History of Computing

heartlustElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Dannelly's Very Short
History of Computing

CSCI 101

In the beginning…

Pascal


created a calculator in 1652


able to add and subtract

photos from en.wikipedia.org

Charles Babbage
(1791
-
1871)


Math Tables Problem


Difference Engine and Analytical Engines


Abilities


add


subtract


loop
(repeat instructions over and over)


compare two numbers


etc…


instructions and data were





on punched cards

Harvard Mark 1


Mechanical, not electrical


completed in 1943


used to compute artillery tables


instructions on paper tape


storage = 72 numbers

Digital Electronics 101


Transistors can perform AND, OR, NOT, etc


Example
-

Half Adder:

AND

XOR

Apple's
iPad

uses the

A4 system chip with

177 million transistors

First Generation


based on
vacuum tubes


ENIAC


1946
-

Univ of Pennsylvania


programmed via wires


EDVAC


based on ENIAC


program stored








in memory


UNIVAC


1951


first commercial machine

Second Generation


1955
-
1964


based on
transistors


1947
-

Bell Labs

Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley


Noble Prize in 1956

This IBM 1301 Disk Storage Unit

held 2.8 MB of data.

Lease = $2100 per month

Third Generation


based on
Integrated Circuits


mainframes and minicomputers


IBM 360


First offered in 1964


equally suited for business or science


from 8K to 8M of memory

Fourth Generation


based on
VLSI


VLSI = Very Large Scale Integration


thousands of transistors per chip



microcomputers


IBM PC released in 1981

photo from www.cs.indiana.edu

Microsoft in 1978


Fifth Generation


massively parallel computers


supercomputers


still not in everyone's home



Possible Revision of "5
th

Generation"


maybe it was the internet
-
ization of every device


maybe it was mobile
-
ization of every device, thanks to
Lithium
-
Ion batteries allowing smaller devices


Moore's Law

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Transistor_Count_and_Moore%27s_Law_
-
_2008.svg


computing power doubles every two years

Computers Sold Annually

Units = 1000


graph from www.pegasus3d.com/total_share.html

The Future

The Cloud

Even more

Ubiquitous Computing

Next Class…


Computer Guts


Components of a modern computer


What to look for when buying a computer


Operating Systems


Differences in Windows and Linux