Franklin Loaiza 09-10450

haplessuseUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

185 views

Franklin
Loaiza

09
-
10450

Marianne
Scheer

09
-
10800


Introduction


History


Concept


Materials


Examples


Advantages


Disadvantages


Modern

uses


Conclusion


R
eferences


The

building

method

of post and lintel has
been

used

for

centuries
.


All structural openings have evolved from this
system, which is seen in pure form only in framed
structures, because the posts of doors, windows,
ceilings, and roofs normally form part of the wall.


Post and lintel construction is recognized by its
simple vertical and horizontal design, in which a
pair of vertical supports are set in the ground or a
foundation, and a horizontal structure is balanced
on top of them.


Ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architects made extensive
use of Post
-
and
-
lintel construction to support the roofs of
temples and public places. Such ancient structures as
Stonehenge, in Britain, were constructed on the post
-
and
-
lintel
system, which was the basis of architecture from prehistoric to
Roman times. The interiors of Egyptian temples and the exteriors
of Greek temples are delineated by columns covered by stone
lintels. The Greeks substituted wooden beams for stone because
the wood required fewer supports and opened up the interior
spaces.



One of the earliest and most renowned post and lintel example
is the prehistoric Stonehenge monument in England, where
massive stone blocks were placed in a circle in the support
-
and
-
overhead design. Pure post and lintel construction also can be
found in a variety of early shelters, including huts, cottages and
stables. The Romans developed a variation of post and lintel
construction with the arch, which added stability and support,
and by the Catholic Church in Europe with the introduction of
buttresses to support massive cathedral walls.


Post and lintel, or in contemporary usage Post and
beam, is a simple construction method using a lintel,
or header as the horizontal member over a building
void supported at its ends by two vertical columns,
pillars, or posts.


This architectural system and building method has
been commonly used for centuries to support weight,
such as a roof or deck, depending on the vertical posts
it rests on. It can support a huge amount of weight,
and is effective for reinforcing tall buildings or heavy
structures. The post refers to the vertical support,
which is paired with an identical support to form the
full design. Posts can be columns, poles or beams,
modified to meet as architectural designs.

There are two main force vectors acting upon the post and lintel system: weight
carrying compression at the joint between lintel and post, and tension induced by
deformation of self
-
weight and the load above between the posts. The two posts are
under compression from the weight of the lintel (or beam) above.



The posts must support the lintel and its loads without crushing or buckling.
Post material must be especially strong in compression . Post and lintel
construction can incorporate wood, metal and stone. Stone has this property
and is more versatile in its use as a post than as a lintel. Under heavy loads,
stone is superior to wood but not to iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. When
used in doorways, wood and steel are the most common materials. Depending
on building requirements and ordinances, the supports in windows may be
made of plastic or fiberglass, while wood or metal form the surrounding frame.
Masonry posts, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, because loads
compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness .The most important detail
about post and lintel construction is the pieces must fit together exactly, so
they are often prefabricated in mills and shops, and then assembled on
-
site.

Stone


Brick



Wood


Cast

Iron


Concrete


Steel

The Parthenon, Greece

St. Paul’s Cathedral, London

Temple of Horus at
Edfu
, Egypt

Roman Architecture.

Stonehenge, England.

Temple of
Karnak
, Egypt.

Glass House, Philip Johnson, Connecticut.


The simplicity of the method itself


Nowadays, building time is much shorter when it comes to
post and beam construction because the walls to fill in
between the posts are prefabricated and transported to the
job site, where they can simply be put up when necessary.
The post and beams are pre
-
drilled prior to going to the job
site, so they can simply just be put together. This saves a
great deal of time at the actual job site, once the house
begins to be constructed.


Stability


The brute strength of the timbers and the joints. This allows
for fewer individual pieces of lumber compared to platform
construction.





The lintel will deform by sagging in the middle because
the underside is under tension and the topside is
under compression.






Limited weight that can be held up.


The small distances required between the posts.


It’s not nearly as common as platform construction.
This may translate into higher building prices for post
and lintel construction.


The weight of each piece.



Today, most post and lintel construction has a third
component, the wall, which adds additional support
and hides the post and lintel design within the
framework. It can still be seen in doorways and
columns, in which the space between the vertical
supports is open.


Variations on post and lintel design can be found in
bridges, complex archways and crossbeams,
sometimes with cable support adding extra stability.


Because post and lintel construction is so simple, it
forms the base for the entrances to modern buildings
that do not feature curves, which add stability.


Post and lintel
construction

is

an

ancient

method

barely

used

today
,
because

there

have

been

developed

other

construction

methods

which

are
cheaper

and more
efficient
,
although
,
many

of
the

construction

techniques

used

in
modern

architecture

are
derived

from

this

prehistoric

technology
; so
we

can
say

it’s

still

a
reference

and
a
start

point

for

future

architectural

projects
.


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/472
032/post
-
and
-
lintel
-
system


http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?
q=cache:yamIdwIIQqcJ:www.answers.com/topic/p
ost
-
and
-
lintel
-
2+history+of+post+and+lintel+construction&cd=4
&hl=en&ct=clnk&source=www.google.com


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Post_and_lintel


www.ehow.com ›
Housekeeping


http://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8034933_post
-
beam
-
pros
-
cons.html