Biotechnology What you need to know

hastinesshandyBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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Biotechnology



What you need to know


The numbers refer to pages in ‘Leckie & Leckie Success Guide’


Living factories

(p84
-
85)


G

State that the raising of dough and the manufacture of beer and
wine depend on yeast









G

Explain that yeast is a singl
e
-
celled fungus which can use sugar as
food



G

State the process of fermentation of glucose by yeast, using a
word equation










C

Describe the process of anaerobic respiration and compare it with
aerobic respiration










C

Describe how brewers
provide the best growing conditions for
yeast



C

Explain what is meant by the term ‘batch processing’




C

Explain the need for malting of barley before use by the brewing
industry



G

State that making cheese and yoghurt depends on the activities of
bact
eria



G

State that the souring of milk is a fermentation process




C

Explain the souring of milk by bacterial fermentation of lactose



Problems and profit with waste

(p10
-
13, 86
-
89)


G

Give some examples of the ways in which untreated sewage can
damage
the environment









G

Give two examples of diseases which can be spread by untreated
sewage



G

Describe the main precautions which should be taken during lab
work with micro
-
organisms









C

Explain precautions which have to be taken to destroy res
istant
fungal and bacterial spores









C

Describe the part played by bacteria in the process of decay and

recycling of carbon and nitrogen

















C

Explain that during the process of decay, micro
-
organisms are
breaking down organic ma
terials during respiration to obtain their
energy




G

State that during sewage treatment, decay micro
-
organisms break
down the sewage into harmless products







C

Explain why complete breakdown of sewage is only possible in
aerobic conditions










G

Describe how oxygen is provided for micro
-
organisms during
sewage treatment










C

Explain why a range of micro
-
organisms is needed to break down
the range of materials in sewage








G

Give two examples of useful products which are made from waste

materials by the action of micro
-
organisms






C

Explain the advantages of upgrading waste by increasing its energy
or protein levels










G

State that alcohol and methane are products of fermentation



G

Explain the advantages of producing fuel fro
m fermentation rather
than from fossil sources









G

State that under suitable conditions micro
-
organisms can
reproduce asexually very rapidly









G

State that micro
-
organisms can be harvested to provide protein
rich food for animals or man









Reprogramming microbes

(p90
-
91)


G

State that bacteria are controlled by their chromosomes




C

Explain how genetic engineering can be achieved by altering

chromosomes










G

State that pieces of chromosome can be transferred to bacteria
from a differ
ent organism and so allow the bacteria to make
different substances



C

State that as a result of genetic engineering bacteria may produce
increased quantities of products and speed up processes





C

Explain the advantages of genetic engineering compared
with
selective breeding










G

Give some examples of the products of genetic engineering and
their uses



C

Explain the increasing need for insulin produced by biotechnology



G

State that biological detergents contain enzymes produced by
bacteria



C

Describe the advantages of using low
-
temperature biological
detergents

containing enzymes









C

Explain how biological detergents ‘digest’ stains with the use of
enzymes



G

State that an antibiotic is a chemical which prevents growth of
micro
-
organism
s











C

Explain why a range of antibiotics is needed in the treatment of
bacterial

diseases










C

Describe the advantages of using immobilisation techniques



C

Explain the advantages of continuous
-
flow processing (allowed by


immobilisation) ov
er batch processing