part 1 - general

haltingnosyUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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03420
-
i

SECTION 03420



POST
-
TENSIONED

PRECAST PANEL SYSTEM



PARAGRAPH INDEX




Page No.


PART 1
-

GENERAL


1.01

Description








03420
-
01

1.02

Quality Assurance







03420
-
01

1.03

Submittals








03420
-
02

1.04

Related Work Sections






03420
-
03



PART 2
-

PRODUCTS



2.01

Materials

03420
-
03

2.02

Design 03420
-
04

2.03

Floor Design 03420
-
05

2.04

Post
-
Tensioning

03420
-
06

2.05

Finishes 03420
-
07





P
ART 3
-

EXECUTION


3.01

Concrete 03420
-
07

3.02

Post
-
Tensioning 03420
-
07

3.03

Product Marking

03420
-
10

3.04

Manufacturer Plant Storage 03420
-
11

3.05

Field Quality Control 03420
-
11



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03420
-
1

SECTION 03420



POST
-
TENS
IONED PRECAST PANEL SYSTEM


PART 1
-

GENERAL


1.01

DESCRIPTION


A.

The Contractor shall provide product design, manufacturer, transportation to
specified delivery point, storage, protection of product, all labor, materials, tools
and equipment necessary for the furnishing
and installing of all post
-
tensioned
precast concrete units as shown on the drawings and herein specified.


B.

Post
-
tensioned Pre
-
cast panel system work shall be supplied by a firm with a
minimum of three years of continuous operations and which has performed

at
least three representative jobs, three years or older, comparable to precast work to
be provided for this project.


1.02

QUALITY ASSURANCE


A.

Reference Standards: Comply with all Federal, State and County laws and
ordinance, as well as all applicable codes,
standards, regulations and/or regulatory
agency requirements including the partial listing below:


1.

American Society for Testing and Materials:




a. ASTM C150: Specification for Portland Cement.


b. ASTM C478: Specification for Precast Reinforced

Concrete Manhole
sections


c. ASTM C494: Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete


d. ASTM C857: Standard Recommendation Practice for Minimum
Structure design Loading for Underground Precast
Concrete Utilities Structures


e. ASTM C858:
Standard Specification for Underground Precast
Concrete Utility Structure


f. ASTM C890: Practice for Minimum Structure Design Loading for
Monolithic or Sectional Precast Concrete Water and
Wastewater structures


g. ASTM C913: Specification for Pre
cast Concrete Water and
Wastewater Structure


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03420
-
2

h. ACI 350, 318:

Environmental Engineering Concrete Structure

i. PTI:

Post Tensioning Institute Design Manual


2.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials:


a. AASHTO M295: Fly Ash an
d Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for
Use as Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement
Concrete.


B.

Reference Quality Assurance and Control Procedures:


1.

National Precast Concrete Association (NPCA)


Quality Control Manual
as modified herein.

2.

All post
-
tensioning

work must be performed by technician certified by the
Post
-
tensioning Institute (PTI)


C.

Qualifications:


1.

Manufacturer of precast concrete products shall be certified per NPCA,
and shall own batching plant at site of manufacturing certified per NPCA.
The au
thority will not accept manufacturer utilizing ready mixed concrete,
and will not accept a supplier’s ready mix concrete in such case when the
manufacturer batching plant is functioning unacceptably.


2.

A company specializing in providing precast and/or prec
ast pos
-
tensioned
concrete products and services and with at least 80 percent of its
production staff having at least three years full time experience with
precast products. Written evidence shall be submitted to show experience,
qualifications and adequac
y of plant capability and facilities for
performance of Contract requirements.


D.

Testing:


1.

One set of compression test cylinder per day’s production shall be
provided consisting of at least four cylinders per day.


2.

Air and slump tests shall be made at discr
etion of the Authority, with a
minimum of one test per week and maximum of one test per each set of
cylinders. Should initial slump or air tests fail to meet specifications,
however, additional tests shall be performed on the next batch of concrete.


1.03

SUBMI
TTALS:


A.

Comply with Section 01300


B.

Shop Drawings:


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03420
-
3

1.

Submit drawings and data covering the following:



a.

Plan and/or elevation of precast items, locating and defining all
material furnished by manufacturer


b.

Sections and details showing connections, cas
t
-
in items and their
relation to the structure.


c.

Description of all loose and cast
-
in hardware.


d.

Lifting and erection inserts


e.

Dimensions and finishes


f.

