Expansion of Distribution

healthyapricotMechanics

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Expansion of Distribution
Automation with Communicating
Faulted Circuit Indicators

Cameron Smallwood, P.E., IEEE Senior Member

Michael Lattner, E.I.T

Ted Gardner

IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference 2011

Introduction


United’s efforts to automate its distribution
system


Long distribution feeders make fault
identification and repair time consuming


Standard FCIs require visitation to get
information


Cooper Power Systems’ Automated FCI offers
instant feedback to dispatch

AFCI Overview


Yukon
GridServer

software


AFCI


Minimum 3A line current


“Signature pattern of a fault”


Cellular modem


Hotstick

installation

Other Smart Grid Implications


As an electronic device deployed downline with
link to SCADA, the opportunity to gather
distribution system information is there.


Fault status


Battery voltage


Device temperature


Momentary outage counter


Nominal current


Peak current


More beneficial information could be gathered


Limitations of AFCI


Minimum load current of 3A


Minimum load + fault current of 360A


AT&T or Verizon data coverage areas


Cellular data rates limit amount of information
gathered

Implementing the AFCI


Install YGS


Configure firewall


Install sensors


Set up data bridge


Set up SCADA presentment


AT&T data plan

Strategic Deployment of Sensors


AFCI sensors will be deployed only on three
-
phase
feeder lines.


AFCI sensors will be deployed within 1 span on the
source side of a normally closed switch.


AFCI sensors should be deployed approximately halfway
between the upline distribution automation (DA) device
and the next downline DA device or the end of the line.


AFCI sensors should be deployed at the takeoff point of
large three
-
phase taps where a DA device is not already
installed.


Planning personnel will evaluate locations based on load
current availability an operational benefit.



Deployment

SCADA Presentment

SCADA Presentment

Initial Results


How has United put the AFCIs to use?


Not many chances to find out


Momentary fault notification


Loss of power in association with a trip
-
close


Challenges during implementation

Momentary Fault


Upline triple
-
single recloser operates once


AFCI reports momentary fault shortly after


Crew patrols downline of ACFI


Crew finds birds on the lines of another utility
that crosses over United’s line


Clearance issue found and fixed

Loss of Power during Feeder Switching


Circuit was back
-
fed for line work


Sensors were on the section where line was de
-
energized


Simultaneous loss of power messages


Outage was planned, but proved the concept

Implementation Challenges


Minimum 10A load current requirement


Becomes less challenging with 3A minimum


Training line crews and dispatchers


Too much information/too many alarms


Loss of power vs. fault


24 hour first
-
message delay


The Future


Deploy 50
-
60 sensors per year to a total of ~900


Install DA reclosers at normal open points to
quickly re
-
feed


Include AFCI sensors in scripting automated
feeder reconfiguration


Have the AFCI communicate directly to OMS

Questions?