na efflux via passive diffusion is represented by
+ + +
the efflux into solution (1), while Na efflux via Na - K pump is the difference in the
+
Na efflux into the two media.
+ + +
The Na efflux rate constant K=Na / Na was calculated, where
efflux erythrocyte
+ + +
Na is the Na efflux measured in mmol/l * h and Na represents the
efflux erythrocyte erythrocyte
+
Na concentration of the erythrocytes measured in mmol/l .
erythrocyte

RESULTS
Human erythrocytes were exposed to magnetic field, the intensity domain
+
being 0.59-0.62T, and the Na efflux was measured. These has been performed an
average of about two experiments for every exposure time in a magnetic fields. There
haven't been performed experiments with exposures longer than 20 hours considering
the dangers for the erythrocytes to hemolysis.
It was found that the loading of erythrocytes with sodium was higher in
exposing cells than in controls (tab. 1).
Table 1
+
The average measurement of the Na intraerythrocytar concentration after its exposure
in an intense magnetic field.
+ +
+

Nr. Time Na Na
erythrocyte erythrocyte Na
erythrocyte
 Na
erythrocyte
exp. of [mmol/l ] [mmol/l ] [mmol/l ]
eryth. eryth. *100
eryth.

exp. controls magnetic field Na eryth. control
[%]
3 2
4.81 0.98 4.89 0.52 0.23 0.39 4.8 10.6
4 1 4.06 4.43 0.37 9.1
6 2
4.50 0.23 5.16 0.63 0.66 0.46 14.6 11.5
8 2
4.79 0.26 5.53 0.03 0.74 0.28 15.9 6.8
10 2
4.61 0.00 5.33 0.36 0.76 0.42 15.4 7.0
12 2 4.12 0.44 5.66 0.09 1.54 0.53 39.1 16.9
14 2
5.06 0.75 8.18 0.38 3.12 0.37 64.2 16.8
16 1 5.12 10.94 5.82 113.7
18 1 5.03 8.35 3.32 66.0
20 2
4.75 0.10 9.82 0.16 5.07 0.25 107 7.4
By exposing the human erythrocytes to a magnetic field for 12 hours it results,
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an increase of intracell Na of about 40% while after exposing it to more than 12 hours,
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the intracellular Na concentration increased to about 100%.
446
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THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON Na TRANSPORT …


+
The experimental results concerning Na through passive diffusion mechanism
from the human erythrocyte after its exposure in an intense magnetic field compared to
+
the Na efflux through the same mechanism from the none exposed control
erythrocytes are shown in the 2 table.
+
There has been obtained an increase of the Na efflux using the passive
diffusion from the human erythrocytes exposed to an intense magnetic field compared
+
to the Na efflux using the same mechanism from the none exposed control erythrocytes.
+
The increase of the Na using the passive diffusion is larger in the first 12
hours of exposure in an intense magnetic field.
+
The rate constant of the Na efflux using the passive diffusion from the human
erythrocytes after being exposed to an intense magnetic field compared to the rate
+
constant of the Na using the same mechanism from the none exposed control human
erythrocytes are shown in table 3.

Table 2
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The average values of the Na efflux through the mechanism of the passive diffusion from
the human erythrocytes after being exposed in an intense magnetic field.

Time of exposition
[h]
+
Na
efflux
[mmol/l *h]
erythrocyte

+
 Na
efflux
[mmol/l *h]
erythrocyte

 Na efflux
[%]
100

Na efflux control


controls
magnetic field



2
0.34 0.19
0.49 0.13
+ 0.15 0.12
+ 81.6 76.1

4
0.54
0.85
+ 0.31
+ 57.4

6
0.43 0.23
447
C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, ST.POPESCU


0.80 0.39
+ 0.37 0.17
+ 90.2 10.1

8
0.53 0.13
0.63 0.24
+ 0.10 0.11
+ 14.7 17.2

10
0.35 0.00
0.68 0.03
+ 0.33 0.03
+ 94.3 8.6

12
0.42 0.03
0.65 0.07
+ 0.25 0.05
+ 57.6 9.0

14
0.47
0.64
+ 0.17
+ 36.2

20
0.75 0.16
0.97 0.10
+ 0.22 0.25
+ 37.7 42.0

Table 3
+
The average values of the rate constant of the Na efflux using the passive diffusion from the
human erythrocytes after being exposed to an intense magnetic field.

