Transistor - nanoHUB

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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Transistor

Victor Hugo Estrada Rivera

University of Texas at El Paso

Molecular Electronics

Chem 5369

Definition


An

electronic

device

made

of

a

semiconductor

that

can

act

as

an

insulator

and

a

conductor
.



The

ability

to

change

from

these

two

states

enables

the

device

switch

or

amplify
.


It has of three components:


Source


Gate


Drain

http://www.privateline.com/

TelephoneHistory3/History3.html

Importance

“The
Transistor

was probably the most important invention of the 20th
Century

and the story behind the invention is one

of clashing egos
and top secret research.”

Ira Flatow



Transistors

replaced

vacuum

tubes
.


Transistors

are

central

to

the

Integrated

Circuit,

and

therefore,

all

electronic

devices

of

the

information

age,

such

as
:

pc’s,

cellular

phones,

ipods,

pda’s,

intelligent

cars

and

buildings
……
..

are

made

possible
.

Timeline

1874

1895

1906

1945

1947

1948

1950

1957

1958

1968

1883

1898

1907

1955

1934

1928

1936

How a transistor works?


Click on a Year to Learn its
Significance


Click on the Blue Triangle to Return


You can also click to see how a
transistor works

1874


Ferdinand

Braun

discovered

Rectification


crystals

that

can

conduct

current

in

only

one

direction

under

certain

conditions
.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ferdinand_Braun.jpg

1883


Edison effect ( thermionic
emission).


The flow of electrons from
metals caused by thermal
vibration energy (heat) that
overcomes the electrostatic
forces that hold the electrons
to the surface.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thomas_Edison.jpg



1895


Guglielmo Marconi
-
sent a radio signal
over a distance of
more than a mile.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marconi.jpg

1895


John

Ambrose

Fleming

-
developed

the

Vacuum

Tube


a

device

that

modify

a

signal

by

controlling

the

movement

of

electrons

in

an

evacuated

space
.


The

electrons

flow

only

from

filament

to

plate

creating

a

diode

(a

device

that

can

conduct

current

only

in

one

direction)


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image
:

Diode_vacuum_tube.png



http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/art
-
58608

1898


Thomson discovered
the electron.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jj
-
thomson2.jpg



1906


Lee

De

Forest

-
Triode

in

vacuum

tube

(
amplify

signals)

allowing

farther

telephone

conversations
.


The problems with this
Triode is that it was
unreliable and used a lot
of power.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Deforest.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Triode_

vacuum_tube.png

1907


Bell telephone patents
expire.


AT&T (Bell’s company)
bought De Forest’s
triode patent.


Result: transcontinental
telephone service.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ale
xander_Graham_Bell22.jpg

1928


The first patents for the

transistor principle were

registered in Germany by

Julius Edgar Lilienfield.


He proposed the basic

principle behind the MOS

field
-
effect transistor

http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/

lilienfeld.htm



1934


German Physicist Dr.
Oskar Heil patented
the field effect
transistor

http://www.precide.ch/eng/eheil/eheil.htm



1936


Mervin Kelly Bell Lab's
director of research. He
felt that to provide the
best phone service it will
need a better amplifier;
the answer might lie in
semiconductors. And he
formed a department
dedicated to solid state
science




http://
www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/kelly.html

1945


Bill Shockley the team leader of
the solid state department
(Hell’s Bell Lab) hired Walter
Brattain and John Bardeen.


He designed the first
semiconductor amplifier, relying
on the field effect.


His device was a small cylinder
coated thinly with silicon,
mounted close to a small, metal
plate.


The device didn't work, and
Shockley assigned Bardeen and
Brattain to find out why.



http://www.lucent.com/minds/

transistor/history.html

1947


Bardeen

and

Brattain

built

the

point

contact

transistor
.


They

made

it

from

strips

of

gold

foil

on

a

plastic

triangle,

pushed

down

into

contact

with

slab

of

germanium
.



http://www.lucent.com/minds

/transistor/history.html

http://www.lucent.com/minds/t

ransistor/history.html

http://www.lucent.com/minds/

transistor/history.html

1947 cont.