Alternate Designs: The manufacturer may submit for approval
alternate configurations and designs for pre
cast products that deviate
from the Contract Drawings (also designated Standard Details). Any
such alternate design, however, shall match dimensions of the Contract
Drawings. Alternate designs shall be approved prior to manufacture.


C.

Test Reports:


1.

Reports

of design mixes and tests on concrete shall be prepared by the
manufacturer or his suppliers and approved by the Authority in advance of
production.


2.

Reports on material tests, field samples of components and concrete
cylinder strengths shall be made avai
lable for review by the Authority.


D.

Quality Control Submittals:


1.

Design Data: Submit computation stamped with the seal of a Professional
Engineer registered in the Maryland State to verify structural adequacy of
the precast concrete construction for rev
iew with Shop Drawings.


1.04

RELATED WORK DESCRIBED ELSEWHERE


1.

Earthwork is included in sections 02200
-

EARTHWORK,
EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING;


2.

Concrete in Section 03300
-

CAST
-
IN
-
PLACE CONCRETE


3.

Reinforcing Steel in Section 03200



PART 2
-


PRODUCTS


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03420
-
4

2.01

MATERIALS:


A.

Concrete shall be as specified in NPCA Quality Control Manual, Chapter 2 and 3,
with the following modifications:


1.

Portland Cement shall be Type I/II or II per ASTM C150


2.

Water reducing admixture shall be per ASTM C494, Type A when casting
at t
emperatures below 75 deg. F; and be per ASTM C494, Type D when
casting at temperature s above 75 deg. F.


3.

Chloride accelerators are prohibited


4.

Pozzolan shall be per AASHTO M295


5.

Reinforcing steel shall be per ASTM A615, Grade 60


6.

Water
-
cement ratio shall
not exceed 0.45


7.

Air content for size 57 or 67 aggregate gradation shall be 6 percent
+

1.0


8.

28 days field strength shall exceed 4,000 psi


9.

Corrosion Resistant Admixture shall be per ASTM C494, Type C
-

Calcium Nitrate or CATEXOL 1000 CL (Axim Italcementi
Group)

or Xypex admix C
-
series or Con Shield or approved equal.



2.02

DESIGN:


A.

A tank shall be constructed to the dimensions as indicated on the Contract
Drawings and shall meet the design requirements for a pos
-
tensioned concrete
structure as recommended
in ACI 318
-
02 and the Post
-
Tensioning Institute
Design Manual.


B.

Design Method: Structure design shall be based on elastic analysis method and
shall take into account effect of all loads and prestressing forces during and after
tensioning, and conditions of

edge restraint shall at wall junctions with base slab
and top of slab if present. Consideration shall also be given to the effects of all
loads and load combination including stresses induced by temperature, moisture
gradients, and seismic effects. Reinfo
rced concrete shall meet the requirements set
forth in Section 3300 Cast
-
in
-
Place Base of these Specifications ad ACI 318,
except as modified by ACI 350. The design must also meet the strength
requirements of ACI 318 and 350. All applicable sections of the

latest edition of
ACI 318, including supplements and precast and prestressed concrete chapters,
shall be followed except when supplemented or modified by provision of this
specification and ACI 350.

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03420
-
5


1. Design Loads: Loadings, including post
-
tensioning

and or pre
-
stressing forces
shall follow governing codes.



2.

Wall and Walkway Design:


a.

All structures shall be constructed from Type I/II or II Cement with
minimum concrete compression strength of 5000 PSI at 28 days. The
manufacturer shall submit daily

compression break reports on the
concrete.


b.

All rebar shall be grade 60 ASTM A
-
615.


c.

Precast concrete wall panels and walk ways shall be post
-
tensioned after
erection with sheathed, grease encapsulated, 7 strarid, 0.6 diameter cable.
Anchor castings

for unbonded tendons shall be totally encapsulated with
a plastic coating to prevent corrosion.


d.

Precast concrete walkways shall be the width shown on the contract
drawings, and shall be a minimum of 12 in. thick, except for the groove
that fits over t
he wall. Use the greater of the thickness between the
specifications and the plans.


e.

All tanks shall be designed to be free standing and be able to withstand
external soil pressures with an empty tank.


f.

All internal walls shall be designed to have a
full liquid level on either
side, with the other side empty.


g.

Tank designs that rely on bolted connections from one wall panel to
another will not be considered.


h.

