NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING

hammercoupleMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

1

TS
62.01.9

COMPETENCY


1.

Annual Logbook Summary


The logbook summary, to be submitted annually together with the currency fee prescribed in
Part 187 to the Commissioner or to the organisation, designated for the purpose in terms of
Part 149, as the case
may be, shall be in the format prescribed in technical standard
61.02.12
; provided that in the case of hang
-
glidin
g and paragliding not a summary

but a
certified
copy of all logbook entries
made during

the previous 12 months shall be submitted
.


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

2

TS 6
2
.01.
10

MEDICAL FITNESS


1.

Medical Fitness Certificate


The medical fitness certificate to be submitted by the applicant for or the holder of a
recreational pilot licence in terms of sub
-
regulation 62.01.10 (2) shall be in the following
format:



Pilot’s Dec
laration of Medical Fitness


“I,
[pilot’s name in full
, hereby declare that I have never suffered, nor suffer currently, from
any of the following, which I understand may create, or lead to, a dangerous situation in
flight.




Epilepsy, fits, severe head inj
ury



Recurrent fainting, giddiness or black
-
outs; unusual
-
high blood pressure



A coronary



Any defect or disability (including excessive eyesight deficiency) that may
jeopardize flight safety



Any previously sustained injury that could affect my ability to con
trol the aircraft


“I further declare that





I am not regularly taking insulin for the control of diabetes



I am not addicted to any drug or narcotic substance (including alcohol) that may
effect my faculties in any manner that may jeopardize flight safety



In the event of my contracting, or suspecting, any of the above conditions in the ,
future, I will not exercise the privileges of my pilot licence until I have been
examined by a suitably qualified medical practitioner and be declared physically
fit to fl
y hang
-
glider or paragliders, including powered hang
-
glides or
paragliders.


“Signed: _____________________




Date: __________________”



2.

Medical Practitioner’s Declaration


1.

Where a person feels unable to sign the Pilot’s Declaration, referred to

in Section 1,
or where an aviation training organisation or an authorised Licensing and Safety
Officer of an aviation recreation organisation is reluctant to accept the declaration, a
Medical Practitioner’s Declaration may be submitted in stead.


2.

A Med
ical Practitioner’s Declaration is required in respect of the holder of a
recreational pilot licence with a tandem rating endorsement, in addition to the Pilot’s
Declaration (if any).



3.

The Medical Practitioner’s Declaration shall be in the following fo
rmat:



Medical Practitioner’s Declaration of Medical Fitness




“I,
[full name of practitioner]
, am



NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

3






the regular general practitioner of the applicant



a CAA designated private pilot licence medical examiner



a medical doctor actively engaged in
flying



(other) __________________________________





[tick
-
off as applicable]


“I understand that the applicant wishes to engage in hang
-
gliding or paragliding / to
carry passengers while engaged in hang
-
gliding or paragliding operations.
[Delete
portio
n not applicable, if any.]




“In my opinion, it is safe for him/her to do so.




“Full name of the applicant in respect of which this declaration is issued:




______________________________________________________________




“Signed: ____________________
____

Date: _____________________



“Medical Practitioner’s name and practice number:


______________________________

___________________________”


3.

Conditions to watch for


The following conditions may cause difficulty when flying. Any
person suffering, or having
suffered, from any of these conditions, is advised to seek medical opinion:




Chronic bronchitis, severe asthma, chronic sinus disease, chronic ear disease, eye trouble
(e.g. inability to read a car number plate at 25 meters


co
rrective glasses may be used),
regular severe migraine.




Diabetes in any form, rheumatic fever, kidney stones, psychiatric disorders, severe
motion or ravel sickness, any condition requiring the regular use of drugs (includes any
medication whatsoever).




I
njuries that were previously sustained and that may inhibit control of an aircraft.


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

4

TS

62.01.12

LOGGING OF FLIGHT TIME


1.

Form of logbook


(1)

Logbooks must be maintained in the format contained in Annex A.
(See supplement
to AIC 30.3, which will becom
e Annex A)


(2)

The
format of logbooks to be maintained by hang
-
gliding pilots and paragliding
pilots is contained in Annex B.


2.

Information to be contained in logbooks



The following information must be recorded in logbooks:



(a)

General:


(i)

full na
me and address of owner;


(ii)

summary of previous flying experience, if any;


(iii)

licence(s) held, with number.


(b)

Particulars of each actual or simulated flight

to the extent applicable
:




(i)

date;

(ii)

(aa)

the registration marks and type or ICAO
designator of the aircraft
, or
the make and model and size of hang glider or paraglider
,


in which the flight was made;

or

(bb)

the registration and type of the simulator in which the simulated flight
was made;


(iii)

name of pilot
-
in
-
command (PiC) or ‘SEL
F’;



(iv)

operating capacity of the holder if not PiC;

(v)

name of safety pilot, if applicable;


(vi)

place of departure and of arrival in respect of an actual flight;

(vii)

nature
or type
of flight.


(c)

Specification of pilot flight time experience acqu
ired in any of the following
categories:


(i)

authorised flight training received from an appropriately rated flight
instructor;

(ii)

recreational

pilot
learner
flying solo;

(iii)

pilot
-
in
-
command (PiC);

(iv)

co
-
pilot;

(v)

flight instructor.



(d)

Conditio
ns of flight:


day or night;


VFR or IFR;


VMC or IMC


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

5

3.

Recording of flight time


(1)

Flight time shall be recorded in the categories as prescribed in sub
-
regulations (3) to
(6) of regulation 62.01.12.



(2)

Flight times may be recorded in hours and minu
tes, or in hours and decimals of
hours.


(3)

When
a pilot uses a single logbook for
recording
all his or her
flight times

, a clear
distinction must be made between flight time acquired on different categories of
aircraft; e.g. microlight aeroplane, gyroco
pter, etc.


4.

When flight times are to be recorded



Entries in pilot’s logbooks shall be made within the periods prescribed in sub
-
regulation (2)
of regulation 62.01.12.


5.

Manner in which logbooks are to be maintained


(1)

In order to facilitate the is
suing of licences, or the issuing and renewal of ratings , a
pilot shall summarise his or her logbook for the six or twelve months immediately
preceding the date of application for the issue of a licence, or the issue or renewal of
a rating, as applicable
.