1947 cont.


Shockley make the
Junction transistor
(sandwich).


This transistor was more
practical and easier to
fabricate.


The Junction Transistor
became the central
device of the electronic
age

http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/schubert/Unused%20stuff/Educational%20resources/

Picture%20First%20junction%20transistor.jpg

1947 cont.


A

thin

piece

of

semiconductor

of

one

type

between

two

slices

of

another

type,

is

able

to

control

the

flow

of

the

current

between

emitter

and

the

collector
.


Even

if

the

input

current

is

weak,

the

transistor

can

control

a

strong

current
.


The

effect

accomplish

is

that

the

current

through

the

collector

mimics

and

amplify

the

behavior

of

the

current

through

the

Emitter
.





1948


Bells

Lab

unveil

the

transistor
.


They

decided

to

name

it

transistor

instead

of

Point
-
contact

solid

state

amplifier
.



John

Pierce

invented

the

name,

combining

transresistance

with

the

ending

common

to

devices,

like

varistor

and

thermistor
.




1950’s


Sony

receives

a

license

from

Bell

Labs

to

build

transistors


In 1946 Sony produced
products for radio repair. In
1950 they decided to build
something for the mass
consumption; the transistor
radio.


In United States they used
the transistors primarily for
computers and military uses.



http://www.sony.net/Fun/SH/1
-
6/h2.html

1955


Foundation

of

Shockley

Semiconductor,

sowing

the

seeds

of

silicon

valley



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SJPan.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShockleyBldg.jpg

1957


The

traitorous

eight

abandoned

Shockley

founding

Fairchild

Semiconductor
.




http://
www.fairchildsemi.com/company/history_1957.html

1958


Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments


Invent the Integrated Circuit

(IC)


It occurred to him that all parts of
a circuit could be made out of the
same piece of silicon.


The entire circuit could be built
out of a single crystal


Reducing the size


Easier to produce



Texas Instruments' first IC

1958 cont.
-

Integrated Circuit


A single device that
contains an
interconnected array
of elements like
transistors, resistors,
capacitors, and
electrical circuits
contained in a silicon
wafer.

http://www.helicon.co.uk/online/datasets/

samples/education/images.htm

http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/grad/7reasons/5reputation.html

1968


Bob

Noyce

and

Gordon

Moore,

two

of

the

traitorous

eight

together

with

Andy

Grove,

form

Intel

Corporation



http://www.granneman.com/techinfo/

background/history/

http://www.itnews.sk/buxus_dev/images/

2006/Intel_logo_nove1_velky.jpg

How a Transistor Works


The

transistor

can

function

as
:


An

insulator



A

conductor


The

transistor's

ability

to

fluctuate

between

these

two

states

that

enables

to

switch

or

amplify
.



The

transistor

has

many

applications,

but

only

two

basic

functions
:

switching

and

modulation

(amplification)
.


In

the

simplest

sense,

the

transistor

works

like

a

dimmer
.


With

a

push

the

knob

of

the

dimmer,

the

light

comes

on

and

off
.

You

have

a

switch
.

Rotate

the

knob

back

and

forth,

and

the

light

grows

brighter,

dimmer,

brighter,

dimmer
.

Than

you

have

a

modulator
.




How a Transistor Works cont.


Both the dimmer and the
transistor can control
current flow.



Both can act as a switch
and as a
modulator/amplifier.



The important difference
is that the “hand”
operating the transistor is
millions of times faster.

http://www.ieicorp.com/consum/dimmer.gif




Transistors are made of semi
-
conductors such
as silicon and gallium arsenide.


These materials carry electricity not well enough
to be called conductors; not badly enough to be
called insulators.


Hence their name semiconductor.


The importance of a transistor is in its ability to
control its own semi conductance, namely acting
like a conductor when needed, or as an insulator
(nonconductor) when that is needed.




You can compare a transistor to an ordinary faucet.


The water enters the faucet in the pipeline from the
water distributor, which would correspond to the source
in the Transistor.


