Reward to the Upland Poor for

halffacedacidicManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

53 views

Reward to the Upland Poor for
Environmental Service, Food Security
and/or Environmental Sustainability?




Case of Sloped Upland Conversion Program (SLCP) in China

XU Jianchu

Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge

http://www.cbik.org


Background


1998, Floods in downstream of Yangtze


……Logging Ban or “Natural Forest
Protection Program” in 1998


……Sloped Upland Conversion Program
in 1999


Rational: logging and upland farming
contribute to erosion and flooding

Timber Extraction in Diqing Prefecture, NW Yunnan

1974
-
1999 (Unit: 1,000 m3)


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
Rational beyond State’ decision



No good forest to log, structure
adjustment in state logging companies


Too much grain production, no rooms for
storage

Incentive


Targeted farmland >25
o


Planted forest or grass, mono
-
culture, state recognized species


90USD/hectare for seedings


unprocessed “rice” 2250kg/ha/year, subsidized for 5
-
8 years



36USD/ha/year for schooling and healthcare


Private ownership, whose land, who owns the tree

Farmland within major watersheds of Yunnan


Major watersheds

Yield of
farmland
>25
o
(ton/ha)

% of total
farmland
> 25
o

Total
farmland

(10,000 ha)

Farmland

> 25
o

(10,000ha)

% of
farmland
>25
o
in
Yunnan

Population

(10,000)

Jinsha
-
Yangtze

2.94

9.4

215.31

20.19

27

340.5

Nanpan
-
Pearl

2.61

7.6

140.12

10.59

14.2

168.0

Honghe
-
Red

2.39

19.3

98.65

18.99

25.4

198.5

Lancang
-
Mekong

2.09

12.1

137.04

16.64

22.3

184.7

Nujiang
-
Salween

1.74

22.4

29.90

6.69

8.9

52.6

Drong
-
Irrawaddy

2.52

7.6

21.86

1.66

2.2

61.4

Total

2.39

11.6

642.87

74.76

100

1005.7

(Yunnan Upland Conversion Draft Plan, 2001)

“Snowball”

Inquiry from Yunnan Provincial Government


From small
-
scale to large scale


Each year subsidy


What happen, if state no surplus grain?


At what extend, the state can sustain financially


Recently debate on food security

Environmental Services


What do environmental services mean for
local farmers?

Spatial Mismatch


What are the most cost
-
benefit efficient scale
for SLCP?


Where are the ‘hotspots’?



Area

Environmental services (water, B, C)

Time Mismatch

Time

Services

Goods

Payment for future

Competing Knowledge System:

Scientific v.s. indigenous


Characterization of smallholder upland farming


Composite: mosaic of land use and landscapes


Diversity of crops: agrobiodiversity


Environment friendly technology


Even early stage of secondary vegetation has little soil erosion


Characterization of commercial large
-
scale plantation


Rubber plantation


Tea garden (heavy erosion in the first storm)


Large
-
scale land clearing (e.g. sugarcane plantation)


Tobacco (why not plantation?)


Misperception


Soil erosion: Forest < grass < crops


Land use practices is more important (e.g., sweet potato
cultivation in swidden field in Ifugao, Philippines)

3
year fallow fields

Hani (Akha) Swidden
-
fallow

Biodiversity indices in swidden
-
fallow succession vegetation


What drive land use/cover change?

Figure
2
:
Impact of Population and Policies
on Shifting Cultivation
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1949
1965
1969
1972
1977
1980
1984
1986
1988
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
Year
Population
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Swidden Fields
(
ha
/
year
)
Population
Swidden Area
Conversion
without
compensation

Large
-
scale sugarcane plantation

Competing Objective


Household farmers (the poor vs. the rich)


Local environment goods and services


On
-
site and off
-
site


Upstream and downstream


National vs. international (e.g., GMS region)


Whose agenda and objectives accounted?


How are decisions made at which levels? (quota,
where, which species, how)

Priority Setting


What are the proper incentives (opportunist
farmers vs. converted farmers)?


Where are the critical areas (biophysical
environment, land use practices and socio
-
economic demands) for SLCP?


At what scale, the collective action of small
-
sale
farmers can contribute to environmental services?
(e.g., 60% forest cover in Baoshan and NW
Yunnan)

Ecological Perspective:

Forest Cover vs Biodiversity

What are the impacts of these SLCP on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning? How
do these translate into changes in ecosystem services in short
-
term and long
-
run?


Does increasing forest cover contribute to increase biodiversity (specie richness)?

What are forest cover and land use/cover change contribution to runoff and
water/hydrological dynamics?

Forest cover

Biodiversity

Time

SLCP

Technical Perspective

How does SLCP affect the tradeoffs between
gains and losses of ecosystems goods
and services (e.g. carbon storage via
plantations vs biodiverse secondary
succession)?



Social Application


At what extend, does SLCP contribute to strengthen or
weaken the customary or existing institutions between
upland and lowland?


SLCP as a emerging institutions or another wave of
commercialization of plantation or territorilization ?

Fairness and Equity

How to recognize the local and historical initiatives for SLCP?

e.g.:


Baoshan


Shifting cultivators


More than SLCP


Household Livelihood

and Decision
-
making


How does SLCP changes in ecosystem goods and services affect the
capabilities, livelihoods and vulnerability of people and land use?


What are the effects of the spatial distribution of human systems:
population density, economic resources, decision and power structures
on the delivery and exploitation of ecosystem services?


How do farmers make decisions under changing conditions of risk and
uncertainty, and what are the implications for the sustainability SLCP?


How do local institutions (governance, markets, property rights), policy,
and social organization affect household decisions on adaptation of
SLCP?




Pathways


What are possible pathways towards sustainable land
practices?


What are the possible pathways towards sustainable
livelihoods?


What are the possible pathways towards sustainable and
responsible society?


SLCP: as social construction process rather than
technical/economic solution


Social credit and creditability (farmers’ access to information, market
and decision
-
making)


Financial credit and creditability (access to credit and financial
support)


Access to social insurance system (healthcare, low
-
income security)


Access to training, education, job opportunities and alternative
livelihoods