RFID Technologies

guineanscarletElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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RFID Technologies

Master seminar : Tangible User Interfaces

Bruno Dumas


DIVA Group

University of Fribourg

9.12.2005

Presentation summary


“RFID” ?


Base of the technology


Technical aspects


Advantages & Limitations


“Standard” applications


Applications to TUIs


Conclusion

“RFID” ?


RFID
-
>
Radio Frequency IDentification



Derived from early military technology
(russian “bugs”, 1939 Allied IFF systems,
etc.)


First papers on the RFID theory in the 60’s


First high scale deployments in the 90’s


21st century : RFID everywhere ?

Base of the Technology


Necessary elements : a reader and a tag


Reader sends a wave at a given frequency


If a tag is close enough to the reader, it will
receive the wave


The tag is designed to take advantage of the
wave energy to send back an answer,
enclosing (for example) its identity

Base of the technology

?

?

Technical aspects : Tags


Different types of tags :


(Pure) passive


Semi
-
active (same technology than
passive tags, but battery assisted)


Active (contain a transceiver, battery
assisted)

Increase in read range, but also in price !

Technical Aspects : frequencies


RFID operates at different frequencies


Freqency

Price range

Read Range

Limitations

Applications

Low frequency

125
-
134 kHz

low

Low ( < 1 m.)

Low reading
speed

Animal/Container
tracking…

High Frequency

13.56 Mhz

Low to Middle

Low ( < 1.5 m)

Problems with
metal

Library, access
control…

Ultra
-
high freq.

860
-
930 MHz

Middle to High

High ( > 10 m)

Interference
problems

Pallet/Vehicle
tracking…

Microwave

2.4 GHz

High

High ( > 50 m)

Not widely
deployed

Vehicle access
control

Technical aspects : protocols


Numerous protocols…



Really

numerous :


ISO standards


Industry
-
defined (EPC) standards


US Department of Defense standards


And *lots* of proprietary solutions…

Technical aspects : Protocols


Proof by example : the 860
-
930 Mhz range

QuickTime™ et un
décompresseur TIFF (LZW)
sont requis pour visionner cette image.
Advantages

As Sokymat says…

But sometimes

very low range

Depends of

the material

Only valid for low

frequency tags

Not all tags have

this functionality

Mainly valid for

high frequency tags

Limitations


Read range (for passive tags, less than 1
meter in most cases, sometimes even less
than a few cm !)


Security (nothing at this time, at least among
the standards; planned ?)


Multi
-
tag management (collision problems
with some types of readers and tags)


Interferences with metals and liquids


No unification between the different protocols

Case study : US Passport


The US decided to introduce RFID chips into
their new passport


Goal : easily integrate machine reading of
personal and biometrics data


… All this with no security at all…


They were finally told of the dangers and
reviewed the concept


The «

new

» passport contains encryption,
shielding, some sort of PIN code…

“Real” advantages


Cost will necessarily go down


As a replacement for the bar code, good
technology


Linked with other technologies (like
GPS or sensors), can become really
attractive

“Standard” Applications


Presented as a successor of the bar
code (which shall still remain in place a
few years, though)


Supply chain


Traceability


Animal Identification


Checkpoint systems




Application to TUIs


Augmented documents


Tangible bookmarks


Easy “interfacisation” of random objects


Etc…



What could be the limit when every
product is tagged ?

Conclusion



Present state of the RFID :



Nonetheless, will be a major piece of our
future


Dearly desired by the industry


Desirable for the TUI research


… as a tool


… mixed with other technologies ?

Final anecdote


Some fundamentalist Christians firmly
believe that RFID is in reality…



… The Mark of the Beast !!!


(Cf.
Wikipedia.org

for more details
^^
)

Questions ? …

References


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID


K. Finkenzeller,
RFID handbook : fundamentals and
applications in contactless smart cards and
identification
, Wiley & Sons 2004.


S. Shepard,
RFID : radio frequency identification
,
McGraw Hill 2005.


RFID: a week long survey on the technology and its
potential


Bridging Physical and Virtual Worlds with Electronic
Tags


Real Applications using RFID tags


AIM RFID Emblem