Time of exposition
[h]
K
-1
[h ]
controls
K
-1
[h ]
magnetic field
 K
-1
[h ]
 K

100
K
control
448
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THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON Na TRANSPORT …


[%]

2
0.082 0.045
0.103 0.20
+ 0.021 0.028
+ 80.7 85.2

4
0.133
0.191
+ 0.058
+ 43.6

6
0.099 0.057
0.147 0.061
+ 0.048 0.02
+ 70.9 38.6

8
0.131
0.158
+ 0.017
+ 20.6

10
0.076 0.00
0.129 0.015
+ 0.053 0.015
+ 69.1 19.1

12
0.104 0.018
0.115 0.011
+ 0.011 0.007
+ 11.7 9.2

14
0.150 0.041
0.073 0.010
- 0.078 0.051
- 45.9 21.1

16
0.104
0.037
- 0.067
- 64.4

449
C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, ST.POPESCU


20
0.159
0.099
- 0.060
- 32.7 22.9


+
There has been obtained an increase of the rate constant of the Na efflux
using the passive diffusion from the human erythrocytes after an exposure of no more
than 12 hours in an intense magnetic field and a decrease of the rate constant with the
+
exposures longer then 12 hours, compared to the Na efflux rate constant using the
passive diffusion from the none exposed control erythrocytes.
+
Therefore, although the Na efflux using the passive diffusion from human
erythrocytes exposed to the intense magnetic field increase with exposures longer then
+
12 hours, the rate constant of the Na efflux decreases also in exposures longer then 12
+
hours, the rate constant of Na efflux decrease with the exposures longer then 12 hours.
+
This effect is due to the strong decrease of intraerythrocytes Na concentration.
+ +
The experimental results concerning Na efflux and rate constant of Na efflux
+ +
using the Na -K pump mechanism from the human erythrocytes after being exposed
+
to an intense magnetic field compared to the Na efflux using the same mechanism
from the none exposed control erythrocytes, are shown in table 4 and table 5.

Table 4
+ + +
The average values of the Na efflux through the Na - K pump using from the human
erythrocytes after being exposed to an intense magnetic field.

+

Time of Na
efflux
 Na
efflux
+
exposition [mmol/l *h]
erythrocyte  Na 100
efflux

[h] [mmol/l *h Na efflux control
controls magnetic field
erythrocyte
]
[%]
2 1.02 0.07 0.54 0.19 - 0.48 0.10 - 47.5 13.2
4 0.86 0.48 - 0.38 - 44.2
6
0.58 0.25 0.28 0.03 - 0.30 0.28 - 37.8 31.7
10 1.23 0.19 0.72 0.52 - 0.51 0.34 - 46.5 34.4
12
0.92 0.07 0.81 0.15 - 0.11 0.22 - 10.2 23.1
14
0.68 0.41 0.53 0.26 - 0.15 0.16 - 11.9 15.6
18 0.59 0.31 - 0.28 - 47.5
20
0.82 0.30 0.20 0.03 - 0.62 0.27 - 734 6.1

+ + +
A decrease of about 50% of the Na efflux using the Na -K pump mechanism
from the human erythrocytes exposed to an intense magnetic field has been noticed
+
compared to the Na efflux using the same mechanism from the non exposed control
erythrocytes.
Table 5
+ + +
The average values of the rate constant of the Na efflux through the Na - K pump
mechanism from the human erythrocytes after being exposed in an intense magnetic field.

450
+
THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON Na TRANSPORT …


Time of K K
 K
 K
-1 -1
-1
exposition [h ] [h ]
[h ] 100

[h] controls magnetic field
K
control
[%]
2 0.222 0.050 0.111 0.037 - 0.111 0.070 - 47.1 25.7
4 0.212 0.108 - 0.104 - 49.1
6 0.131 0.061 0.056 0.012 - 0.076 0.073 - 40.2 37.4
10 0.266 0.050 0.129 0.089 - 0.137 0.048 - 55.5 26.7
12
0.228 0.042 0.144 0.029 - 0.084 0.070 - 32.4 24.8
14
0.149 0.104 0.067 0.035 - 0.083 0.070 - 44.5 15.6
18 0.117 0.037 - 0.080 - 68.4
20
0.172 0.060 0.021 0.003 - 0.151 0.056 - 87.2 2.4

+
There has been noticed decrease of about 50% of the rate constant of the Na
efflux from the human erythrocyte with an exposure of up to 20 hours to an intense
+ + +
magnetic field compared with the rate constant of the Na efflux through the Na - K
pump mechanism from the non exposed control erythrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS
Human erythrocytes were exposed to magnetic field, the intensity domain
+
being 0.59-0.62T, and the Na efflux was measured.
+
There has been obtained an increase of about 60% of the Na efflux through
the passive diffusion from the human erythrocytes exposed to a magnetic field compared
+
the Na efflux from the non exposed control erythrocytes using the same mechanism.
+ + +
The Na efflux through the Na - K pump mechanism from the human
erythrocytes exposed to the magnetic field has been diminished with about 50% compared
+
with the Na efflux through the same mechanism from the non exposed control
erythrocytes.
We may conclude that there is an effect of the magnetic field upon the channel
+ + +
protein, namely an increase of the Na permeability - upon Na - K ATPase namely a
decrease in its activity.
The present results coincide with our previous research on the influence of the
+
magnetic field upon Li transport through the human erythrocyte membranes [10, 11]
as well as with the erythrocyte permeability for water [8].


