Air Pollution 1. Discuss the meteorological effects on pollution dispersion. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Vol.1, 7th ed. 1992. pp. 242-252 - the introduction of natural and artificial gasses into the atm. -most impurities injected on the surface of the earth


Feb 22, 2014 (4 years and 4 months ago)


Air Pollution

1. Discuss the meteorological effects on pollution dispersion.

Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Vol.1, 7th ed. 1992. pp. 242


the introduction of natural and artificial gasses into the atm.

most impurities injected

on the surface of the earth

lower layer of atm cleanses itself in a few hours or days becuase of rapid verticle mixing

rainfall also removes (can be acids rain)

upper layer pollution effects ozone

typical natural pollution: salt particles from ocean
s, dust or gases from volcanoes

typical artificial: waste smokes and gasses

aerosols: pollen spores, rust

air pollution can affect health, damage vegetation and structures, may cause climate


began with fire

industrial revolution: bur
ning of coal and fossil fuels, compounded by growing

3 dangerous air pollution episodes

1930 in Meuse Valley in Belgium

1948 in Donora, PA

1952 in London, England

made the British Clean Air Act


characterized by: natural vs
. antropogenic, stationary vs. moving, also point,
line, area

Types: gaseous, particulate, inorganics and organics, oxidizers and reducers, radioactive
or inert, and thermal

indoor air pollution:


chemical levels ten time higher than outside


human and animals: most info comes fromoccupational health studies

effects the respiratory system: clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological

based on time of exposure and dose

makes eyes water and smart

vegetation:acid rain, sulfur di
oxide, hydrogen flouride, nitrogen dioxide, ozone,
and ethylene

materials: ferous and nonferous materials ( aluminum, copper, silver, nickel,
zinc), building materials, paint, leather, paper, textiles, dyes, rubber, and ceramics

atm: short a
nd long wav
e radiation may have the greatest effect on air quality

this may lead to global warming

pollution of the stratospehere by aircraft, may break down ozone

visabilty and smog: block suns rays and traps heat

Dispersion by weather:

wind: can transport

up to 600 miles, depends on direction and speed

dilution is inversely proportional to speed

verticle: temp normally decrese with heigth

more turbulance near the ground

gravity waves may occur at 300ft

the depth of the turbulent air is calle
d the mixing depth and the
maximnum verticle extent

dispesion is the spread of pollutants by atmospheeric turbulance

eddys move pollution upward

enhanced by structures because they increas turbulance due to friction

calm air can speed verticle d

source effects:

plumes are hotter and less dense and tend to vertically migrate

denser gas and fall to the ground


straight from the source

secondary:chemically combined in ATM

photochmeistry: light cause chemcial

can create nitrogen dioxide, ozone and per
oxyacetalnitrate (eye irritant)

acid rain

dissolving of ozone


ambient monitoring through sensors

source control engineering


based on effects on humans, veg,, et al.

primary=health, secondary standards proctect against all effects

criteria pollutants: lead, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide, ozone and particles

1977 ammendment to Clean Air Act: specific standards for geographical
areas (nation
al parks, or forests)

1987, deadline for cities to meet federal standards, 60 counld’t make it

1990, reduce sulfer dioxide by 50%, other levels were set for other

Air Pollution control:

cyclone collectors, wet scrubbers, electrostatic pr
ecipitation, gaseous

EPA regualtes evaporative emissions from fuel systems and crankcases, exhause
contaminants: carbon monoxide are regulated by
oxidation catalysts, fuel injection and
combustion chamber design, nitrogen dioxide controlle
d by spark timing, exhast gas
recirc., and reduction catalysts


atmosphereic control

Legislation (The Weatehr Almanac, 6th ed, Frank E. Blair editor, Gale research inc 1992

1967 Air Quality Act

state set standards from federa
lly established criteria

1970 Clean Air Act Amendment

EPA had to make standards to protect health and welfare, national
standards for new facilities, standards for facilities emitting, states to develop plans to
bring air to the standard, new standar
ds for automobiles

1977 Ammendmenrts

procted areas currently with clean air, new deadlines for meeting
standards, review exisitng standards