(2)

In the case where no application, as referred to in paragraph (1), is made during a
year, a pilot shall summarise his or her logbook at least annually, and submit such
annual summary to the Commissioner or the organisation designated for the purpose
in terms of Part 149, as the case may be, together with payment of the licence
currency fee prescribed in Part 187 of the CAR of 1997
, provided that in the case of
hang
-

and paragliding pilots, a copy of all logbook entries during the previous twelve
month
s shall be submitted
.


(3)

The summaries, referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2), shall take into account the
differentiation made in terms of paragraphs 2(c) and 3(1) and 3(3).


(4)

Summaries must be signed by the pilot and, where applicable, by the flight

instructor. In the latter case, the flight instructor shall print clearly his or her name,
and record his or her licence number.



(5)

On each page, totals must be brought and carried forward, and grand totals recorded.
Grand totals must be recorded in t
he left
-
hand corner at the bottom of each page in
the space provided there

for.


(6)

The ‘Details of flight and remarks’ column must be completed, showing



(i)

the exercises of the applicable practical flight instruction syllabus; or


(ii)

in the case of

navigation: the route flown; or


(iii)

in the case of a recreational aviation flight the type of flight;


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

6

(iv)

whether the pilot
-
in
-
command acted as flight instructor;


(v)

any other information of importance related to the flight.


(7)

Where a flight is
conducted for the purpose of meeting a maintenance of competency
requirement, this must be recorded on the line of the particular flight; e.g. ‘
Reg.
62.04.7(a)(ii) complied with
’. Where currency was restored by means of a skill test,
the entry
‘Reg. xxx co
mplied with’

shall be countersigned by the testing officer.


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

7

62.01.15

VALIDATION OF FOREIGN PILOT LICENCES AND RATINGS


1.

Application


The application for a Certificate of Validation for a foreign pilot licence or rating shall be
made on form
CA62
-
02.xx

to the Commissioner or the organisation, designated for the
purpose in terms of Part 149, as the case may be.


2.

Certificate of Validation



A Certificate of Validation shall be issued on the form
CA62
-
02.xx


3.

Documents to accompany application


An appl
ication for a Certificate of Validation for a foreign pilot licence or rating shall be
accompanied by



(a)

the fees and documents prescribed in sub
-
regulations 62.02.15(4)(a) to (e);

(b)

where a practical test flight is required, a copy of the relevant f
light test report;

(c)

where a theoretical knowledge examination is required, proof of having passed such
examination; and

(d)

any other document that the Commissioner or the organisation
designated for the
purpose in terms of Part 149, as the case may be,

may require in respect of a
particular applicant, required to assess the applicant’s fitness to hold a South African
Certificate of Validation for his or her foreign pilot licence or rating.


4.

Requirements and conditions



(1)

Use of English


(a)

An app
licant for the issue of a Certificate of Validation shall have sufficient
ability in reading, speaking and understanding the English language to enable
him or her to adequately carry out his or her responsibilities as a recreational
pilot under the followi
ng circumstances




(i)

In flight:




To conduct radiotelephony relevant to all phases of flight, including
emergency situations.


(ii)

On the ground:


To understand all information relevant to the accomplishment of a
flight; e.g. to be able to read and
demonstrate an understanding of
technical manuals written in English, such as an Operations Manual,
an Aircraft Flight Manual, etc.; pre
-
flight planning, weather
information collection, NOTAMs, ATC Flight Plan, etc.; use of all
aeronautical
en route
, depar
ture and approach charts, and associated
documents written in English.


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

8

(iii)

General communication:




Be able to communicate with other crew members in English during
all phases of flight, including flight preparation.


(b)

The applicant’s ability to us
e the English language shall be demonstrated by
having either



(i)

passed a specific examination, conducted by the Civil Aviation
Authority, after having undergone training enabling the applicant to
meet all the objectives listed in (a) (i) to (iii) abov
e; or


(ii)

having been assessed as competent in the use of English in objectives
(a)(i) to (iii) above by a Designated
Radio

Examiner or a person,
approved for the purpose.


(2)

Requirements for the issue of a validation for the purpose of recreational fl
ying



An applicant who wishes to validate his or her foreign licence for the purpose of
exercising the privileges of a recreational pilot in a South African registered aircraft
shall




(a)

Pass a practical flight test with an appropriately rated flight
instructor, who is
also required to assess the applicant’s cross
-
country, navigational
proficiency. If necessary, according to experience, the applicant shall
undergo a navigation flight test with the instructor, similar to the cross
-
country flight require
ment as prescribed by these regulations for the issue of
a recreational pilot licence; and



(b)

Pass an examination in air law as applicable for a recreational pilot licence at
an aviation training organisation, approved in terms of Part 141.


(3)

Validat
ion of flight instructor rating




(a)

To qualify for the validation of a recreational flight instructor rating, the
applicant shall



(i)

Be in the possession of a valid, equivalent or higher grade flight
instructor rating, issued by the appropriate auth
ority of a Contracting
State;


(ii)

Qualify for the issue of, or be in the possession of a valid validation
of his or her pilot licence;


(iii)

Pass a practical flight test with an appropriately qualified flight
instructor who shall also assess the applicant’s t
eaching proficiency
and conduct a cross
-
country flight test with the applicant
.

(iv)


(v)

Pass a written or oral examination, conducted by the CAA or the
designated organisation, in any other relevant subject as may be
NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

9

directed by the Commissioner or the said organ
isation in the light of
the applicant’s flight instructor experience.



(b)

The Commissioner retains the right to nominate a specific testing officer for
the conduct of any of the tests, referred to in the sub
-
paragraphs (a).



(4)

Validation of other rati
ngs


An applicant for the issuing of a Certificate of Validation of any foreign rating, other
than a recreational flight instructor rating, shall
--


(a)

Have been issued with the relevant pilot licence validation;

(b)

Meet the eligibility requirements laid down i
n this Part for the particular
rating; and

(c)

Pass

the relevant skill test prescribed for the particular rating with the holder
of an appropriately qualified flight instructor.


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

10

62.01.20

RADIOTELEPHONY CERTIFICATES


1.