REFERENCES

1. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, I.CHEREJI, V.V.MORARIU “Influenţa radiaţiilor  asupra
+
influxului Li în eritrocitele umane”. Analele Universitãţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom IV, p. 42-
50 (1996).
451
C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, ST.POPESCU


2. T. SIMPLĂCEANU, C.BINDEA, I.CHEREJI V.V.MORARIU “Influenţa radiaţiilor nucleare
asupra timpului de schimb al apei prin membrana eritrocitelor umane”.Analele Universitãţii
din Oradea, Fizicã Tom IV, p 135-144 (1996).
+
3. C.BINDEA, V.V.MORARIU, I.CHEREJI “The effect of gamma radiation on Li transport
through human erythrocyte membranes”. Cytobios (Cambridge), 93, 23-31 (1998).
+
4. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, I.CHEREJI “Efectul radiaţiilor  asupra efluxului Li din
eritrocitele umane.”Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom VIII, 63-72, (1998).
5. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, S.KREIBIK, S.POPESCU “Efectul câmpului electric
+
asupra influxului Li în eritrocitele umane.”Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom
VIII, 55-62, (1998).
6. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, S.KREIBIK, S.POPESCU “Efectul câmpului electric
+
asupra efluxului Li din eritrocitele umane.”Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom
VIII, 45-54, (1998).
7. T.SIMPLĂCEANU, C.BINDEA, S.POPESCU, G.CRISTEA “Efectul câmpului electric
asupra timpului de schimb al apei prin membranele eritrocitare umane.” Analele Universităţii
din Oradea, Fizică Tom VIII, 225-232, (1998).
8. T.SIMPLĂCEANU, C.BINDEA, S.POPESCU, G.CRISTEA “Efectul câmpului magnetic
asupra timpului de schimb al apei prin membranele eritrocitare umane.” Analele Universităţii
din Oradea, Fizică Tom VIII, 233-244, (1998).
9. C.BINDEA, I.CHEREJI, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, V.TARBA “Efectul radiaţiilor gamma asupra
+
efluxului Na din eritrocitele umane.” Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom IX 39-50,
(1999).
+
10.C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, T.MÎRŢ “Efectul câmpului magnetic asupra influxului Li
prin membranele eritrocitare umane.” Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom IX, 27-
38, (1999).
+
11. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, T.MÎRŢ “Efectul câmpului magnetic asupra efluxului Li
prin membranele eritrocitare umane.” Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică Tom IX, 17-
26, (1999)
12. C.BINDEA, ALINA MUREŞAN, St.POPESCU, T.SIMPLĂCEANU. "Efectul câmpului
+
electric asupra efluxului Na din eritrocitele umane prin mecanismul difuziei pasive." Analele
Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică - A Tom X 133-138, (2000).
13. C.BINDEA, ALINA MUREŞAN T.SIMPLĂCEANU, St.POPESCU. "Efectul câmpului
+ + +
electric asupra efluxului Na din eritrocitele umane prin mecanismul pompei Na - K ."
Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Fizică - A Tom X 139-144, (2000).
14. J.B.SMITH, K.O.ASH, W.M.HENTSCHEL, W.L.SPROWELL, R.R.WILLIAMS An
+
improved nonradioisotopic method for measuring ouabain-sensitive Na efflux from
erythrocytes – Clin.Chim.Acta. 143, 295 (1984).
15. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, V.V.MORARIU. “Efectul anestezicelor locale asupra
+ +
transportului activ al pompei Na -K prin membrana celulelor roşii umane”. Analele
Universităţii din Oradea, Tom.IV, Fizică, p. 33-36 (1994).
16. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, L.PETROV, V.V.MORARIU, ANCA GHIURTZ, ANCA
+
VASILACHE, A.CUCUIANU. “Modificări ale efluxului Na din eritrocitele umane în
leucemie”.Cancerul (Serie nouă) nr. 13 p. 43-47 (1996).
+
17. C.BINDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, V.V.MORARIU “Efluxul Na din eritrocitele umane”.
Analele Universitãţii din Oradea, Fizica Tom IV, p. 31-41 (1996).
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+
18. C.BINDEA, S.RÂNDAŞU, V.V.MORARIU “Na efflux through erythrocyte membranes
from patients with affective psychosis”. Biomedical Letters (Cambridge), 56, 111-114
(1997).
+
19. C.BINDEA, M.COLDEA, T.SIMPLĂCEANU, L.STRÂMBU “The Na efflux through
human erythrocyte membranes in hypertension”. Romanian Journal of Biophysics 8(1), 51-57
(1998).
453