Design Method: Wall design shall be based on elastic analysis for
stresses and deformat
ions due to the loads outlined herein. Provide record
calculations. Effects of shrinkage, temperature change, temperature
gradient, and creep shall be taken into account. The designer shall
consider all wall boundary conditions resulting from the construct
ion
joint details to be used at the top and bottom of the wall.


i.

Tensioning Force: Tensioning steel shall be furnished to resist forces due
to internal loads, after accounting for all stress losses.


j.

Bearing Strips: Precast sections shall be set on K
orolath bearing strips. A
minimum of two bearing strips shall be provided for each stack. Bearing
strips shall be multi
-
polymer plastic formulated for use by the
construction industry as a bearing material.


k.

Bearing Pads: Pads may be natural rubber, syn
thetic rubber, plastic, or
neoprene, with hardness in the range of 40 to 50 durometers and the pad
thickness shall be 1/2
-
inch minimum.


l.

Water tightness: Where penetrations and joints are required, suitable
methods and/or devices shall be employed to pr
event leakage.


m.

Wall Thickness: The thickness of the concrete wall shall be such that
membrane shell stresses are within the allowable stresses, but not less
than 10
-
inches thick.

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03420
-
6



2.03

FLOOR DESIGN:


a.

Reinforcing steel and cast
-
in
-
place concrete shall be

as specified in
Section 03300. Hydrostatic uplift when the tank is empty or worst
scenario case (fully saturated soil or water above the ground level), and
when the tank water level is lowered rapidly, shall be considered in the
design and detailing.


b.

Subgrade: Crushed stone to required depths necessary to support the live
and dead loads of the proposed structure.


c.

Watertightness: Where penetrations and joints are required, suitable
methods and/or devices shall be employed to prevent leakage. Where t
he
wall base shear is transferred into tension in the slab, additional post
-
tensioned and/or mild reinforcement steel shall be provided as required



2.04

POST
-
TENSIONING:


a.

Post
-
tensioned tank walls and floors shall be designed in accordance with
ACI 318, and t
he Post
-
Tensioning Institute.



b.

Post
-
tensioning shall be as follows:


1) Horizontal wall tendons shall be either bonded multi
-
strand tendons or
unbonded, encapsulated strands.


2) Vertical wall tendons, floor tendons, and roof tendons (where
applicable) sh
all be either bonded multi
-
strand tendons or unbonded,
encapsulated strands.



3)

Tendon material and unbonded strand material shall be as
manufactured by Lang Tendons, Inc., Dywigag
-
Systems International,
USA or approved equal.


c.

Strand shall be 270 ksi
, 7
-
wire, stress relieved low relaxation strand
conforming to ASTM
-
4 16
-
A, Specifications for Uncoated Seven
-
Wire
Stress
-
Relieved Low Relaxation Strand for Prestressed Concrete. Mill
Test reports for each pack of strand shall be furnished to the Engineer
u
pon request.


d.

Corrosion Protection of Bonded Tendons.


1)

Plastic ducts for tendons shall either be corrugated or smooth, 48 mil
thickness. The horizontal ducts for a bonded system shall be made
continuous in the vertical joint area between wall panels. Pl
astic ducts
shall be chemically inert.


2)

Tendons are grouted in the ducts with Portland cement grout, in
accordance with Chapter 18 of ACI 318.


e.

Corrosion Protection of Unbonded Tendons.


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03420
-
7

1)

Inert polymer polypropylene seamless sheath extruded directly on
grea
se encapsulated corrosion
-
inhibitor encased strand. The minimum
thickness of the sheath shall be 30 mil.


2)

Unbonded strands shall be in conformance with PTI “Specification for
Unbonded Single Strand Tendons” for a corrosive environment.


3)

Anchor castings for

unbonded strand shall be totally encapsulated with
plastic coating to prevent corrosion.



2.05

FINISHES:


A.

Standard Underside: As resulting from casting against approved forms using good
industry practices in cleaning of forms, design of concrete mix, placi
ng and
curing. Small surface holes caused by air bubbles, normal color variations, normal
form joint marks, and minor chips and spall will be tolerated, but no major
unsightly imperfections, honeycomb, or other defects will be permitted.


B.

Standard Top:
As result of vibrating screed and additional hand finishing at
projections. Normal color variations, minor indentations, minor chips and spall
will be permitted. No major defects, imperfections, or honeycomb will be
permitted.



PART 3
-

EXECUTION


3.01

CONCRETE:


A.