The water then leaves the faucet into the sink, this would
be the drain in the Transistor.


The water tap controls the amount, flow, of water. In the
Transistor the gate operates as this controller.


With a small force you can control the water flow with the
water tap, just as you can control the current flowing
from the source to the drain, with a small change of the
charge of the gate.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/watertap.html



Transistors are Made of Silicon


Silicon

is

a

grey

colored

element

with

crystalline

structure
.



It

is

the

second

most

abundant

element

in

the

earth's

crust,

after

oxygen
.



Silicon

is

always

found

in

combined

form

in

nature,

often

with

oxygen

as

quartz,

and

is

found

in

rocks

and

silica

sand
.



To

be

able

to

use

silicon

as

a

semiconductor,

it

needs

to

be

in

a

very

pure

form
.



If

there

is

more

than

one

impure

particle

in

a

million,

the

silicon

can

not

be

used
.



Silicon

is

the

most

frequently

used

semiconducting

material

today
.




Doping


The

addition

of

a

small

amount

of

a

different

substance

to

a

pure

semiconductor

crystal
.



The

impurities

give

an

excess

of

conducting

electrons

or

an

excess

of

conducting

holes

which

is

crucial

for

making

a

working

transistor
.

http://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/

astr511/im/Si
-
B
-
doping
-
JFA.jpg

n
-
type doping

p
-
type doping



Acceptor doping

Donor doping

http://
131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_1.html

http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/

Hbase/solids/dsem.html#c2



Energy gap

Conduction Band

Valence Band

Metals

Conduction Band

Valence Band

Semiconductors

Conduction Band

Valence Band

Insulators

Bigger Energy gap

Conduction Band:

Is a part in which electrons can move freely and can
accelerate under an electric field, constituting an electric current.

Valence Band:

Is a part of the molecule, called band, where you can find the
electrons

Energy Gap:
Is
the energy
difference
between the
valence gap and
the conduction
band



Transistor types


MOS
-

Metal Oxide Semiconductor


FET
-

Field Effect Transistor


BJT
-

Bipolar Junction Transistor



Moore’s Law


It’s

an

observation

made

by

Gordon

E
.

Moore,

in

which

he

predicted

that

the

number

of

transistors,

inside

an

Integrated

Circuit,

could

be

doubled

every

24

months
.


At

the

density

that

also

minimized

the

cost

of

a

transistor
.




http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Moore_Law_diagram_%282004%29.png



Transistor problems


Power density increased


Device variability


Reliability


Complexity


Leakage


Power dissipation limits device density


Transistor will operate near ultimate limits of size and
quality


eventually, no transistor can be fundamentally
better



The Future of transistors


Molecular electronics


Carbon nanotubes transistors


Nanowire transistors


Quantum computing


CMOS devices will add
functionality to CMOS non
-
volatile
memory, opto
-
electronics,
sensing….


CMOS technology will address
new markets macroelectronics,
bio
-
medical devices, …


Biology may provide inspiration for
new technologies bottom
-
up
assembly, human intelligence


"Photo: National Research Council of Canada.“

http://www.nrc
-
cnrc.gc.ca/multimedia/picture/

fundamental/nrc
-
nint_moleculartransistor_e.html



http://www.bellsystemmemorial.com/belllabs_transistor.html

Pictorial History of Transistors



Further Resources


Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal Fire: The Invention of
the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. New York: W. W.
Norton and Company, 1997.


Brattain, Walter H. "Genesis of the Transistor." The Physics Teacher.
(March, 1968) pp. 109
-
114.


Hoddeson, Lillian. "The Roots of Solid State Research at Bell Labs."
Physics Today. (March, 1997).


Holonyak, Jr., Nick."John Bardeen and the Point
-
Contact Transistor."
Physics Today.


(April, 1992).


Shockley, William. "How We Invented the
Transistor." New Scientist
21. (December, 1972) pp. 689
-
91.


http://www.pbs.org/transistor


http://www.aip.org/history


http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/history.html


http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/lilienfeld.htm


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page


You can find two very cool games on transistors in the next link:


http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/in
tro.html