Nano-technology in a nutshell

heartlustElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Nano
-
technology in a nutshell

M.C. Chang

Dept of Phys

ENIAC circa 1947

Physical characteristics:


17,468 vacuum tubes; 1,500 relays


60,000 pounds; 16,200 cubic feet


174 kilowatts (233 horsepower)


5,000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004)


5.25 MJoule/trajectory (~ fire an artillery shell)

Future prediction (
Popular Mechanics,

1949):


1,500 vacuum tubes; 10 kilowatts


3,000 pounds (~ size of an automobile)

The invention of transistor

(1947, Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley)



small size



less electricity



no movable part



faster turn
-
on time

1956

The invention of IC

(1959, Kilby and Noyce)

Intel 4004 (1971)

2250 transistors

Pentium 4

4.2 million
transistors

2000

A silicon single crystal

A silicon wafer

Moore’s law

Cost of Fab

Moore’s Second Law

$50B

$40B

360B

$20B

$10B

$0B

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

Year

Micro
-
Electro
-
Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

+ systems
-
on
-
a
-
chip (SOC) = multi
-
functional, mass production …



mems microphone
(PC, cellular phone)



mems accelerometer
(safety bag, Wii, PC,
camera, air guitar…)



other mems sensors
(pressure, heat …)



mems oscillator
(replaces quartz)



optical mems (VSCEL,
micro projector)



microfluid (printer…)



biomems





Cheaper, better, smaller, response time, energy consumption …

(lab
-
on
-
a
-
chip)

MEMS mirror

Motion sensor

DLP micro
-
projector

gene chip

Micro
-
fluid chip

Top
-
down approach

Bottom
-
up approach

Self
-
organized (or self
-
assembled) PbSe dots (on PbEuTe)

Carbon nanotube as nanowire

Buckminsterfullerene

1996

Buckminster Fuller


STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope)

1980, Binning and Rohrer

1986

Quantum corral made by 48 iron atoms
(D. Eigler)

Nano
-
machine, molecular robot … etc

From sub
-
micron technology to nano
-
technology

--

problems of this century



Emergence of quantum effect



Quantum wire



Quantum dot



Self
-
assembly device


Need better grasp of the fundamental physics of materials





How long can we keep enjoying the amazing progress?



A powerful computer in turn helps us


explore the mystery of nature (
high
-
Tc superconductor,


DNA
-
coding, protein folding, drug design, better airplane…

etc
)