RFID presentation - The University of Nebraska–Lincoln

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Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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RFID

June 17, 2009

Dr. Erick C. Jones

University of Nebraska
-
Lincoln

Contents


RfSCL Lab Introduction


RFID Overview


Applications


How It Works


Readers


Antennas


Tags


Challenges


Questions


RfSCL Lab
Introduction

RfSCL Facility


Mission:



Providing integrated solutions in logistics and
other data driven environments through automatic
data capture, real world prototypes, and analysis”


Equipment



Active and Passive Tags/Readers and
software (
Matrics, Alien, Samsys), Hytrol
conveyor and GCS WMS, HP5555
Mobile
Active Reader and Software, RF Code
Active tags,
SAVI Active Tags and Reader
(WMRM/WORM)


RfSCL

Team (Fall 2009)


Faculty


Dr. Erick C. Jones (Director)


Dr. Mike Riley (Associate Director)


Graduate Students


Dwight Mosbey (DM)
-

PhD


Liyuan Zhang(LZ),
-

PhD


Casey Richards(CR),
-
PhD


Maurice Cavitt(MC)
-

PhD


Jonathan Carlson(JC),


Nancy Kong(NK),


Jian (Hank) Han(JH) ,


Bode Alabi (BA)


Rama Thummalapalli (RT),


Jairo De Jesus(JD)



Undergraduates


As many as I can “afford”

RfSCL

Layout

7

RfSCL

Facility

Plan

Predict

Define

Measure

Analyze

Identify

Perform

Design

Optimize

Verify

RfSCL

Research Methodology

DFSS
-
Research

Measure


Set up accurate metrics

Analyze


Current Situation

Identify


Relevant Technology

Design


New Technology from knowledge

Optimize


Test in live situation and improve

Verify


Validate technology in live situation

Predict

Perform

Define


Clear problem definition

Plan

RfSCL

DFSS
-
Research


Process Steps

RfSCL

Multi Disciplinary
Approach in RFID Research



Applied Research will be attracted to the lab if
presented as unified Multi Disciplinary Team on RFID
Research


RFID has 3 components


Data Acquisition (IE,CE, CM, AgEng)


Data Transmissions (EE, Communications)


Database Management (CIS, MIS)



A robust applied Research project will incorporate
these three components which is best addressed
using an multi Disciplinary Team


RfSCL

Multi Disciplinary

Approach Vision

Reader

Tag

Antenna

Power Induction

Data reading and writing to the IC

Electrical Engineering

Communication

Engineering

Frequency

Computer Science

Interface Program

Tag ID Mapping

Data Storage and Retrieve

Cattle Tracking (
Agriculture Eng.
)

Warehouse Management (
Industrial Eng
.)

Applications

RFID integrated with Supply Chain

(EPC Global )

RfSCL

Supply Chain Logistics

Research Definitions


Applied Research


Facility/Transportation Network Modeling


Warehouse/Manufacturing layout design


WMS/LES/TMS&ERP System integrations


RFID & Barcode systems integration for inventory
“visibility



Theoretical Research Models


Mathematical modeling inventory policies


Stochastic modeling of SC networks


Algorithm development for systems which minimize
material handling functions

RfSCL RFID

Research Definitions


Applied Research


RFID & Barcode integration into WMS and ERP systems


RFID test of EPC/ISO specs & integration including
Military UID


RFID in industrial application such as conveyors and
automated sorters such as tilt tray sortation


RFID testing of consumables in NASA Space Center
storage containers


Theoretical Research Models


RFID integration into GPS/GIS


RFID antennae/integrated circuit manufacturing process
design


Alternate active tag standard development

Previous Projects


Supply Chain


Supply Chain Network modeling for a city government.


Strategic Master Plan for Logistics Operations and Local Company
in including Logistics System Analysis


RFID


Comparative study: RFID Vs. UCC 128 Barcodes


Cost analysis for implementing RFID in Libraries.