General


(a)

The issuing authority fo
r radiotelephony certificates is the Independent
Communications Authority of
South Africa (ICASA).


(b)

ICASA issues two types of certificates, namely a restricted and a general certificate
of proficiency (aeronautical), and may recognise similar certifica
tes issued by a
foreign state for validation purposes.


(c)

The CAA has been authorised by ICASA to issue certificates on behalf of ICASA


2.

Restricted Certificate


The holder of a recreational pilot licences must be the holder of at least a restricted
ce
rtificate whenever he or she operates an aircraft that is required to be fitted with radio
apparatus capable of operating within the aeronautical frequency band.


3.

Validation of foreign certificate



The holder of a foreign certificate of proficiency (a
eronautical) or similar certificate must
obtain a validation from the CAA before operating the radio apparatus in a South African
registered aircraft.


4.

Concessions for the holders of a recreational pilot learner’s certificate



ICASA has given permissio
n for the holder of a recreational pilot learner’s certificate to
operate the radio apparatus on board an aircraft under the supervision of a certificated
operator for a period not exceeding three months. The conditions for the issue of a
recreational pilo
t learner’s certificate and a certificate of competency to operate radio
apparatus are prescribed in Subpart 2 of Part 62 of the Regulations.


5.

Application and Examination



The procedures to be followed in applying for a certificate of proficiency (aero
nautical), and
the conditions applying to the relevant examinations, are published from time to time in
Aeronautical Information Circular AIC 30
-
9.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

11

62
.02.2

TRAINING



1. Aim of training course


The aim of the training course is to train prospective pi
lots to the level of knowledge and
understanding necessary to obtain a recreational pilot learner’s certificate.


2. Theoretical knowledge course


The theoretical knowledge course must cover the following aspects:


1.

Air Law

as appropriate to recreational

pilots;


2.

Aircraft General Knowledge
, covering the aircraft type used for training;


and where the applicant is not the holder of a restricted radiotelephony operating certificate
(if required):


3.

Communication
, including, where appropriate, the foll
owing:



(a)

General:


(i)

Use of AIP and frequency selection

(ii)

Microphone technique

(iii)

Phonetic alphabet

(iv)

Station / aircraft call signs/abbreviations

(v)

Transmission technique

(vi)

Use of standard words and phrases

(vii)

Listening out

(viii)

Re
quired “read back” instructions


(b)

Departure procedures:


(i)

Radio checks

(ii)

Taxi instructions

(iii)

Holding on the ground

(iv)

Departure clearance / instructions


(c)

En
-
route

procedures


(i)

Frequency changing

(ii)

Position, altitude/flight level re
porting

(iii)

Flight information service


(aa)

Weather information

(bb)

weather reporting


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12

(d)

Procedure to obtain bearings, headings and position


(i)

Procedure phraseology

(ii)

Height / range coverage


(e)

Arrival and traffic pattern procedures


(i)

Arr
ival clearance /instructions

(ii)

Calls and ATC instructions during :


(aa)

circuit

(bb)

approach and landing

(cc)

vacating runway


(f).

Communication failure


(i)

Action to be taken


(aa)

Alternate frequency

(bb)

serviceability check, including microphone

and headphones


(ii)

In
-
flight procedures according to type of airspace


(g).

Distress and urgency procedures


(i)

Distress (MAYDAY), definition, and when to use


(aa)

Frequencies to use

(bb)

Contents of MAYDAY message


(ii)

Urgency (PAN), definition, and

when to use


(aa)

Frequencies to use


(iii)

Relay of messages

(iv)

Maintenance of silence when distress / urgency calls heard

(v)

Cancellation of distress / urgency

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22 Feb. 14

13

62.02.3

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATIONS


1.

Contents


(1)

An applicant for a recreati
onal pilot learner’s certificate must pass written theoretical
knowledge examinations on the following subjects:


(a)

Aircraft technical on the type of training aircraft being used;



(b)

The aviation legislation applicable to recreational pilots, includin
g rules of
the air, taxi rules, lights, signals, and NOTAM and AIC in force at the time of
the examination, in so far as they are applicable to the operation of the
category and type of aircraft in respect of which application for the
recreational pilot li
cence will be made.


(2)

The provisions of sub
-
paragraph (1)
do not apply to an applicant for a recreational
pilot learner’s certificate in the category hang
-
glider or paraglider.


2.

Conducting of theoretical knowledge examination


The written theoretica
l knowledge examinations must be conducted by
-


(a)

in the case of a microlight aeroplane, the holder of a Grade A or Grade B
recreational flight instructor rating (microlight aeroplane); or


(b)

in the case of a
gyroplane/glider, the holder of a recreatio
nal flight instructor
(gyroplane) rating or recreational chief flight instructor (gyroplane) rating.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

14

62.02.5

APPLICATION FOR RECREATIONAL PILOT LEARNER’S
CERTIFICATE


1.

Application


1.

An application for a recreational pilot learner’s certificate in a
category, other than
hang
-
glider or paraglider, shall be made on form CA62
-
02.xx to the Commissioner
or the organisation approved for the purpose in terms of Part 149 of the CAR.


2.

An application for a recreational pilot learner’s certificate
in the cate
gory hang
-
glider
or paraglider shall be made on form CA62
-
02.xx to the holder

of a valid recreational
flight instructor rating under whose supervision the training will take place.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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22 Feb. 14

15

62.02.6

RECREATIONAL PILOT LEARNER’S CERTIFICATE


1.

Format



The recreat
ional pilot learner’s certificate shall be issued



(a)

in the case of a category, other than hang
-
glider or paraglider, on form CA62.02.nn;


(b)

in
the case of the categories hang
-
glider or paraglider by the issuing flight instructor
validating the applic
ation form, prescribed in TS 62.02.5 in paragraph

1.2.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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16

62.02.8

PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS OF RECREATIONAL PILOT
LEARNER’s CERTIFICATE


1.

Practical training course syllabus



The practical training course syllabus, referred to in sub
-
regulation 62.02.8(2
) is the
practical training course prescribed for the relevant category of aircraft for which the learner
is undergoing flight training.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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62.03.2

APPLICATION FOR RECREATIONAL PILOT LICENCE



1.

