Slide 1 - Afonso Ferreira Miguel, MSc

heartlustElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Evolução dos
Microprocessadores

Afonso Ferreira Miguel

4004

Introduction date

"November 1971"

Manufacturing
process

2,300 transistors

Data bus width

4 bit

Package

16
-
pin Ceramic DIP

Speed (MHz)

0.74

Physical memory

640 bytes (RAM) and
4 KB (ROM)

V core (V)

15
±

5%

Min/Max operating
temperature (
°
C)

0


70

Typical/Max power
dissipation (W)

0.45 / 0.6

4040

Data bus width

4 bit

Package

24
-
pin ceramic
DIP

Speed (MHz)

0.74

Physical memory

4 KB (8 KB with a
bank switch)

Min/Max operating
temperature (
°
C)

0
-

70

Typical/Max power
dissipation (W)

0.6 / 0.9 (25
°

8008

Introduction date

Apr
-
72

Manufacturing process

3,500 transistors

Data bus width

8 bit

Package

18
-
pin DIP

Speed (MHz)

0.5

Physical memory (KB)

16

Virtual memory

None

Floating Point Unit

None

Min/Max operating
temperature (
°
C)

0
-

70

8080

Year:

1974

Bus width:

8

Clock speed:

2 MHz

Description:

Successor to Intel 8008 CPU. The processor has
6,000 transistors, and can address 64 KB of
physical memory.

Computers:

Altair 8800, IMSAI 8080, CompuColor II, Byte
Computers Byt
-
8

8085

Year:

1976

Bus width:

8

Clock speed:

5 MHz

Description:

Enhanced version of Intel 8080 CPU.

Computers:

Radio Shack TRS
-
80 Models 100 and 200,
CompuPro 8/16.

Z80

Year:

1976

Bus width:

8

Clock
speed:

4 MHz

Description:

Improved version of Intel 8080 processor: new
instructions.

Computers:

Radio Shack TRS
-
80 Models 1
-

4, Sinclair ZX81,
Commodore 128D (also had 6502 CPU), Franklin Ace
1200 (also had 6502 CPU), etc.

8086

Year:

1978

Clock speed:

5 ~10 MHz

Bus width:

16

Description:

First generation of Intel 80x86 processors. 8086 was 16 bit
processor (internally and externally). The processor has
29,000 transistors, and can address 1 MB of physical
memory.

8088

Year:

1979

Bus width:

8/16

Clock
speed:

5 ~10 MHz

Description:

The processor is a modified version of 8086
-

it has 8 bit external
data bus width (8086 has 16 bit data bus), also instruction queue
size and prefetching algorithms were changed. 8088 uses two
consecutive bus cycles to write or read 16 bit data instead of one
cycle for 8086. This made the processor to run slower, but on the
plus side the hardware changes in 8088 made it compatible with
8080/8085 harware. The processor has 29,000 transistors, and
can address 1 MB of physical memory.

Computers:

IBM PC series, Amstrad PPC
-
640, etc.

68000

Year:

1979

Bus width:

16/32

Description:

First generation of Motorola 680x0 series of processors.

Computers:

Apple Lisa 2, Apple Macintosh 128, Atari 520STfm and
1040STfm, Commodore Amiga 500 and 1000.

80186

Year:

1982

Bus width:

16

Clock speed:

10 MHz

Description:

Next generation of 80x86 processors. Used mostly as
embedded processor.

80286

Year:

1982

Bus width:

16

Clock speed:

6 ~ 25 MHz

Description:

Second generation of 80x86 processors: new instructions,
protected mode, supported 16MB of memory. The
processor has 134,000 transistors, and can address 16
MB of physical memory and 4 GB of virtual memory.

80386

Year:

1985

Bus width:

32

Clock speed:

20 ~ 33 MHz

Description:

Third generation of 80x86 processors: new processor modes,
32 bit, increased speed. The processor includes 275,000
transistors, and can address 4 GB of physical memory and 64
TB of virtual memory.

80486

Year:

1989

Bus width:

32

Clock
speed:

33 ~ 75 MHz

Description:

Fourth generation of 80x86 processors: integrated floating
-
point
unit, internal clock multiplier. The processor has 1,200,000
transistors (less in SX version), and can address 4 GB of
physical memory and 64 TB of virtual memory.

Pentium

Year:

1993

Bus width:

32

Clock
speed:

9 ~200 MHz

Description:

Fifth generation of x86 processors: superscalar architecture,
MMX. The processor has 3,100,000 transistors, and can
address 4 GB of physical memory and 64 TB of virtual
memory.

Pentium II

Year:

1995

Bus width:

32

Clock speed:

266 ~500 MHz

Description:

Sixth generation of x86 processors; Single Edge
Contact cartridge (slot 1)

Moore’s Law


Intel co
-
founder Gorden Moore notice in 1964;


Number of transistors doubled every 12 months
while price unchanged;


Slowed down in the 1980s to every 18 months;


Amazingly still correct, likely to keep until 2010.