1.
Try to understand everything in the lecture and
section.
2.
Discuss and ask about anything you didn’t
understand even simple easy information.
3.
Don’t be embarrassed by doing that.
4.
Write everything happened in the lecture in
English or even Arabic.
Kinesiology
Anatomy
Physiology
Biomechanics
Kinematics
Quantitative
Qualitative
Kinetics
Statics
Dynamics
Biomechanics
Kinetics
Kinematics
•
It is a branch part of mechanics
that describes the effect of forces
on body.
•
These forces may affect body in
both static and dynamic situations
•
It divided into
statics
and
dynamics.
•
It is a branch of mechanics that concerned with descriptive
analysis the motion of a body
without
consideration of forces
or torques that causing the motion.
•
It is classified to
quantitative
and
qualitative
analysis.
Dynamics
Statics
Qualitative
Quantitative
It study the
moving
bodies
under the effect
of
unbalanced
forces .
It st畤礠潦u扯摩敳e
remaining
at rest
or
in equilibrium
brought
about by
balanced forces.
It deals with
naming
and
evaluating
the
movement
component.
䍯湣敲湥搠
睩w栠h桥hv敭敮t
煵qlit礠
⡭ov敭敮t 摥獣dipti潮Ⱐ
睨w捨c捬畤敳e
c潭o敮ti湧渠
movement pattern, accuracy,
fluency…
It is concerned with
counting
and
measuring
the
movement
component.
䍯湣敲湥搠睩w栠h桥h
浥慳ar慢l攠v慲楡扬攠潦o
浯v敭敮ts
Ⱐ慳a
摩獰s慣敭敮tⰠ獰敥搬sv敬潣楴礠
and acceleration.
Biomechanics
Kinetics
Kinematics
•
It divided into
statics
and
dynamics.
•
It is classified to
quantitative
and
qualitative
analysis.
Dynamics
Statics
Qualitative
Quantitative
It study the
moving
bodies
under the effect
of
unbalanced
forces .
It st畤礠潦u扯摩敳e
remaining
at rest
or
in equilibrium
brought
about by
balanced forces.
It deals with
naming
and
evaluating
the
movement
component.
䍯湣敲湥搠
睩w栠h桥hv敭敮t
quality
(movement description,
which includes
commenting on
movement pattern, accuracy,
fluency…
It is concerned with
counting
and
measuring
the
movement
component.
䍯湣敲湥搠睩w栠h桥h
measurable variable of
movements
, as
摩獰s慣敭敮tⰠ獰敥搬sv敬潣楴礠
慮搠慣捥l敲ati潮o
1.
Displacement
2.
Speed
3.
Velocity
4.
Acceleration
Quantitative
Distance
Displacement
Scalar Quantity
Vector Quantity
_______________
______________
time
time
=
=
Speed
Velocity
•
is
the
change
of
the
position
of
a
body
.
•
It
must
has
a
magnitude
and
direction
It
may
be
linear
or
angular
or
it
may
be
a
combination
of
the
two
.
i
.
Linear
displacement
:
•
Translational
motion
either
rectilinear
or
curvilinear
Unit
:
meter
ii
.
Angular
displacement
:
Rotational
motion
.
Unit
:
radian
•
a scalar quantity
It
indicates
the
rate
of
change
of
distance
per
unit
of
time
.
Speed
Equals
:
distance/time
=
d/t
.
Units
:
m/sec
or
radian/sec
.
•
It
is a vector quantity
It is a measure of body motion in a given direction.
It indicates the
rate
and
direction
of change of displacement per
unit of time.
Equals
:
distance/time.
Units:
M/sec.
Types
:
Linear velocity:
Angular velocity:
the rate and direction
of
movement in
a linear direction.
Equals
:
Linear
distance
/
time
=
d/t
Unit
:
meter/sec
.
the rate and direction
of
movement in
an angular direction
.
Equals
:
Arc
length
/time
.
Unit
:
radian/sec
.
•
Speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector.
•
A scalar only has magnitude while a vector has magnitude
and direction.
•
Example:
•
If you are traveling north at 65 miles an hour
•
your speed is 65 miles an hour,
•
your velocity is 65 miles an hour north.
•
It gets a little more complicated.
•
Speed = distance (a scalar)/time
•
Velocity = Displacement (vector)/time
30
miles per hour north" and "
30
miles per hour west"
are the same speed but different velocities
•
A
vector
quantity
.
•
The
rate
of
change
of
velocity
in
relation
to
time
.
Acceleration
Equals
:
change
of
velocity/time
=
V
2

V
1
/
∆
t
.
Units
:
(m/sec
2
)
or
radian/sec
2
.
Displacement
Speed
Velocity
Acceleration
Vector
quantity
Scalar quantity
Vector quantity
Vector quantity
It is the change of the position
of a body.
It may be
linear
or
angular
or
it may be a
combination
of
the two.
It indicates the
rate of change of
distance per unit
of time
.
Speed
Equals
:
distance/time
=
d/t.
Units:
m/sec or
radian/sec.
It is a measure of body
motion in a given
direction.
It indicates the rate and
direction of change of
displacement per unit
of
time
. .
Equals:
displacement/time
.
Units: M/sec.
The rate of change
of velocity in
relation to time.
Acceleration
Equals:
change of
velocity/time
= V2