Weath
er Limitations: Place in accordance with Section 03300
-

Cast
-
In
-
Place Base of
these Specifications.


B.

Floor Slab:


1.

Joints shall be placed in accordance with Section 03300.


2.

The floor shall be steel trowel finished.


C.

Precast Concrete Wall Panel:


1.

Concrete

for each precast panel shall be placed in one continuous operation to
prevent cold joints.


D.

Vertical Joints Between Precast Panels:




1.

The 1
-
1/2” x 4” pocket between the vertical joints shaI1 be filled with a rich
cement grout to distribute the stre
ss applied during post tensioning. In additional a
3/8” x 3/4” bead of Sikaflex 1A shall be applied on each side of the wall joint.



E.

Form work shall meet the requirements of ACI 347 and ACI 301.



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03420
-
8

3.02

POST
-

TENSIONING:


A.

Walls:


1.

Threading the tendons th
rough the wall panels shall begin after all panels are
erected and plumbed.


2.

Duct extensions shall be placed between the precast wall panels to make a
continuous horizontal duct for grouted bonded systems.


3.

Tendons shall be stressed as required by th
e design and [n accordance with the
referenced standards of ACI and PTI.


4.

Grouting of bonded tendons shall be carried out as promptly as possible after
tensioning. The total exposure time of the pre
-
stressing steel to other than a
controlled environment
al prior to grouting shall not exceed 30 days, or 14 days
after tensioning unless special precautions, such as use of a vapor phase
corrosion inhibitor, are taken to protect the prestressing steel. The methods or
products used shall not jeopardize the effe
ctiveness of the grout as a corrosion
inhibitor, nor the bond between the prestressed reinforcement and the grout.
Vapor phase corrosion inhibitors shall be used in strict accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations. Additional restrictions may be a
ppropriate
for potential corrosive environments.


5.

Grouting equipment shall be capable of grouting at a pressure of 200 psi. The
tendon ducts must not be over pressurized during injection if blockage exists.
Instead, the grout shall be washed out and the

blockage removed.


6.

All grout shall pass through a screen with 0.125
-
inch maximum clear openings
prior to being introduced in the grout pump.


7.

When quick setting occurs due to hot weather, the grout shall be cooled by
acceptable methods such as cooli
ng the mixing water to prevent blockages
during pumping operations. When freezing weather conditions prevail during
and following the placement of grout, adequate means shall be provided to
protect the grout in the ducts from freezing until the grout attai
ns a minimum
strength of 800 psi.


8.

After the grouting of the horizontal ducts is complete, the end anchorage recess
pockets shall be cleaned, coated with a bonding agent and filled with a non
-
shrink grout.


B.

Tolerances:


a.

Manufacturing tolerances liste
d below are modified from the PCI Manual
for design MNL
-
121
-
77, and ACI 117
-
81.


1.

Warpage
-

Maximum of one corner out of plane of the other three shall
be 1/16 inch/ft. distance from the nearest adjacent corner.


2.

Bowing or Camber
-

Concave or Convex
-

Any part of a

flat surface
shall not exceed (length of bow) 360 with maximum of 3/4 inch.
Differential bowing or camber of adjacent panels shall not exceed 1/2
inch.


3.

Thickness tolerance
+
1/4 inch, thickness shall not be less than specified.


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03420
-
9

4.

Lengt
h and width
-

per ACT 117
-
81 section 4.3.


5.

Skew
-

measured by the difference in length of the two
d
iagonals,
+ /
-

1
/
8 inch per 6 ft of length with a maximum of
+/
-

3/8 inch.


6.

Position tolerances
-

for cast
-
in
-
place items measured frora datum line
loc
ations:





Weld plates

+/
-

1 inch

Inserts

+ /
-

1/2 inch

Handling devices

+ /
-

3

inch

Reinforcing steel and welded wire fabric

+ /
-
1 /4 inch

Tendons

+ /
-
1/8 inch

Openings and blackouts

+ /
-
1 /4 inch

Haunches

+ /
-
1/4 inch


b.

Construction tole
rances listed below are adopted from ACI 117
-
81 and ACI
30 1
-
89, for formed surfaces of cast
-
in
-
place concrete.


1.

Variation from plumb:


1/4 inch in any 10 ft. of length and max 3/4 inch for entire length.



For exposed corners, control
-
joint grooves, or

other conspicuous lines,
the tolerance shall be 1/4 inch in any 20 ft. of length and max. 1/2 inches
for entire length.


2.