RFID impact on enforcing the use of collaborated tools at a defense
manufacturer


Integration of RFID and GIS system for ticket/seat location


Cost reduction of tags through micro manufacturing process design


Applying RFID technology to comprehensive sports timing in a
marathon


RFID testing of consumables in NASA Space Center storage
containers


Integration of Animal ID into systems for Cattle Tracking


RFID in the Operating Room and Patient tracking


RFID in Construction


RFID economics of automated checkout for retail companies

Current Projects

(Fall 2009)

RFID


Imbedded RFID License Plates (DOT)


ROW Underground RFID tags (TxDOT)


RFID RTLS (NASA)

Logistics


Corporate Supply Chain Analysis


Grain Terminal Network Analysis


www.unl.edu/rfscl



RFID

Overview

Applications of RFID


Secure Access Control


Inventory Tracking


Exxon/Mobil Speedpass


Electronic Toll Collecting


Animal Tracking


Smart Shelves


Electronic Article


Surveillance (EAS)


clothing stores, libraries


2
-

10 MHz, up to 80 inches


between gates

How RFID Systems Work

1. The antenna of the interrogator (reader) emits radio signals


EM field transmitted can be continuous


Antennas come in a variety of shapes/sizes


Can be built
-
in or external


Circular polarization of reader antenna allows any tag


antenna orientation


Range: 1 inch to 100+ feet


2. Transponders (tags) respond with their unique code


Microchip / Integrated Circuit


Antenna: copper or aluminum coil


Encapsulating material: glass or polymer

3. Reader receives and decodes tag


information and sends it to a computer


via standard interfaces


Fixed or portable


Software available to filter data and monitor the network




Reader/Interrogator

Reader


A device that captures and processes tag data then passes
the digital data to a computer system


Readers are also known as:


Interrogators


Reader/Writers


Couplers


Reader function:


supply power to passive and semi
-
active tags


provide command data to tags


capture returned tag signals and process into a digital bit stream


output data to another output device or to a computer system


write data to the tag




Reader


Electronics containing a
small radio and
computer with memory


Transmits radio waves
that are received by the
Tag


Decodes information
received as radio waves
from the Tag




Reader

In operation, the reader has a very simple purpose:

read the tag(s) in its field and pass appropriate data to a host


A reader passes the following information to a host:


Tag ID


Timestamp


Antenna ID


Reader ID


Data is output from the reader by various interface methods


The host software receiving the reader data makes decisions on what
data is logged into the supply chain enterprise software




Reader


Readers can be mounted in configurations of:


portal: dock door


conveyor: slow or fast


multi
-
antenna: portals and conveyors


single antenna: hand held


Control


Externally triggered


photo
-
diode


network


PLC


Continuous operation


Operation Setup


Reader is configured for the target application


Multi
-
options during setup




Reader

In Summary:

Readers are radio frequency devices that:


Transmit and Receive RF signals


Contain a control unit to execute commands


Incorporate an interface to transfer data


Another way to look at a reader other than its immediate
functionality, is that a reader is a node on a network
receiving, aggregating, filtering and transmitting data


Antenna

What is an Antenna?


An antenna is a transducer that converts radio frequency electric
current to electromagnetic waves that are then radiated into space.


An antenna is said to be vertically polarized (linear) when its electric
field is perpendicular to the Earth's surface.


An example of a vertical
antenna is a broadcast tower for AM radio or the "whip" antenna on
an automobile.


Horizontally polarized (linear) antennas have their electric field
parallel to the Earth's surface.


Television transmissions in the USA
use horizontal polarization.


Passive RFID Tags are sensitive to polarization effects.


Antenna


Antennas are designed to resonate (allow the radio wave to be
received) at the desired frequency for LF and HF RFID



UHF antennas reflect the radio wave with a length of ~ ½ a
wavelength


Antenna


The Perfect Antenna



Picks up desired signal



Efficient use of energy



Filters out undesired signals



Space envelope is minimum



Structurally light and strong



Withstands high wind loads


Tags

Tags

Barcode identification

RFID identification



A scanner reads reflected
light from barcodes and then
discerns a sequence of
numbers



The numbers are arranged
according to a prescribed
format, like UPC or EAN,
and describe attributes
about the item.



Upon power and command from a
reader, the RFID tag emits data, and
the reader discerns a sequence of
numbers



The numbers are arranged according
to a prescribed format, such as EPC’s
96
-
bit, which also describes attributes
about the item.