Application



The application for a recreational pilot li
cen
ce shall be made on form CA62
-
03.xx.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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18

62.03.3

RECREATIONAL PILOT LICENCE


1.

Format



A recreational pilot licence shall be issued on the form CA62
-
02.xx.

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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19

62.04.3

TRAINING


1.

Aim of
training

course


The aim of the course is to train a candidate to th
e level of proficiency required for the issue
of a type rating for conventional microlight aeroplanes, and to provide the training necessary
to act, but not for remuneration, as pilot
-
in
-
command of any conventional microlight
aeroplane for which he or she
holds a valid class or type rating, engaged in non
-
revenue
flights under visual flight rules.


2.

Contents and requirements of training course


The applicant must complete a training course with the holder of an aviation training
organisation approval iss
ued by the Commissioner in terms of Part 141.


The course comprises






(a)

a theoretical knowledge course; and



(b)

a practical training course.


3.

Theoretical knowledge course


The theoretical knowledge course must cover the subjects as detailed in

the syllabus in
section 4. The knowledge acquired must be sufficient for the candidate to pass the following
theoretical knowledge examinations:



(1)

Principles of Flight

(2)

Air Law

(3)

General Navigation

(4)

Aviation Meteorology

(5)

Aircraft Techn
ical

(6)

Instruments


(7)

Radio Aids and Communication

(8)

Fire, First Aid, Safety Equipment

(9)

Human Performance Limitations


4. Theoretical knowledge course syllabus



4.1

Principles of Flight




(1)

PHYSICS AND MECHANICS





(a) Speed, velocity, fo
rce




(b) Pressure


Bernoulli’s Principle




(c) Motion of body along a curved path




(2)

AEROFOILS, LIFT AND DRAG





(a) Air resistance and air density




(b) Aerofoil shapes




(c) Lift and drag


Angle of attack and airspeed

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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20




(d) Distributio
n of lift,

Centre

of pressure




(e) Drag


Induced, parasite


Form, skin, interference




(f) Lift/drag ratio and aspect ratio




(3)

FLYING CONTROLS





(a) The three axes:

Vertical, Lateral, Longitudinal







Yaw, Pitch, Roll




(b) Opera
tion and function of elevators, ailerons and rudder




(c) Principles and purpose of mass and aerodynamic balance




(d) Operation and purpose of trimming controls

(e) Operation and function of flaps

(f)

Operation and function of spoilers,

spoilerons

an
d tip rudders

(g)

Principles and operation of weight
-
shift control systems

(h)

Operation and function of billow shift



(4)

EQUILIBRIUM


(a)

The four forces: Lift, weight, thrust and drag

(b)

Centre of gravity (C of G) position

(c)

The balance of the four
forces:

Straight and level







Climbing







Descending




(5)

STABILITY




(a) Positive, neutral, negative



(b) Lateral and directional stability



3
-
Axis / Weight
-
shift



(c) Longitudinal stability




3
-
Axis / Weight
-
shift



(d) Relationship of C

of G to control in pitch

3
-
Axis / Weight
-
shift



(e) Luff lines on weight
-
shift aircraft



(f) Wash
-
out



(6)

THE STALL




(a) Airflow separation



(b) Stalling angle


Relationship to airspeed



(c) Wing loading



(d) Wing loading increase with ban
k angle increase



(e) High
-
speed stall



(7)

THE SPIN





(a) Causes of a spin



(b) Autorotation



(c) Effect of the C of G on spinning characteristics



(8)

TURNING FLIGHT




(a) The forces in the turn


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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(9)

LOAD FACTOR AND MANOEUVRES




(a) Defin
ition of load factor


V
n

envelope



(b) Effect on stalling speed



(c) In
-
flight precautions



(10)

AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE





(a) Power curves




Effect of temperature and density




Range and endurance




(b) Climbing performance




Rate of climb




A
ngle of climb




(c) Take
-
off and landing performance




Take
-
off run available




Take
-
off distance available




Landing distance available




(d) Take
-
off and initial climb
-

performance




Effect of





wind, wind gradient and wind shear




wei
ght




pressure, altitude, temperature and density




ground surface and gradient




use of flaps




(e) Approach and landing


performance




Effect of





wind, wind gradient and wind shear




weight




use of flaps




ground effect


(11)

WEIGHT A
ND BALANCE




(a) Limitations on aircraft weight



(b) Limitations in relation to aircraft balance



(c) Weight and centre of gravity calculations



(12)

THE PROPELLER




(a) Construction and shape



(b) Maintenance and checks



(c) Balancing


NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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4.2

A
ir Law




(1)

Applicable acts, regulations and other documents

(2)

Classification of aircraft

(3)

Aircraft documentation

(4)

Aircraft equipment

(5)

Aircraft radio equipment

(6)

Aircraft weight schedule

(7)

Documents to be carried on board

(8)

Documents an
d records to be maintained and produced on request

(9)

Offences in relating to documents and records

(10)

Airworthiness aspects

(11)

Flight crew licensing

(12)

Microlight aeroplane pilot
-

Privileges and limitations


(13)

Microlight aeroplane ratings

(14
)

Personal flying logbook


(15)

Airspace classification

(16)

General flight rules

(17)

Visual flight rules

(18)

Special flight rules

(19)

Flight operations

(20)

General provisions

(21)

Air traffic services

(22)

Flight plans

(23)

Air
-
proximity reporting pr
ocedures

(24)

Incident/accident reporting

(25)

International operations


4.3

General Navigation





(1)

Form of the earth



(2)

Magnetic variation



(3)

Compass deviation



(4)

Principles of navigation



(5)

Maps and charts



(6)

Map reference information



(7)

Map reading



(8)

Methods of map reading

(9)

Flight preparation

(10)

Flight planning

(11)

Weather forecasts and reports

(12)

Practical navigation

(13)

Principles of GPS



4.4

Aviation Meteorology





(1)

The atmosphere



(2)

Pressure



(3)

The alti
meter



(4)

Wind



(5)

Temperature

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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(6)

Humidity



(7)

Air masses



(8)

Clouds



(9)

Formation of cloud



(10)

Precipitation



(11)

Depressions



(12)

Visibility



(13)

Ice accretion on aircraft



(14)

Effects of weather on flight


4.5

Aircraft Technical



(1)

