Introduction to Biotechnology/Recombinant DNA Technology

hastinesshandyBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 18 days ago)

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SNC4M


Biotech
nology Unit


Introduction to Biotechnology
/Recombinant DNA Technology

What is biotechnology?
Many different definitions exist
; here are two

:


1.
The use of living organisms or their products for the welfare of humanity.

2.
The use of scientific techniques to improve o
r modify plants, animals and microorganisms.

Biotechnology is an
_____________________________

field, which has resulted from the blending
of approaches from many different disciplines.



Does biotechnology = genetic engineering?

No, genetic engineering i
s a type of biotechnology


a specific
technique.

Traditional vs. Modern biotechnology

Example of traditional biotech?

Example of modern biotech?


What is the difference between traditional and modern biotechnology?

Traditional breeding differs from geneti
c engineering:



Traditional breeding is between the same or closely
_____________________

species.



No control and hundreds of genes are worked on at a time.



Traditional breeding takes a
_______________

time.


Other examples of traditional biotechnology:

___________________________

plants or animals


selecting desirable genes from one generation to
another

Microbial
____________________________



making wine, yoghurt, cheeses and breads

Enzymes as food additives


e.g. papain from papaya to tenderize me
at and clarify beverages

Selective breeding


SNC4M


Biotech
nology Unit


The breeding of animals or plants that have desirable
_______________________

(e.g. dairy cow).

Hybridization

The process of forming a
___________________________

by cross pollination of
plants or by mating an
imals of different types. (e.g. wheat, corn).

Fermentation

The
_________________________

breakdown of complex organic substances,
especially carbohydrates, by micro
-
organisms, yielding energy.

Modern biotechnology

E.g. Genetic engineering

The technolo
gy that uses
________________________________________

, and other methods, to
manipulate the genes of an organism.

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA technology is one of the key methods used in genetic engineering.

Recombinant DNA technology

Th
e technology of producing a
_________
, hybrid DNA from DNA coming from two
_______________________

organisms. This new DNA does not exist naturally. It is genetic cutting
and pasting!

Basic steps in making recombinant DNA

1. Isolate DNA of interest.

2. Cu
t DNA with restriction enzymes to give DNA fragments or a specific gene.

3. Splice (paste) the DNA piece or gene into a vector .

This is your recombinant DNA that can then be used to transform cells, clone genes, make

proteins, map genes, etc.

Using plasm
ids:
a small circular piece of extra
-
chromosomal
__________________________;

able to
replicate
bacteria exchange these plasmids to share DNA
.

E.g. antibiotic resistance genes

Specific DNA sequences can be recognized by enzymes called
____________________

endonucleases

Restriction enzymes (a.k.a.restriction endonucleases)



enzymes that are able to cut double
-
stranded DNA into fragments at specific recognition sites in
DNA sequences
; they can create sticky or blunt ends

SNC4M


Biotech
nology Unit


Use of plasmids: (1) introduction of

foreign DNA into cell for mass production and (2) and using
plasmids as a vector for DNA to be introduced




Common uses of biotechnology:

1.

Making "stuff”



proteins, enzymes,
______________________________
, etc. can be produced by
engineered bacteria!



For
example


insulin, vaccines


2.

Genetic screening



crime cases, relationship, genetic screening, etc.


Why bacteria? They are easy to _______________________. There are no ethical issues with using
them and it has a small genome.