RFID Tagging: Final Report

guineanscarletElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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RFID Tagging: Final Report

Stephanie Allen, Gina
Calcaterra, Michael Gray,
Rahul Nair, Sumit Pahwa,
Edward Robertson

MGT 6772

Outline


Technology Review


Active and Passive


Legal Issues on Privacy


Successes and Failures


Review of existing RFID implementations


Consumer Concerns


Business Case


Big Picture and the Future of RFID

Technology Review
-

I


Active RFID


Tags have internal power source


Larger computational capability and memory


Sensors can be added on board


Long range


Several thousand can be read by a single reader


More expensive (several dollars to >$200)


Life cycle limited by power source

Technology Review
-

II


Passive RFID


Tags powered by transmitted reader energy


Short range


Limited multi
-
read capability


Very small onboard cache (~128 kb)


Virtually infinite lifetime


High powered reader is needed


Very low cost (~20 cents)

Active RFID

Passive RFID

Area Monitoring

Yes

No

Cargo security

Very
sophisticated

Simple
applications

Electronic
Manifests

Yes

No

Business
process impact

Minimal

Minimal to
substantial


Active Vs Passive RFID

Uses of Active RFID


External Powered


MARTA buses


Rental cars


Self
-
powered (battery/solar)


Shipping containers


Future Federal mandates for cargo


Storage containers


Naval aircraft engines

Uses of Passive RFID


Inventory


Supply chain optimization


Near real
-
time stocking information


Retail


“No
-
wait” checkout


Alternative to credit cards


Personal


Smart appliances


Georgia Tech “Aware Home”
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/ahri/

Privacy vs. Location: Case I


Case I:

While RFID is still under control of
retailer or wholesaler.



Easy Case.
All
reasonable

consumers know
that as they pass through the security gates
that they are being scanned for stolen
merchandise.


Case II: RFID in Waste or Recycling
Receptacle.


More complicated.


“having deposited their garbage in an area
particularly suited for public inspection and,
in a manner of speaking, public consumption,
for the express purpose of having strangers
take it, respondents could have had no
reasonable expectation of privacy in the
inculpatory items that they discarded." (486
U.S. 35 1988).

Case III: Everything in Between


Clearly murkiest case.


As of yet there is no clear precedent on this
issue and a lack of parallels in the precedent
that does exist.



Legal Academics: Four prong

Box Test



“Box Test”


The four prongs are:


the Political Prong


the Moral Prong


the Teleological Prong


the Deontological Prong


Political Prong


Impact on social institutions?



How might the recognition of such a right
affect a judicial system?



What would the consequences be for the
social and judicially endorsed principle of
personal privacy?

Moral Prong


Is it "fair" to hold the use or possession of
RFID containing product to constitute a
waiver of privacy?


Is it fair to require that, as the price of
enjoying the benefits of a context
-
aware
sensing application in one's home, one must
forgo a right to privacy that one would
otherwise have?



Teleological Prong


How will the goal of maintaining the status of
the home as the central case of privacy be
furthered by distinguishing the privacy
interests in the RFID tag data depending
upon the room from which it originated?

Deontological Prong


For the purposes of the mutual access/joint
control rule, does the presence of the RFID
transceiver constitute shared access and
control over an individual's bedroom?

Legal Conclusions


No legal liability for passive RFID devices.


Test is an Academic Solution to an Academic
problem.


Experts confident passive RFID is physically
incapable of breaching 10 foot parameter.


However, analysis may unfold and emerge in
context of active RFID.

Push
-
Pull


Push


Retail


employee training costs, dubious value


Item
-
level tracking


software/hardware difficulties


Privacy an issue


Pull


Supply chain


value is worth the expense


Privacy not an issue (the customer asked for it)


Some correlation between Push & Failure, and


Pull & Success

Where RFID is not successful


Item
-
Level Tracking in the Retail Industry


This shows no promise anytime in the near future






Pallet and Case Level tracking.


Cost is too high for most manufacturers


RFID tags are not at the 90% reliability rate


RFID manufacturers are working to correct known problems.


No Standardization

Problems for Prada


After two years Prada is re
-
evaluating their Epicenter
concept.


Employees refuse to learn how to use the
technology and claim the store is just too crowded to
give the personal attention


The smart closets rarely recognized the RFID tags
and when they do the systems crash


The hand
-
held readers are placed behind the
counters to keep tourists from playing with them


Customers aren’t comfortable with the RFID tags

Solutions (Benetton?)


Education


Tesco has dedicated a section of their website to explaining
RFID technology to their customers


Standards


Cooperation among RFID manufacturers and support
technologies


Quality


Manufacturers need to work to improve known bugs such
as the inability to read RFID tags through liquid and metal


Higher Volumes


Cost will decrease as volume increases



Where is RFID proving to be
successful?


Development of RFID Smart tags that allow
consumers to do multiple actions and save
time



Animal microchipping



Containing the spread of disease


Tracking SARS contacts

Why is RFID successful in these
cases?


When the perceived benefit outweighs the cost of
losing privacy, consumers are willing to bow down.


Payoffs of saving time and versatile uses for the
consumer outweigh the privacy concerns (ex.
Octopus card)


Privacy of the consumer is not directly threatened
(animal microchipping)


Cases in which RFID has the potential to contain
disease (tagging SARS contacts)


Solutions to Consumer Concerns


Kill tags at checkout


The “Faraday Cage” approach


Active Jamming


“Smart” RFID tags


But the most promising solution being explored
right now.....

Blocker Tags


Universal vs. Selective


Low implementation cost


Prototype released in February by RSA Laboratories
and MIT


Advantageous over the “Kill Tag” approach, useful
aspects of RFID for consumers are retained


Current concern: Are these solutions biased towards
the technology elite?




RFID business case
-

I


Build a solid team


Not just an IT problem


Involve customers and suppliers


Educate team and management


Identify opportunities


Identify all possible applications


Evaluate benefits


Visibility, customer satisfaction, process
disruption, core
-
competency

RFID business case
-

II


Identify and analyze candidate deployments


Run the business (RTB) costs


Grow the business (GTB) costs


Transform the business (TTB) costs


Examine financial impact


Create the blueprint


Consider partnering a consulting/technology firm


Find the bottom line


The Big Picture


Examine RFID in its entirety


Do not play “follow the leader”


Standards will change/be set


Costs of tags and readers will change


Tag capabilities will change


Revisit/revaluate decisions periodically



Failure can affect relationships and/or brand
image

The Future of RFID


Active RFID is a success today, and will
continue to be in the future


Passive RFID is coming in a big way


Customer
-
driven in retail & personal use


Educate consumers


Resolve privacy issues, both real and perceived


Focus on what adds value for the customer
first


Cost
-
driven in business use


Improvements to tracking hardware/software






Questions
?

The Lunatic Fringe


Population tracking


Involuntary tagging for “national security”
purposes (similar to livestock tagging)


Tracking cash transactions


Euros have RFID


U.S. dollars have “metal strip”


“Mark of the Beast”


Biblical references in the book of Revelation