1990 incentives for companies to use new technology, enlist the help of the


primary: p
rotect public health

secondary: protect public welfare including property and aesthetics

Types of pollutants

total suspended particulate

sulfer dioxide

nitrogen dioxide


carbon monoxide


Meterological effects

Bermuda High traps ozon
e along the east, also from stagnation of the atm

CO comes from cars, examined on 1 and 8 hour intervals

wind speed, wind direction, and amospheric stability(veritcle mixing), local wind patterns
sea and mountains

Comanies can earn credits iof they com
e in under the emission bubble. These credits can
be kept for future projects and evelopment or sold to other companies


Air pollution is generally studied in terms of immediate local concerns rather tha
n as a long

“global change” issue. In the coming decades, however, rapid population growth and urbanization

many regions of the world, as well as changing climatic conditions, may expand the scope of air

concerns by significantly altering a
tmospheric composition over broad regional and even global

Ozone and PM are of particular concern because their atmospheric residence times are long
enough to

influence air quality in regions far from their sources and because they also contribute
to climate

The accumulation of pollutants in

the atmosphere can affect climate through direct and indirect contributions to earth’s radiative

and through chemical reactions that alter the lifetime of certain greenhouse gases. In turn,

eorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, and precipitation can affect the

chemical transformations, transport, and deposition of air pollutants. Our understanding of many

these climate
chemistry linkages is in its infancy. A better

understanding is needed in order to

accurate estimates of future changes in climate and air quality and to evaluate options for

harmful changes.

we currently do not have the capacity to observe many important medium

and longterm

(that is, changes occurring over the course of years to decades) in the chemistry and

composition of the lower atmosphere. If these observational capabilities are not strengthened, this

greatly limit our ability to document the evolution of the atmosp
here in the coming decades.


Operate the exhaust fan when bathing
and showering
to limit moisture
build up. Be sure to keep the shower curtain or bathtub sliding door open after bathing
to increase air circulation.


Turn on range hood fans when cooking
to expel contaminants released from
food while cooking. Range ho
ods can also eliminate chemicals such as

which can be released during cooking.



during family gatherings and parties.


Ensure that continuous ventilation is provided
in addition to the
intermittent ventilation systems.


Plan routine maintenan
ce for

to ensure all systems are
working properly and performing as intended.


Change filters as instructed

Check, clean, or repla
ce furnace and air filters
regularly as recommended.

Consider installing a "high efficiency particulate" or HEPA
filter for better performance.


Clean the home regularly
to prevent dust, dirt, and pet
hair accumulation.
Dust and dirt particles can be
come airborne, creating contaminants in the air.

cleaning can help to eliminate this potential hazard.


Use safe cleaning products
to avoid emitting dangerous chemicals into the

Many products used to clean can release toxic or irritatin
g chemicals when used.

Select cleaning products that are certified for low levels of chemical emissions.


Purchase low emitting finishes and materials

New or recently installed
building materials and furnishings can emit dangerous toxins. Look for
products that
are certified for low chemical emissions.


Ensure that clothes dryers are exhausted directly to the outside
make sure that filters and hoods are cleaned regularly to maintain airflow.


Select only those ventilation products wh
ich are HVI Certified

ensure your airflow, sound level and energy performance expectations are met.

Ozone can cause these health effect

irritated lung airways

shortness of breath

chest pain

wheezing and coughing

reduced lung function

asthma attacks

damaged lung tissue

chronic respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchitis

Particulate matter can cause these health effects

persistent coughs and phlegm

respiratory and cardiovascular problems

chronic bronchitis

decreased lung function

premature death

Carbon monoxide can cause these health effects:

reduces cardiovascular and central nervous system functions

ar health effects: chest pain,

central nervous system health effects: vision problems, reduced ability to work or learn, reduced
manual dexterity, and difficulty performing complex tasks. At high levels, can cause death.

Toxic air pollutants can cause th
ese health effects:

damaged immune system

reproductive problems (reduced fertility)

respiratory problems

developmental disorders

nervous system disorders