RFID and it's applications

guineanscarletElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

66 views

Abstract


Radio
-
frequency

identification

(RFID)

is

an

emerging

technology,

which

promises

to

advance

the

modern

industrial

practices

in

object

identification

and

tracking,

asset

management

and

inventory

control
.

This

technology

is

being

evaluated

and

implemented

successfully

in

many

manufacturing

and

distribution

environments,

retail

stores

and

defense

installations
.




The

scope

of

RFID

is

rapidly

shifting

from

tracking

objects

(present

or

absent)

to

monitoring

the

condition

(where

and

how)

of

engineering

systems
.

The

integration

of

sensors

with

RF

tags

(Smart

Sensors)

enables

RFID

technology

to

gather

and

process

sensor

data

in

addition

to

identifying

and

tracking

the

object
.

The

deeper

ramification

of

such

RFID

systems

for

monitoring

manufacturing

systems

remains

largely

unexplored

and

untapped
.




The

focus

of

the

presentation

will

be

to

present

the

results

of

our

in
-
depth

review

of

the

current

and

emerging

technologies

and

applications

based

on

RFID

and

Smart

sensors

for

depot

support

and

logistics

environments

and

for

machine

condition

monitoring
.

R
adio
-
F
requency
ID
entification (
RFID
)


Radio
-
Frequency

identification

(RFID)

is

generic

term

for

technologies

which

use

RF

waves

to

identify,

track

or

categorize

any

object


RFID

is

fast,

reliable,

and

does

not

require

physical

sight

or

contact

between

reader

and

the

tagged

object


RFID System Components


Tags (Transponders)

Attached to the object to be identified, stores information (unique code)
about object and sends this information back to reader when receives
appropriate frequency signals


Reader/Interrogator




Reader sends signals of appropriate frequency and



facilitates data transfer


Antenna




Antenna radiates the RF signal to, and receives signal from the

transponder


Interface




This

unit interfaces the reader to an intelligent device / controller


Host/Controller (PC/Laptop)




Computer with suitable software controls RFID readers



How system works?


Controller activates RFID reader to send RF signals


Reader sends the signal of appropriate frequency (LF,HF,UHF,MW)


Tag receives and modifies the signal


Tag sends modified signals back through tag antenna


Reader antenna receives the modified signal and reader decodes it


Controller analyzes the results

RFID and Smart Sensors


Sensors can be integrated with RF tags
(Smart Sensors) and sensor data can be
communicated using RF waves


This enables RFID systems to gather and
process sensor data in addition to identifying
and tracking object


Applications:


Machine Health Monitoring, Fluid
Composition Detection.


Applications in Depot Support Environment

Appropriate
technician informed
as per schedule via
mobile
communication

Vehicle tag
detected by
readers
mounted in
the gates

Vehicle sent to
appropriate
machines and
database updated
after each
operation

Vehicle brought
to maintenance
shop

Vehicle Inspection

Material request
sent to the
warehouse and
material retrieved
as per history
sheet

Operation
Sequencing and
Scheduling done
as per availability
of machines

ERP System

Shop

Benefits

Automatic
Operation

Time
Management

Quality
Management

Poka
-

Yoke

Material
Management

Vehicle history
sheet retrieved

Warehouse

Applications in Logistics

Real Time Inventory
Tracking

Eliminating
Inventory Shrinkage

Benefits

Cycle time
Reduction

Information
Visibility

Delay Reduction

Warehouse

Parts recognized and
database updated at
warehouse gate

Transit

Mode of transit tracked
at every designated halt
by Through satellite
communication

Supplier Site

Readers mounted on
forklift trace and track
the parts out of the
warehouse to
appropriate shop

Parts properly tagged
at supplier site and
inventory database
updated

Request sent to ASRS

ERP System

Parts grouped and stored


in the ASRS

Applications in Monitoring Health of Machines

Lubricant level

Bearing condition

Tool wear

Table alignment

MACHINE CONDITION MONITORING DATABASE

RFID based Smart Sensors send critical information
about machine parameters to the central database

Lubrication
& Coolant


Tribology

Tool
Engineering

Metrology

DEPARTMENT OF MACHINE MAINTENANCE

Reduction in
response time

Quality
management

Reduction of
scrap

Predictive
maintenance

Benefits

The database
sorts data &
sends to
appropriate
department

Tag Selection Guide

Factors affecting Tag Selection

TAG / TRANSPONDER

Frequency

Range

Read Range


Application


Functionality

Environmental
Conditions

Standard
Compliance

What is
application?

LF
125,134 KHz

HF

13.56 MHz

UHF

902
-
928
MHz

Microwave

2.45 GHz

Short Range

Long Range

Passive
Active
Semi Passive

RF friendly

Vicinity of Metals
& Liquids

ISO/IEC

EPC Gen 1, 2

Form Factor

Reader Selection Guide

Factors affecting Reader Selection

Reader/Interrogator

Frequency

Range

Read Range


Application


Functionality

Environmental
Conditions

Standard
Compliance

What is
application?

LF
125,134 KHz

HF

13.56 MHz

UHF

902
-
928
MHz

Microwave

2.45 GHz

Short Range

Long Range

Passive
Active
Semi Passive

RF friendly

Vicinity of Metals
& Liquids

ISO/IEC

EPC Gen 1, 2

Form Factor

Coupling, field & applications based on frequency

902
-
928


MHz


13.56


MHz

125
-
134


KHz

2.45

GHz

Induction Coupling

Propagation or Backscatter
Coupling

Near Field
Communication

Far Field
Communication

Short Range
Applications

Long Range
Applications

Coupling, Field & Application


Powered by EM field

Powered by Radio
-
waves


Micro
-
Wave


LF



HF


UHF

Geographical Regions



Micro
-
Wave


LF



HF


UHF

Region 1

Region 2

Region 3

125


134 KHz

868
-
870 MHz

2.4


2.48 GHz

13.56 MHz

125


134 KHz

902
-
928 MHz

2.4


2.48 GHz

13.56 MHz

125


134 KHz

950
-
956 MHz

2.4


2.48 GHz

13.56 MHz

Europe, Middle
East, Africa,
Former Soviet
Union

US & Canada,
Pacific East of
international
date line

Japan

Frequency Allocation as per region

Micro
-
wave


LF



HF


UHF

902
-
928


MHz


13.56



MHz

125
-
134


KHz

2.45

GHz


ISO/IEC 18000
-
2


ISO/IEC 18000
-
3


ISO/IEC 18000
-
6


ISO/IEC 18000
-
4


EPC Gen 1


EPC Gen 1, Gen 2

Air Interface Protocol


Air Interface Protocols standards over frequency range

Max. Possible Read Range based on frequency range

Typical applications based on frequency range


UHF

902
-
928 MHz


HF


13.56 MHz


LF


125
-
134 KHz

Micro
-
Wave

2.45 GHz

Dock Door Reading

Asset management in Warehouse

Overhead reading

Smart Shelves

Baggage Tracking

Long Range Applications

Applications requiring large data transfer

Electronic Door Locking System

Contact less Smart Card System

POS applications

Animal Identification

Item Level Tracking


Baggage handling

Smart Shelves

Short Range Systems

Short Range Systems: up to 1 m
Applications in vicinity of metals and liquids

Long Range Systems: Range>1m

Automatic Toll Collection Systems

Supply Chain Applications

Typical Applications

Frequency Range