V1/t.
Units:
(m/sec2) or
radian/sec2.
Linear
displacement
Angular
displacement
Linear
velocity:
Angular
velocity:
Translational
motion
whether
rectilinear or
curvilinear
Unit:
meter
Rotational
motion
Unit:
radian
the rate and
direction of
movement
in a linear
direction.
Equals
:
Linear
distance /
time
= d/t
Unit:
meter/sec.
the rate and
direction of
movement
in an
angular
direction.
Equals: Arc
length /time.
Unit:
radian/sec
1.
Force
2.
Torque = moment
3.
Load
4.
Stress
Dynamics
It
can
be
defined
as
the
force
generated
as
a
tissue
resists
deformation
(intermolecular
resistance)
in
response
to
externally
applied
loads,
divided
by
its
cross

sectional
area
(also
called
pressure)
.
Stress
is
developed
in
a
plane
surface
within
structure
.
Stress
(Pressure)
(σ)
=
force
divided
by
a
surface
area
=
F
/
A
Units
:
Pascal
N/m
2
.
Symbol is sigma
(σ)
.
Stress
could
be
divided
into
two
types
which
are
:
any
perpendicular
stress
to
the
surface
of
the
segment
.
any
parallel
stress
to
the
surface
of
segment
(as
they
try
to
separate
object)
A. Normal Stress
B. Shear Stress
stress to the surface of
perpendicular
any
the segment.
to the surface of
parallel stress
any
segment (as they try to separate object)
A. Normal Stress
B. Shear Stress
stress to the surface of
perpendicular
any
the segment.
to the surface of
parallel stress
any
segment (as they try to separate object)
It is the
amount of deformation
of a tissue
divided by
its original length
which occur
when tissue is subjected to external load
Example:
when tension force is applied there is deformation of original length.
=
change of length ∆L /original length L
Units:
non
as it is a ratio
Strain symbol (Є) is epsilon
•
Three
imaginary
planes
(
Cardinal
) divide the
body in half by mass are
known as the:
1

Sagittal plane
2

Frontal plane
3

Transverse plane
•
It divides the body
vertically
•
into
left
and
right
halves
•
Any plane parallel to the
median plane is called a
sagittal plane
in which
forward
and
backward
movements of the
body occur.
Movements in this plane can
be seen from the
s
ide.
Example:
Flexion / Extension
dorsiflexion
/
plantar flexion
Movement in the sagittal plane about the frontal axis
•
It divides the body
vertically
•
in front (
anterior)
and back
(
posterior)
halves
•
in which lateral movements of
the body occur.
•
Movements in this plane can
be seen from the
f
ront or back
•
Example:
Abduction Adduction
Side bending = lateral flexion
Movement in the frontal plane about the sagital axis
•
It divides the body
horizontally
•
in front (
anterior)
and back
(
posterior)
halves
•
into top (
superior / upper)
and
bottom (
inferior / lower
) halves
•
in which horizontal body and body
segment movements occurs when the
body is in the erect standing position.
•
Movements in this plane can be
seen from the top or bottom
Example:
•
shoulder rotation
Movement in the transverse (horizontal) plane about the vertical axis
•
When a segment of a human body moves, it
rotates around an imaginary axis (line/rod) of
rotation that passes through a joint to which
it is attached.
•
The rotation around that imaginary axis
occurs
perpendicular
to
plane of motion.
•
Rotation occurs perpendicular to the axis.
Definition of axis of rotation:

an imaginary line
about which the body
rotates or spins
,
at right angles to the plane.
There are three axes:
1

The Frontal axis.
2

The Sagittal axis.
3

The Longitudinal axis.
•
is an imaginary line around which sagittal plane
rotations occur.
•
Example:
Flexion / Extension
•
The frontal axis is
perpendicular
to the sagittal
plane
•
It is an imaginary line around which frontal
plane rotations occur.
•
Example:
Abduction Adduction
•
The sagittal axis is
perpendicular
to the frontal
plane
•
is an imaginary line around which transverse
plane rotations occur.
•
Example:
medial and lateral rotations,
supination
and
pronation
.
•
The longitudinal axis is
perpendicular
to the
transverse plane
•
Three
imaginary
planes
(
Cardinal
) divide the
body in half by mass are
known as the:
1

Sagittal plane= median
2

Frontal plane= Coronal
3

Transverse plane =
(Horizontal).
There are three axes:
1

The Frontal axis = (
Mediolateral
axis ).
2

The Sagittal axis = (Anterior

posterior axis ) .
3

The Longitudinal axis= (Vertical axis ).
Summary

The sagittal plane is perpendicular to the frontal axis.

The sagittal plane is perpendicular to the frontal plane.

The frontal plane is perpendicular to the sagittal axis.

The frontal plane is perpendicular to the sagittal plane.

The transverse plane is perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis.

The transverse plane is perpendicular to the frontal
plane.

The transverse plane is perpendicular to the sagittal
plane.
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