Aircraft structure


(2)

Engine


(3)

Engine ignition system


(4)

Carburetion


(5)

Exhaust systems


(6)

Decoking


(7)

Oil system


(8)

Fuel system


(9)

Electrical system


(10)

Propeller


(11)

Reduction drive


4.6

Instruments



(1)

Airspeed indicator


(
2)

Altimeter


(3)

Magnetic compass


(4)

Engine instruments

(5)

Vertical speed indicator


(6)

Turn and slip indicator


(7)

Digital instrumentation


4.7

Radio Aids and Communication



(1)

Basic radio theory


(2)

Communication


(3)

Navigation aids


(4)

Satel
lite navigation


4.8

Fire, First Aid, Safety Equipment





(1)

Fire


Dangers and precautions



(2)

First
-
Aid


4.9

Human Performance Limitations



(1)

Introduction


(2)

Oxygen


(3)

Hypoxia

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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(4)

Barotraumas


(5)

Common ailments


(6)

Decompression


(7)

Air s
ickness


(8)

Hearing


(9)

Sight


(10)

Toxic hazards


(11)

Blood pressure


(12)

Epilepsy


(13)

Alcohol and drugs


(14)

Knowledge and the senses


(15)

Disorientation


(16)

Avoiding the air proximity


(17)

Stress


(18)

Management of stress


(19)

Social psycho
logy


5.

Practical training course



Exercise 1 : Familiarisation with the microlight aeroplane


Aim
:

To become familiar with the component parts, controls and system of the aeroplane.


(1)

Explanation of the microlight aeroplane

(2)

Cockpit layout

(3)

S
ystems

(4)

Check lists, drills, controls; and

(5)

emergency drills, consisting of




(a) action in the event of fire on the ground and in the air;

(b) equipment or system failures; and

(c) escape drills.




Exercise 2 : Preparation for, and action after
flight


Aim:

To understand how to prepare the aircraft and pilot for flight, and how to leave the
aircraft after flight.



(1)

Local rules

(2)

Flight authorisation and microlight aeroplane acceptance


(3)

Serviceability documents


(4)

Required equipment, m
aps,
documents to be carried,
etc.


(5)

External checks


(6)

Internal checks
, including placards to be displayed


(7)

Seat, harness and controls adjustment


(8)

Seating position


suitable clothing


(9)

Starting and warming
-
up checks


(10)

Power checks


(1
1)

Running down and switching off of engine


(12)

Parking, security and picketing; and


(13)

Completion of authorisation and flight folio sheets



Exercise 3 : Air Experience

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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25


Aim:

The aim of this sequence is to instil confidence in a learner who has previ
ously
flown very little or not at all, to impart some knowledge, and to familiarise the
learner with the geography around the training base.



Exercise 4 : Effect of controls


Aim:

To understand how each control affects the aircraft in flight.



(1)

Meth
ods of assessing aircraft attitude

(2)

Primary effects when laterally level and when banked;


(3)

Further effects of aileron and rudder


effects of





(a) airspeed



(b) slipstream



(c) power changes



(d) trimming of controls



(e) flaps

(f) other con
trols, as applicable



(4)

Use of engine controls


(5)

Airmanship



Exercise 5 : Taxiing


Aim:

To safely control the aeroplane while manoeuvring on the ground in different wind
conditions and on different surfaces.



(1)

Pre
-
taxi checks


(2)

Starting, cont
rol of speed, and stopping


(3)

Engine handling


(4)

Control of direction and turns


(5)

Turns in confined spaces


(6)

Tail
-
wheel considerations (if applicable)

(7)

Parking area procedure and precautions


(8)

Effects of wind and use of flying controls


(9)

Effects of ground surface


(10)

Freedom of rudder movement


(11)

Marshalling signals


(12)

Instrument checks


(13)

Air traffic control procedures


(14)

Emergencies (brake and steering failure)


(15)

Airmanship



Exercise 6 : Straight and level flight


Aim
:

To attain and maintain flight in a straight line and at a constant altitude.


(1)

At normal cruising power, attaining and maintaining straight and level flight


(2)

Demonstration of inherent stability


(3)

Control in pitch, including use of trim


(4)

Lat
eral level, direction and balance, trim


(5)

At selected airspeeds (use of power)


(6)

During speed and configuration changes


(7)

Use of instruments for precision

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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26


(8)

Differences between 3
-
axis and weight
-
shift aircraft

(9)

Airmanship



Exercise 7 : Clim
bing


Aim:

To enter and maintain a steady full
-
power climb and then return to level flight at a
predetermined altitude, and to enter and maintain a steady cruise
-
climb.


(1)

Entry, maintaining the normal and maximum rate climb and levelling off, with and
w
ithout flaps (if applicable)

(2)

Levelling off at selected altitudes

(3)

En route

(cruise) climb

(4)

Maximum angle of climb

(5)

Use of instruments for precision

(6)

Airmanship



Exercise 8 : Descending


Aim:

To enter and maintain a steady glide
-
descent and

then, at a predetermined altitude, to
return to level flight or to climb, and to enter and maintain a steady cruise descent.


(1)

Entry, maintaining and levelling off

(2)

Levelling off at selected altitudes

(3)

Glide, powered and cruise descent (includin
g effect of power and airspeed)

(4)

Use of instruments for precision

(5)

Side
-
slipping

(6)

Airmanship



Exercise 9 : Stalling


Aim:

To recognise and enter a fully
-
developed stall from various modes of flight both
straight and turning, and to recover with m
inimum height
-
loss to a safe flight mode;
to become familiar with the ‘feel’ of the aeroplane in slow flight just above the stall
speed; and to recognise the symptoms of the incipient stall and to restore the
aeroplane to safe flight before the stall occur
s.


A.

Slow flight

The objective is to improve the learner’s ability to recognise inadvertent flight at
critically low speeds and provide practice in maintaining the microlight
aeroplane in balance should this situation occur.

(1) Safety checks

(2) Introdu
ction to slow flight

(3) Controlled flight at clean stall speed plus five knots

(4) Application of full power with correct attitude to achieve climb speed

(5) Airmanship.



B.