Variation from level or from specified grade:



+ /
-

1/4 inch in any 10 ft. of length, max.



+/
-

3/4 inch for entire length.


3.

Variation of tank lines from established position in plan and related
position of interior walls, columns, and partitions:



+ /
-

1/2 inch in any 20 ft. of length max.


+ /
-

3/4 inch for entire length.


4.

Position tolerances for cast
-
in
-
place items shal
l be the same as listed
above for precast manufacturing.


5.

Variation in thickness of slabs and walls and in the cross
-
sectional
dimensions of columns and beams shall be
+ /
-

1/4 inch. Concrete
thickness shall not be less than what is specified.


C.

BEARING

STRIPS:


1.

Bearing strips or shims shall be used to level the precast wall panels from the
cast
-
in
-
place floor.


2.

The bearing strips shall provide minimum resistance to movement of the wall
during prestressing.


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03420
-
10

D.

WELDING:


1.

Perform welding in complian
ce with AWS D 1.1, including qualification of
welders.


2.

Protect units from damage by field welding or cutting operations and provide
non
-
combustible shield as require.


3.

Repair damaged metal surfaces by cleaning and applying a coat of liquid
galvanizi
ng repair compound to galvanized surfaces and compatible primer to
painted surfaces.


E.

POWDER ACTUATED FASTENERS:


Do not use powder
-
actuated fasteners (i.e. nail gun, etc.) for surface attachment of
accessory items in precast, prestressed unit unless other
wise accepted by precast
manufacturer and Engineer


F.

TEST FOR WATERTIGHTNESS:


1.

All concrete tanks designed to contain liquid shall be tested for water
tightness as follows.


a.

After the concrete tanks have been constructed and properly cured, for a
length
of time to be determined by the Engineer, and prior to any
backfilling around the structures, the Contractor shall fill the tanks to the
levels as indicated on the drawings with water.


b.

The water shall not be removed for a minimum of 48 hours unless
otherw
ise instructed by the Engineer. The Engineer will check for
evidence of leakage, and any areas, which show evidence of leakage,
will by repaired at the direction of the Engineer.


c.

For the purposes of this specification, water tightness shall be defined as
the absence of any damp or wet areas with discernible flow, and the loss
of less than 0.05 percent of the water. For each 24 hour period, the total
allowable liquid volume loss by measurement shall not exceed 0.05
percent. If the water loss exceeds this am
ount, or if repairs are necessary
because of damp or wet areas with discernible flow, the tank must be
drained, the repairs made and the test repeated, at no additional cost to
the Owner, until satisfactory completion of the test.


2.

All leakage tests and re
quired repairs shall be included in the scope of work
with no extra allowance for this work. Water required for the initial leakage
test shall be provided by the owner.


3.

The method and materials for repairs shall be approved by the Engineer prior
to the st
art of any repair work. All defective areas shall be cut or chipped and
patched. Small leaks that are not due to defective concrete may be sealed with
an approved membrane coating.


G.

CLEAN UP:


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03420
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The premises shall be kept clean and orderly at all times lurin
g the work. Upon
completion of construction, the Contractor shall remove or otherwise dispose of
all rubbish and other unsightly material caused by the construction operations.
The Contractor shall leave the premises in as good a condition as they were
fou
nd.


3.03

PRODUCT MARKING


A.

Each precast unit shall be legibly marked with the following information:


1.

Specification Designation


2.

Date of manufacture


3.

Manufacturer’s name and trademark


4.

Manufacturer’s order number or, where applicable, the Authority project
to r
eceive unit


B.

Above information shall be indented in unit’s surface or painted onto surface with
a waterproof paint or indelible ink.



3.04

MANUFACTURING PLANT STORAGE:


A.

All unit shall be stored off ground


B.

Stored units be placed so that identification marks ar
e discernible.


C.

Stacked members shall be separated by battens across full width of bearing point.


D.

Units shall be stacked so that lifting devices are accessible and undamaged.


E.

The upper member of stacked tier shall not be used as storage area for shorter
member or heavy equipment.



3.05

FIELD QUALITY CONTROL:


A.

The Manufacturer shall provide the Authority with minimum of 48 hours advance
notice prior to casting precast concrete products, to allow for scheduling of plant
inspection.


B.

Unless specifically approved

in advance, manufacturer must be within 65
-
mile
radius of the Garrett County.


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03420
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12

C.

Each product shall be individually stamped by the Authority’s Inspector prior to
shipment.







END OF SECTION