# Planes

Urban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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1.
Try to understand everything in the lecture and
section.

2.
understand even simple easy information.

3.
Don’t be embarrassed by doing that.

4.
Write everything happened in the lecture in
English or even Arabic.

Kinesiology

Anatomy

Physiology

Biomechanics

Kinematics

Quantitative

Qualitative

Kinetics

Statics

Dynamics

Biomechanics

Kinetics

Kinematics

It is a branch part of mechanics
that describes the effect of forces
on body.

These forces may affect body in
both static and dynamic situations

It divided into
statics

and
dynamics.

It is a branch of mechanics that concerned with descriptive
analysis the motion of a body
without

consideration of forces
or torques that causing the motion.

It is classified to
quantitative

and
qualitative
analysis.

Dynamics

Statics

Qualitative

Quantitative

It study the
moving

bodies
under the effect
of
unbalanced
forces .

It st畤礠潦u扯摩敳e
remaining

at rest
or

in equilibrium
brought
balanced forces.

It deals with
naming

and
evaluating

the
movement
component.

䍯湣敲湥搠

⡭ov敭敮t 摥獣dipti潮Ⱐ

c潭o敮ti湧⁯渠
movement pattern, accuracy,
fluency…

It is concerned with
counting

and
measuring

the
movement
component.

䍯湣敲湥搠睩w栠h桥h

Ⱐ慳a

and acceleration.

Biomechanics

Kinetics

Kinematics

It divided into
statics

and
dynamics.

It is classified to
quantitative

and
qualitative
analysis.

Dynamics

Statics

Qualitative

Quantitative

It study the
moving

bodies
under the effect
of
unbalanced
forces .

It st畤礠潦u扯摩敳e
remaining

at rest
or

in equilibrium
brought
balanced forces.

It deals with
naming

and
evaluating

the
movement
component.

䍯湣敲湥搠

quality
(movement description,
which includes
commenting on
movement pattern, accuracy,
fluency…

It is concerned with
counting

and
measuring

the
movement
component.

䍯湣敲湥搠睩w栠h桥h
measurable variable of
movements
, as

1.
Displacement

2.
Speed

3.
Velocity

4.
Acceleration

Quantitative

Distance

Displacement

Scalar Quantity

Vector Quantity

_______________

______________

time

time

=

=

Speed

Velocity

is

the

change

of

the

position

of

a

body
.

It

must

has

a

magnitude

and

direction

It

may

be

linear

or

angular

or

it

may

be

a

combination

of

the

two
.

i
.

Linear

displacement
:

Translational

motion

either

rectilinear

or

curvilinear

Unit
:

meter

ii
.

Angular

displacement
:

Rotational

motion
.

Unit
:

a scalar quantity

It

indicates

the

rate

of

change

of

distance

per

unit

of

time
.

Speed

Equals
:

distance/time

=

d/t
.

Units
:

m/sec

or

.

It

is a vector quantity

It is a measure of body motion in a given direction.

It indicates the
rate

and
direction

of change of displacement per
unit of time.

Equals
:
distance/time.

Units:

M/sec.

Types
:

Linear velocity:

Angular velocity:

the rate and direction

of
movement in
a linear direction.

Equals
:

Linear

distance

/

time

=

d/t

Unit
:

meter/sec
.

the rate and direction
of
movement in
an angular direction
.

Equals
:

Arc

length

/time
.

Unit
:

.

Speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector.

A scalar only has magnitude while a vector has magnitude
and direction.

Example:

If you are traveling north at 65 miles an hour

your speed is 65 miles an hour,

your velocity is 65 miles an hour north.

It gets a little more complicated.

Speed = distance (a scalar)/time

Velocity = Displacement (vector)/time

30
miles per hour north" and "
30
miles per hour west"

are the same speed but different velocities

A

vector

quantity
.

The

rate

of

change

of

velocity

in

relation

to

time
.

Acceleration

Equals
:

change

of

velocity/time

=

V
2
-
V
1
/

t
.

Units
:

(m/sec
2
)

or

2
.

Displacement

Speed

Velocity

Acceleration

Vector

quantity

Scalar quantity

Vector quantity

Vector quantity

It is the change of the position
of a body.

It may be
linear

or
angular

or
it may be a
combination
of
the two.

It indicates the
rate of change of
distance per unit

of time
.

Speed
Equals
:
distance/time
=
d/t.

Units:

m/sec or

It is a measure of body
motion in a given
direction.

It indicates the rate and
direction of change of
displacement per unit

of
time
. .

Equals:
displacement/time
.
Units: M/sec.

The rate of change
of velocity in
relation to time.

Acceleration
Equals:

change of
velocity/time
= V2
-
V1/t.