Stalling

(1) Airmanship

(2) Safety checks

(3) Symptoms

(4) Recognition

(5) Clea
n stall and recovery without power and with power

(6) Recovery when a wing drops

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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(7) Approach to stall in the approach, with and without power, recovery at the
incipient stage

(8) After engine failure while climbing steeply at full power


Exercise 10 : Med
ium Turns

Aim
:

To enter and maintain a medium (up to approximately 30
o
bank angle) turn whilst
maintaining level flight and then to return to straight and level flight on a new
predetermined heading; to enter and maintain a climb or descent while turning,
or to
enter and maintain a turn from a straight climb or descent.


(1) Entry and maintaining medium level turns

(2) Resuming straight flight

(3) Faults in the turn
-

balance

(4) Climbing turns

(5) Descending turns

(6) Turns onto selected headings, use of g
yro heading indicator and compass

(7) Use of instruments for precision

(8) Airmanship.


Exercise 11 : Descending and Climbing Turns

Aim
:

To enter and maintain a medium (up to approximately 30
o
bank angle) turn whilst
maintaining a climb or descent, or to e
nter and maintain a turn from a straight climb
or descent.


(1) Entry and maintaining medium descending and climbing turns

(2) Resuming straight flight

(3) Faults in the turn
-

balance

(4) Turns onto selected headings, use of gyro heading indicator and com
pass

(5) Use of instruments for precision

(6) Airmanship.


Exercise 12 : Take Off and Climb to Downwind Position


Aim:

To safely take
-
off and climb the aeroplane to position on the downwind leg at circuit
height; to land safely in the event of an engine f
ailure after take
-
off or at any time in
the circuit; and to decide against continuation of the take
-
off


taking the appropriate
action


if for some reason continuation would be unsafe.


(1) Pre
-
take
-
off checks

(2) Factors affecting the length of the take
-
off roll and the initial climb

(3) Into wind take
-
off

(4) Nose wheel / tail wheel considerations

(5) Drills during and after take
-
off

(6) Short take
-
off and soft
-
field procedures / techniques, including performance
calculations

(7) Undulating (rough fiel
d) considerations

(8) Noise abatement procedures

(9) Abandoned take
-
off

(10) Engine failure after take
-
off

(11) Airmanship



Exercise 13 : Circuit, Approach and Landing

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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Aim:

To fly an accurate circuit and carry out a safe approach and landing.


(1) Circu
it procedures, downwind, base leg

(2) Powered approach and landing

(3) Nose wheel / tail wheel considerations

(4) Effect of wind on approach and touchdown speeds, use of flaps (if
applicable)

(5) Glide approach and landing

(6) Short
-
landing and soft
-
field

procedures / techniques

(7) Missed approach / go
-
around

(8) Noise abatement procedures

(9) Missed landing / go
-
around

(10) The hold
-
off period and touch
-
down

(11) Effect of ground surface and gradient on the landing run

(12) Use of brakes (if applicabl
e)

(13) Control during ground run

(14) Airmanship


Exercise 14


Spin awareness (if applicable)


Aim:

To understand and recognise the onset of situations that may lead to an
inadvertent spin, and to learn how to instinctively take the necessary control
a
ctions to effect a recovery back to normal flight condition before a spin
occurs; i.e.: to recover at the incipient stage.


(1)

Cause of spin


(2)

Recognition of incipient spin



(3)

Recovery from the incipient spin


(4)

Airmanship


Exercise 15 : First Sol
o


Aim:

To carry out a safe and accurate solo circuit, approach and landing.

Before flying solo a learner must, in addition to being proficient in exercises 1 to
14, be able to make a reasonable effort at the exercise of "Elementary forced
landing", i.e. t
he ability to execute an approach to a large open space. He or she
must also have completed a minimum of six hours of dual flight instruction.

(1) Difference in handling

(2) Use of ballast

During flights immediately following the solo circuit consolidation

of the
following should be revised:

(1) Procedures for leaving and rejoining the circuit

(2) The local area, restrictions and map reading

(3) Use of radio aids for homing (if applicable)

(4) Turns, using magnetic compass; compass errors

(5) Airmanship.


E
xercise 16 : Side
-
slipping

NATIONAL PILOT LICENSING



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29


Aim:

The learner should e shown and become convinced of the effect of side
-
slipping
on the relationship between heading and ground path. How this out
-
of
-
balance
manoeuvre can be used to increase the rate of descent for a given a
irspeed and its
usefulness in crosswind landings. (While the learner is learning how to use the
controls during a side
-
slip, the exercise should be performed at altitude.)


(1) Effects of controls in a side
-
slip



(2) Principles involved


(3) Types of side
-
slips


(4) How exercise applies to flying



(5) Airmanship


Exercise 17 : Steep Turns


Aim:

To carry out a co
-
ordinated level turn at steep angles of bank and to
recognise and recover from a spiral dive; and to avoid wake turbulence.

(1) Steep 360

o

turn
s (up to 45
o
bank angle) level, climbing, descending

(2) Steep level turns (up to 60
o
bank angle) with and without power; (weight
-
shift
aeroplanes through maximum 270
o
)

(3) Wake turbulence / disorientation

(4) Stalling in the turn and recovery

(5) Recover
ies from unusual attitudes, including spiral dives

(6) Airmanship



Exercise 18 : Use of instruments


Aim:

To develop the habit of checking constantly both navigational and engine
instruments in flight whilst keeping a good look
-
out for other aircraft.

(1)

Navigational instruments

(2) Engine instruments

(3) Scanning techniques

(4) GPS and other basic electronic navigation systems

(5) Airmanship


Exercise 19 : Low flying


Aim:

To safely operate the aeroplane at heights lower than those normally used.


(1)
Em
phasis on regulations governing low flying



(2) Emphasis on nuisance aspects, including to animals



(3)
Low
-
level familiarisation


(4
) Effect of drift


(5
) Effect of wind on ground speed



(6
) Effect of wind in inducing apparent skids and slips in turns


(7
) Effect of precipitation (as applicable to type)



(8) Hazards involved with low flying over large water expanses



(
9
) Joining circuit in poor weather; bad
-
weather circuit


(
10
) Airmanship


Exercise 20 : Cross
-
wind Take
-
off and Landing


Aim:

To be ab
le to handle both cross
-
wind take
-
offs and landings, including
downwind landings in an emergency; to be able to input the correct mount of
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control to correct drift to ensure the track is a continuation of the take
-
off and
landing path of the aeroplane.


