Computer Basics PowerPoint - Davis.K12.ut.us

heartlustElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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COMPUTER BASICS

KOWLEDGE IS POWER

Computer Evolution


1642 Blaise Pascal


mechanical
adding machine


1832 Charles Babbage
-

invents the
Difference Engine



1890 Herman Hollerith


invents a
machine using punch card to tabulate
info for the Census. He starts the
company that would later be IBM.

ENIAC Computer


1946


Mauchly

and Eckert created the ENIAC computer


Miles of wiring


18,000
vacuum tubes


Thousands of resistors and switches


No monitor


3,000 blinking lights


Cost $486,000


100,000 additions per second


Weighed 30 tons


Filled a 30x50 foot room


Lights of Philadelphia would dim when it
booted up




FYI
: 1943



Base codes develop by Grace
Hopper while working on the
Mark I programming project.

She invented the phrase “
bug



an
error in a program that causes a
program to malfunction.

1950s


Vacuum Tubes were the components for the
electronic circuitry


Punch Cards main source of input


Speeds in milliseconds (thousands/sec)


100,000 additions/sec.


Used for scientific calculations


New computers were the rule, cost
effectiveness wasn’t’


Transistors were electronic circuitry (smaller,
faster, more reliable than vacuum tubes)


Speeds in microseconds (millionth/sec)


200,000 additions/sec.


Computers In Businesses: Emphasis on
marketing of computers to businesses


Data files stored on magnetic tape


Computer Scientists controlled operations


1960s

Late 60’s Early 70’s


Integrated circuit boards


New input methods such as plotters, scanners


Software

became more important


Sophisticated
operating systems


Improved
programming languages


Storage capabilities expanded (disks)



1970’s

Integrated circuits and silicone chips lead to
smaller and smaller microprocessors

Late 80’s to Current


Smaller, Faster, Larger Capacity, More Features


Improved circuitry


several thousand transistors
placed on a tiny silicon chip.


Pentium chip named by Intel


Modems


communication along telephone wires


Portable computers: laptops


Handheld


Increased storage capabilities: gigabytes

The Information Processing
Cycle

The Information Processing Cycle

INPUT

OUTPUT

AUXILIARY

STORAGE

PROCESSING


MAIN

MEMORY

INPUT DEVICES (Hardware)


Keyboard


Mouse


Microphone


Digital Camera


Scanner


Touch screens


Bar code scanner


Auxiliary Storage Device



OUTPUT DEVICES (
HARDWARE
)


Useful information that leaves the system


Output Hardware includes
:


Monitor: soft copy


Printers: hard copy


Projector


Voice and music
-

speakers


OUTPUT

ROM

R
EAD
O
NLY
M
EMORY


RAM

R
ANDOM
A
CCESS
M
EMORY



Small


Instructions are installed
permanently at the factory


Cannot be changed


These instructions check
the computer’s resources
and looks for Operating
System


Main
Memory


Temporary

it is erased
when turned off.


It is where programs and
data is stored while being
processed


MEMORY
PROCESSING
HARDWARE

PROCESSING


HARDWARE


Central Processing Unit:
CPU



The Brains or Intelligence of the computer.


Controls input and output


interprets instructions


executes instructions
.



Silicon chip: integrated circuit board


Pentium: name give to a particular
chip



Hertz: the speed of the CPU


Gigahertz: executes a billion instructions per second


Megahertz: executes a million instructions per
second



Multitasking
: The ability of the processor to do have more
than one task working at the same time

Processors

Come in Many Sizes


Mainframe
: large, powerful, serving many connected
terminals. Super
Computers



Minicomputer
: mid
-
sized, serves more than one
user at a
time



Microcompute
r
: PC, individual
workstation



Laptop
:
portable
,
small



Handheld
: Palm Pilots


What is Data?


Facts used by a computer


Words


Numbers

What two numbers are used in Binary Code?


0 and 1


They are each called a BIT


8 BITS make a BYTE


1 BYTE makes a letter or number


KILOBYTE = 1,024 bytes


MEGABYTE = 1,048,576 bytes


GIGABYTE = 1,024 megabytes


TERABYTE = 1,024 gigabytes


AUXILIARY STORAGE DEVICES


Network Drive (
H: drive)


Hard Disk Drive (
C:drive)


Flash Drive


I
-
Pod


CD Read/Write Drive


DVD

AUXILIARY

STORAGE

SOFTWARE


Programs that Make the Computer Work


Operating
System Software


Windows 7:


GUI
(Graphical User Interface
) which means graphics are used
to communicate tasks.


Unix


Linux



Application Software


Microsoft Word, Excel, Access
,
Publisher


Adobe Illustrator,
Photoshop, Dreamweaver

What is the Boot Process?


The process of starting up a computer from a
halted or powered
-
down condition.


Commands in ROM memory are
followed



The process of loading the
Operating System
software

into Main Memory


Windows
7


Windows XP


Unix