Units:

(m/sec2) or

Linear
displacement

Angular
displacement

Linear
velocity:

Angular
velocity:

Translational
motion
whether
rectilinear or
curvilinear

Unit:

meter

Rotational
motion

Unit:

the rate and
direction of
movement
in a linear
direction.

Equals
:

Linear
distance /
time
= d/t

Unit:

meter/sec.

the rate and
direction of
movement
in an
angular
direction.

Equals: Arc
length /time.

Unit:

1.
Force

2.
Torque = moment

3.

4.
Stress

Dynamics

It

can

be

defined

as

the

force

generated

as

a

tissue

resists

deformation

(intermolecular

resistance)

in

response

to

externally

applied

divided

by

its

cross
-
sectional

area

(also

called

pressure)
.

Stress

is

developed

in

a

plane

surface

within

structure
.

Stress

(Pressure)

(σ)

=

force

divided

by

a

surface

area

=

F

/

A

Units
:

Pascal

N/m
2
.

Symbol is sigma
(σ)
.

Stress

could

be

divided

into

two

types

which

are
:

any

perpendicular

stress

to

the

surface

of

the

segment
.

any

parallel

stress

to

the

surface

of

segment

(as

they

try

to

separate

object)

A. Normal Stress

B. Shear Stress

stress to the surface of

perpendicular
any
the segment.

to the surface of

parallel stress
any
segment (as they try to separate object)

A. Normal Stress

B. Shear Stress

stress to the surface of

perpendicular
any
the segment.

to the surface of

parallel stress
any
segment (as they try to separate object)

It is the
amount of deformation
of a tissue
divided by
its original length
which occur
when tissue is subjected to external load

Example:

when tension force is applied there is deformation of original length.

=

change of length ∆L /original length L

Units:

non

as it is a ratio

Strain symbol (Є) is epsilon

Three

imaginary

planes
(
Cardinal
) divide the
body in half by mass are
known as the:

1
-
Sagittal plane

2
-
Frontal plane

3
-
Transverse plane

It divides the body
vertically

into
left

and
right

halves

Any plane parallel to the
median plane is called a
sagittal plane

in which
forward

and
backward

movements of the
body occur.

Movements in this plane can
be seen from the
s
ide.

Example:

Flexion / Extension

dorsiflexion

/
plantar flexion

Movement in the sagittal plane about the frontal axis

It divides the body
vertically

in front (
anterior)

and back
(
posterior)

halves

in which lateral movements of
the body occur.

Movements in this plane can
be seen from the
f
ront or back

Example:

Side bending = lateral flexion

Movement in the frontal plane about the sagital axis

It divides the body
horizontally

in front (
anterior)

and back
(
posterior)

halves

into top (
superior / upper)
and
bottom (
inferior / lower
) halves

in which horizontal body and body
segment movements occurs when the
body is in the erect standing position.

Movements in this plane can be
seen from the top or bottom

Example:

shoulder rotation

Movement in the transverse (horizontal) plane about the vertical axis

When a segment of a human body moves, it
rotates around an imaginary axis (line/rod) of
rotation that passes through a joint to which
it is attached.

The rotation around that imaginary axis
occurs
perpendicular

to
plane of motion.

Rotation occurs perpendicular to the axis.

Definition of axis of rotation:

-

an imaginary line
rotates or spins
,
at right angles to the plane.

There are three axes:

1
-
The Frontal axis.

2
-
The Sagittal axis.

3
-
The Longitudinal axis.

is an imaginary line around which sagittal plane
rotations occur.

Example:

Flexion / Extension

The frontal axis is
perpendicular

to the sagittal
plane

It is an imaginary line around which frontal
plane rotations occur.

Example:

The sagittal axis is
perpendicular
to the frontal
plane

is an imaginary line around which transverse
plane rotations occur.

Example:

medial and lateral rotations,

supination

and
pronation
.

The longitudinal axis is
perpendicular

to the
transverse plane

Three

imaginary

planes
(
Cardinal
) divide the
body in half by mass are
known as the:

1
-
Sagittal plane= median

2
-
Frontal plane= Coronal

3
-
Transverse plane =
(Horizontal).

There are three axes:

1
-
The Frontal axis = (
Mediolateral

axis ).

2
-
The Sagittal axis = (Anterior
-
posterior axis ) .

3
-
The Longitudinal axis= (Vertical axis ).

Summary

-
The sagittal plane is perpendicular to the frontal axis.

-
The sagittal plane is perpendicular to the frontal plane.

-
The frontal plane is perpendicular to the sagittal axis.

-
The frontal plane is perpendicular to the sagittal plane.

-
The transverse plane is perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis.

-
The transverse plane is perpendicular to the frontal
plane.

-
The transverse plane is perpendicular to the sagittal
plane.