(1
) Aerodynamic and mechanical considerations


(2) Cross
-
wind take
-
offs

(3) The circuit


(4) Approach and cross
-
wind landings



(5) Airmanship


Exercise 21 : Precautionary landings


Aim:

A precautionary landing is one not contemplated before the flight
comm
enced and where engine power is still available, enabling the pilot the
opportunity of selecting and inspecting a suitable landing area before
executing a landing in an unfamiliar place.

(1) Occasions necessitating

(2) Full procedure away from aerodrome to

break
-
off height

(3) In
-
flight conditions

(4) Landing area selection
-

(a) normal aerodrome;

(b) disused aerodrome

(c) ordinary field.

(d) habitation for after
-
landing assistance


(5) Inspection of landing area

(5) Circuit and approach

(6) PAN call

(7) A
ctions after landing

(8) Airmanship

Exercise 22

-

Forced landing

Aim:

To carry out a safe descent and landing in the event of the engine failing during
flight.

(1) Forced
-
landing procedure

(2) Choice of landing area, provision for change of plan

(3) Glidin
g distance

(4) Descent plan

(5) Key positions

(6) Engine cooling

(7) Use of radio, Mayday call

(9) Base leg

(10) Final approach

(11) Landing

(12) Actions after landing

(13) Airmanship

Exercise 23 : Action in Event of Fire

Aim:

Fire is extremely rare in mod
ern microlight aeroplanes but it is essential that
a pilot has a thorough knowledge of the procedures to be adopted in his or
her particular type of aeroplane in order to extinguish a fire both on the
ground and in the air.


(1) Identification of fire

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31



(
2) Isolation / extinguishing of fire


(3) Flight procedures / emergency actions



(4) Airmanship


Exercise 24 : Restarting the engine in flight


Aim:

To
prepare the learner for engine failure in flight and how to
cope with the
situation.

(1) Engine failure

checks

(2) Engine restart procedures

(3) Airmanship


Exercise 25 : Unusual and dangerous attitudes / conditions


Aim:

To recognise potentially dangerous conditions of flight and to recover safely
from unusual attitudes.

Note:

this exercise must not be pra
ctised by a learner while flying solo.

(1)

Recovery from inadvertent mishandling of controls


(a) at high speeds

(b) in stall recovery in various configurations

(c) in a steep turn

(d) following hitting wake turbulence in a 360
o

steep turn at 45
o

to
6
0
o

bank angles


(2)

Airmanship


Exercise 26 : (
Reserved)


Exercise 27 : Navigation

Aim:

To fly accurately and safely in VMC under VFR a predetermined route without
infringing the rules governing regulated airspace.


A : Basic Navigation

(1)

Flight plannin
g

(a) Weather forecast and actuals

(b) Map selection and preparation

(i) choice of route

(ii) controlled airspace

(iii) danger, prohibited and restricted areas

(iv) safety altitudes

(c) Calculations

(i) magnetic heading(s) and time(s)
en route

(ii) fuel co
nsumption

(iii) mass and balance

(iv) mass and performance

(d) Flight information

(i) NOTAMS etc.

(ii) radio frequencies

(iii) selection of alternate aerodromes

(e) Microlight aeroplane documentation

(f) Notification of the flight

(i) pre
-
flight administra
tive procedures

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(ii) flight plan form

(2)

Departure

(a) Organisation of cockpit workload

(b) Departure procedures

(i) altimeter settings

(ii) ATC liaison in controlled / regulated airspace

(iii) setting
-
heading procedure

(iv) noting of ETAs

(c) Maintenance

of altitude and heading

(d) Revisions of ETA and heading

(e) Log keeping

(f) Use of radio

(g) Use of navaids (if applicable)

(h) Minimum weather conditions for continuation of flight

(i) In
-
flight decisions




(j) Selection of and planning for diversion w
hile in flight

(k
) Transiting controlled / regulated airspace

(l
) Uncertainty
-
of
-
position procedure

(m
) Lost procedure

(3)

Arrival

(a) Aerodrome joining procedure

(i) ATC liaison in controlled / regulated airspace

(ii) altimeter setting

(iii) entering the
traffic pattern

(iv) circuit procedures

(b) Parking

(c) Security of microlight aeroplane

(d) Refuelling

(e) Closing of flight plan, if applicable

(f) Post
-
flight administrative procedures


(4)

Airmanship


B : Navigation at low heights and in reduced visib
ility

(1) Actions prior to descending

(2) Hazards (e.g. obstacles, other aircraft)

(3) Difficulties of map reading

(4) Effects of wind and turbulence

(5) Avoidance of noise
-
sensitive areas

(6) Joining the circuit

(7) Bad
-
weather circuit and landing


(8) Ai
rmanship

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62.04.4

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION


1.

Contents


The applicant for a recreational pilot licence to be issued with a type rating for conventional
microlight aeroplanes shall pass the written theoretical knowledge examinations in the
subjec
ts prescribed in Part 62.04.3 (3)


2.

Conducting of theoretical knowledge examination


The written theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted by the holder of a
appropriately qualified Grade A or Grade B microlight aeroplane flight instructor.


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62.04.5

SKILL TEST


1.

Procedures and manoeuvres


1.1

An applicant for a recreational pilot licence to be issued with a type rating or class rating for
conventional microlight aeroplanes must demonstrate the following procedures to an
appropriately qualif
ied Grade A or Grade B recreational flight instructor (microlight
aeroplanes):



(1)

Pre
-
flight procedures


(2)

Take
-
off


(3)

Departure


(4)

General flying


(5)

Arrival and landing procedures


(6)

Navigation


(7)

Action after flight


(8)

Abnormal and emerg
ency procedures

Note:

The applicant is expected to indicate the actions to be taken and carry out
touch drills but is not expected to perform any operating action. This exercise may
be combined with other exercises.