Data

Power &
Commands

01010110

10101011

Tags



639382

=

manufacturer’s
identification number



00039

= item number or
Stock Keeping Unit, SKU



3

= check digit to
validate correct scanning of
code

UPC code

EPC
-
96 bit code



The EPC code contains: code type, near infinite companies, the UPC SKU, and item’s S/N

Tags

4 Essential Physical Components of a Tag



IC (Integrated Circuit, silicon)


Interconnect media, conductive


Antenna


Substrate

conductive adhesive or solder

antenna
connections

IC

paper or plastic acting as the antenna carrier



logic



modulator



receiver



transmitter



memory

Tags

A Tag’s
Micro
-
chip is
a very small
package for
low cost RFID
labels

Tags

125 kHz

13.56 MHz

860
-
950 MHz



Inductive



20
-
70 feet of wire



50
-
2,000 turns



Inductive



Planar or wire



3
-
20 turns



Backscatter



Planar foil or conductive
ink

Tags

Tag Success Factors



Orientation vs. reader antenna type


Multi
-
path UHF signals: direct & reflected


Noisy environments: Electro
-
Magnetic
Interference


Moving vs. static tags: time in antenna field


Orientation and location of the tag on


an item is critical to maximize success

Tags

1.
There are several different types of tags at many different
frequencies


2.

The two main differences in tags are their frequency and their
type


3.
These type differences are:


Passive: All power comes from reader


Semi Active: Battery assisted power for the IC operation


Active : Battery power assists IC & transmit power


Tags

Tags & Power

Passive Tags: <5m


All power comes from reader


Read distance is constrained by power from reader


Most common and inexpensive tags: >95% of market


epc
-
Global’s: Class 0+, Class 1, and Class1
-
Gen 2

(Semi) Active Tags: 10m to <200m


Battery assisted power for the IC operation


IC kept in “stand
-
by” until reader detected


IC wakes
-
up and transmits at normal, passive levels


epc
-
Global’s Class 3 tags, enables sensors, ~Q2’06

Active Tags: 10m to <1000m


Battery power assists IC & transmit power


epc
-
Global’s Class 4 tags, ~2007


Range is increased for all freqs, and up to 1km for specialized
applications such as U.S. DOD

Active Tag

at 2.45GHz

Active vs. Passive Tags


Active Tags



Battery powered


would require periodic replacement/recharging


Typically read/write, up to 1MB of memory


Greater range (30 meters possible with UHF)


Limited operational life: depends on operating temp. and battery


Ultra Wide Band (UWB) systems use time difference of arrival of transmitted pulses to
triangulate position


Passive Tags



Powered by energy transmitted by reader


Typically read only, 32


several Kbytes of memory


Virtually unlimited lifetime, lighter, smaller, and cheaper


13.56 MHz tags powered by inductive coupling


EM field emitted by the reader creates a voltage drop in the coil


Tag modulates the signal (amplitude/frequency/phase) and sends its unique code back to the
reader


UHF tags (915 MHz and 2.45 GHz) powered by propagation coupling


Similar to 13.56 MHz tags, but since signal travels greater distances, field strength decreases
with distance (depends on tag orientation and other factors)

Frequency




13.5MHz 915MHz 2.4GHz

RFID Challenges


Lower Frequencies


Lower cost tags


Higher performance around metals and liquids


Higher Frequencies


More prone to reflection, refraction, and diffraction


High data transfer rate


Longer read ranges


Interference less of a problem with high frequencies


Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) can be used to avoid
interference


Common RFID Frequencies (ISM Band)


13.56 MHz


Range up to ~1.5 m with credit card sized tag


915 MHz


Typical range up to ~3 m


2.45 GHz


Typical Range up to ~5 m


BCR operates at this frequency

RFID Challenges, cont.


Range


Longer range with larger antenna, higher power, frequency, and
cost


Limited by environmental conditions and metal obstacles


Standards


ISO


some standards for some frequencies, e.g. ISO 15693 and
ISO 18000


EPC


Auto
-
ID Center's Electronic Product Code could replace
the UPC as the standard for UHF; 64, 96, 128 bits of information
is stored in a specified format, allowing for billions of unique serial
numbers


Performance of ISO and EPC
-
compliant tags should be similar,
but sticking to standards increases flexibility of technology in the
future

RFID Standards


Standardizing RFID


Similar to universal product code (UPC) for
barcodes.


International Standards Organization (ISO)

42

Questions?

Announcements


RFID in Logistics is in publication


Currently working on book with
CRC: Taylor Francis

“RFID/AIT in Military Logistics”

Erick C. Jones, PhD, PE, CSSBB

Associate Professor

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering

University of Nebraska


Lincoln

(402) 472
-
3695, ejones2@unl.edu