RFID

guineanscarletElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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RFID Network

Building an Internet of Things

Liang Dong


leondong@sjtu.edu.cn

Company Name

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Contents

Introduction RFID

RFID Network Architecture

RFID Security & Privacy

RFID Applications

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Contents

Introduction RFID

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What will the world be if all object can “talk”?

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What is Automatic Identification

Real World

Automatic
Identification

Virtual World

0110111000101010101
1101010111010101101
0001011101010001001
0101010000111010101
0101010101000001110
11111101101110100101
01110101011

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What is Automatic Identification


Various forms of Automatic Identification


Biometric (e.g. Retinal Scans)


Optical Character Recognition (OCR)


Voice Recognition


Bar Codes( e.g. Uniform Product Codes)


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

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What is RFID


R
adio
F
requency
Id
entification


Describes any system of identification
wherein an electronic device that uses
radio
frequency

or
magnetic field variations

to
communicate is attached to an item.

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RFID Frequency

10
kHz

100
kHz

1
MHz

10
MHz

100
MHz

1000
MHz

300
GHz

Low Freq. EAS

Mid. Freq.

EAS

Cell Phone

RFID:

Item

Management

Data

Modem

AM

Radio

Toys

Garage

Door

CB

FM

RFID:

Access Control

Animal ID

RFID:

Toll Roads

& Item

Managemen
t

Microwav
e

EAS

TV

Data

Terminal

RFID &

I.C. Cards

2.45 GHz


LF HF UHF Microwave

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What’s wrong with Bar
-
code


Barcode is prevalent in commercial world.


However, there are shortcomings of bar
codes


Line
-
of
-
sight


One
-
at
-
a
-
time


Manual
handling


Limited range


Limited data

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Radio Frequency Identification


R
adio
F
requency
Id
entification offer the
potential to eliminate these shortcomings


Non
-
line
-
of
-
sight


100(s) at a time


Automatic
handling


Several meter


50 bits
-
Kbits

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What are some of the potential issues
associated with the creation of an
“Internet of things”
?

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Example: Supply Chain

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Contents

RFID Network Architecture

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RFID Network

Architecture


The RFID Network Architecture is
composed of four fundamental elements:


Electronic Product Code (EPC)


Hardware System (RFID tags and readers)


RFID middleware


Object Name Service (ONS)

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Electronic Product Code


Numerous identification coding standards
exist:


Universal Product Code (UPC)


International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


IP Address


MAC Address


EPC aims to uniquely identify
physical objects over the world


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Electronic Product Code


Standard EPC is 96 bit


EPC is comprised of four distinct numbers


Version


Domain Manager Number (P&G, Pepsi)


Object Class Number (Pepsi Cola)


Serial Number

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Hardware
--
Reader and Tag

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RFID Tag

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Chip of RFID Tag

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RFID Tag

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RFID Reader


Passive tags must have radio transmitters
somewhere to power them


It's the reader's role to know how to
talk to
tags
, how to
create low
-
level data

from
reads, and how to
send these data to
middleware

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RFID Reader

Label
Transmitter
Receiver
Controller
Some application illustrations will be given shortly

Normally a very weak reply is obtained

Chip

Energy

Data

Tag

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Reader and Tag Collision


Two collision
-
related issues:


Reader Collision



Interference caused by an
overlap in reader signals


Tag Collision



Interference caused when
more than one tag responds to a signal at the
same time



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RFID Middleware


In order to
reduce network traffic
, modular
components of RFID Middleware will be
used to process, filter, and digest events.

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Object Naming Service (ONS)


Since only the EPC is stored on an item’s
tag, computer systems need a way of
matching the EPC to information about the
item


ONS is an automated networking service
similar to Domain Name Service (DNS)
and built over top of the DNS framework


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Contents

RFID Application

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Networking the Physical World

RF
Tag

Networked


Tag

Readers

Middleware

ONS

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RFID Network
:
Trace and Track

Manufacture

Database A

ONS

Retailer

Database

Send

1.2.3.4

Register

1.2.3.4 is in Database A

ONS Finding

Where can I find

information of 1.2.3.4

Middleware

Middleware

Verify Receiving
Information

ONS return:

Database A

Receive

1.2.3.4

A

B

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Contents

RFID Security and Privacy

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RFID Bill of Rights for consumer


The right of the consumer


to know what items possess RFID tags


to remove or deactivate the RFID tag once a
product is purchased


to know where, when, and why an RFID tag is
being read


to know what information is being stored
inside an RFID tag

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Vulnerability


Tag


Data on the tag is stored unencrypted


Without physical supervision, anyone on the
premises with physical access to tags can
remove a tag or switch one tag with another


Reader


The data traffic from tag to reader is not
encrypted


Readers do not authenticate the tags


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Possible Countermeasures


Tag


Using rewritable tags only where appropriate


With proper access control (physical or
encryption)


Reader


Communication between readers and tags
can be encrypted.


Readers should require proper authentication
and authorization to allow access to their
services


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Resource


http://www.epcglobalinc.org/
Official Organization of EPC
standards


MIT Auto
-
ID lab
http://autoid.mit.edu/CS/


Garfinkel, Simson. "The Trouble with RFID."
http://www.thenation.com/doc/20040216/garfinkel/
.


Gagne, Martin. "Identity
-
Based Encryption: A Survey. "RSA
Laboratories CryptoBytes 6, no.1 (2003): 1019.


Palmer, Mark. "Seven Principles of Effective RFID Data
Management." Enterprise Systems Journal, 3 August 2004,
http://www.esj.com/enterprise/article.aspx?EditorialsID=1076
.


Sozo, Inoue and Hiroto Yasuura. "RFID Privacy Using User
-
Controllable Uniqueness." Kyushu University, 1 November 2003.



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