(9)

General



(a) Decision
-
making abil
ity



(b) Overall safety considerations



(c) General smoothness and coordination



(d) Ability to plan ahead



(e) Overall impression


1.2

The procedures and manoeuvres must include




(1)

Take
-
off, circuit and landing


(2)

Steep turns left and right at
constant height

(3)

Simulated forced landing from a minimum height of
(2 000 ft?
) to execute a landing
not more than
(150 meter?)

beyond a point selected by the flight instructor
conducting the skill test

(4)

Executing a landing, with or without the aid of

the engine, between two marks
selected by the flight instructor conducting the skill test, which markers must be at
least
(75 meter?)

apart measured along the line of approach; and

(5)

Cross
-
country flight test, accompanied by the flight instructor conduc
ting the skill
test of not less than
(100 nm?)

and not less than
(30 nm?)

distant from the point of
departure.


2.

Conducting the skill test


The flight instructor, conducting the skill test referred to in section 1,
shall
not be the
main
flight instructor

from whom the applicant received his or her practical training.



3.

Skill test report


(1)

The flight instructor conducting the skill test must complete the skill test report form
CA62
-
05.xx.


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(2)

All the procedures and manoeuvres have a numerical assess
ment rating on a scale of
1 to 5 as follows:



1

Requires considerable further training


2

Requires further training


3

Satisfactory, some flight instructor input


4

Good standard with no ingrained faults


5

High standard

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62.04.6

APPLICATION


1.

Form


An

application for the issuing of a type rating or group type category rating for conventional
microlight aeroplanes shall be made on form CA62
-
04.nn.

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62.04.7

TYPE RATING OR CLASS RATING: CONVENTIONAL MICROLIGHT
AEROPLANE


1.

Format


A type rating or a cla
ss rating for conventional microlight aeroplanes shall be issued on the
form CA62
-
04.xx.

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62.05.3

TRAINING


1.

Aim of
training

course


The aim of the course is to train a candidate to the level of proficiency required for the issue
of a class rating for
weight
-
controlled microlight aeroplanes, and to provide the training
necessary to act, but not for remuneration, as pilot
-
in
-
command of any weight
-
controlled
microlight aeroplane, engaged in non
-
revenue flights under visual flight rules.



2.

Contents and
requirements of training course


The applicant must complete a training course with the holder of an aviation training
organisation approval issued by the Commissioner in terms of Part 141.


The course comprises





(a)

a theoretical knowledge course; a
nd


(b)

a practical training course.


3.

Theoretical knowledge course


The theoretical knowledge course must cover the subjects as detailed in the syllabus in
section 4. The knowledge acquired must be sufficient for the candidate to pass the following
the
oretical knowledge examinations:



(1) Principles of Flight

(2) Aviation Meteorology

(3) Aircraft Technical

(4) Instruments and Electronics

(5) General Navigation

(6) Flight Planning and Performance


(7) Radio Aids and Communication

(8) Air Law

(9) Human

Performance


Note:

The above listing should be adapted by MISASA to fit its requirements.


4.


Theoretical knowledge course syllabus


4.1

Principles of Flight

4.2

Aviation Meteorology

4.3

Aircraft Technical

4.4

Instruments and Electronics

4.5

General Navi
gation

4.6

Flight Planning and Performance

4.7

Radio Aids and Communication

4.8

Air Law

4.9

Human Performance


Note:

The relevant subjects be provided by MISASA.


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5.

Practical training course


Note:

The following syllabus to be adjusted by MISASA to fit
weight
-
shift controlled
microlight aeroplane manoeuvres.


5.1

Exercise 1 : Familiarisation with the microlight aeroplane


(1)

Characteristics of the microlight aeroplane

(2)

Cockpit layout

(3)

Systems

(4)

Check lists, drills, controls; and

(5)

emergency dr
ills, consisting of




(a) action in the event of fire on the ground and in the air;

(b) cabin and electrical system failures; and

(c) escape drills, location and use of emergency equipment and exits


5.2

Exercise 2 : Preparation for, and action after fli
ght



(1)

Flight authorisation and microlight aeroplane acceptance


(2)

Serviceability documents


(3)

Required equipment, maps, etc.


(4)

External checks


(5)

Internal checks


(6)

Seat, harness and controls adjustment


(7)

Starting and warming
-
up checks


(
8)

Power checks


(9)

Running down and switching off of engine


(10)

Parking, security and picketing; and


(11)

Completion of authorisation and flight folio sheets


5.3

Exercise 3 : Air Experience


The aim of this sequence is to instil confidence in a learn
er who has previously flown very
little or not at all, to impart some knowledge, and to familiarise the learner with the
geography around the training base.


5.4

Exercise 4 : Effect of controls



(1)

Primary effects when laterally level and when banked;


(2)

Further effects of aileron and rudder


effects of





(a) airspeed



(b) slipstream



(c) power changes



(d) trimming of controls



(e) flaps

(f) other controls, as applicable


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5.5

Exercise 5 : Taxiing



(1)

Pre
-
taxi checks


(2)

Starting, control o
f speed, and stopping


(3)

Engine handling


(4)

Control of direction and turns


(5)

Turns in confined spaces


(6)

Parking area procedure and precautions


(7)

Effects of wind and use of flying controls


(8)

Effects of ground surface


(9)

Freedom of rudder m
ovement


(10)

Marshalling signals


(11)

Instrument checks


(12)

Air traffic control procedures


(13)

Emergencies (brake and steering failure)


(14)

Airmanship


5.6

Exercise 6 : Straight and level flight


(1)

At normal cruising power, attaining and maintain
ing straight and level flight


(2)

Demonstration of inherent stability


(3)

Control in pitch, including use of trim


(4)

Lateral level, direction and balance, trim


(5)

At selected airspeeds (use of power)


(6)

During speed and configuration changes


(7)

U
se of instruments for precision


(8)

Airmanship


5.7

Exercise 7 : Climbing


(1)

Entry, maintaining the normal and maximum rate climb and levelling off, with and
without flaps

(2)

Levelling off at selected altitudes

(3)

En route

(cruise) climb

(4)

Maximum a
ngle of climb

(5)

Use of instruments for precision

(6)

Airmanship


5.8

Exercise 8 : Descending


(1)

Entry, maintaining and levelling off

(2)

Levelling off at selected altitudes

(3)

Glide, powered and cruise descent (including effect of power and airspeed)

(4)

Use of instruments for precision

(5)

Side
-
slipping

(6)

Airmanship


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