Frameworks for RFID-type

guineanscarletElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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An Analysis of Ubiquitous
Computing Communication
Frameworks for RFID
-
type
Applications


Adam Raby

CMSC 691b

Outline


Motivation & Background


My Proposal


Related Work


Result Expectations


Future Work


Conclusions

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Ubiquitous Computing is the
Integration of Computing into all
aspects of every
-
day life


First defined by Mark Weiser (1991)


Think of the ubiquity of written languages


Requires


Mobility


Pervasiveness


Transparency


Consider Weiser's example of the relative
disappearance of electric motors


We can’t assume that our currently
technologies and architectures are optimal



Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Ubiquitous Computing
Technologies are Everywhere!


Consider RFID


With high levels of integration of
RFID
-
like technology into everyday
life, there needs to be a sound
communication framework


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

This analysis has to be done
before Ubiquitous Computing can
become a reality



Miniaturization


Decreasing Power Requirements


Increasing Wireless Connectivity


Increasing Pervasiveness


= A Need for a Well
-
Defined and Empirically
Evaluated Connectivity Framework

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

My Proposal:

1.
Gather existing approaches to
connectivity frameworks in ubiquitous
computing environments

2.
Compare them empirically

3.
Extract and formally describe important
concepts and features

4.
Propose ideal frameworks and formally
explain any relevant design decisions


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Related Work


R
ömer (2003)


Investigated the development of a
framework for a "smart" approach to
identifying RFID
-
tagged objects in a
Ubiquitous Computing environment


“Smart" behavior = a computing
environment's ability to pair objects with
their functions, anticipate events, and
monitor object locations


"Smart Toolbox“

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Kay R
ö
mer, Thomas Schoch, Friedemann Mattern, and Thomas Dbendor
-

fer. Smart identi¯cation frameworks for ubiquitous computing applications,

2003.

Römer: The Framework
Matters


Two Approaches


Jini


Distributed Java Objects
(Winner)


Web Services


Neither did well under heavy
-
loads

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Kay R
ö
mer, Thomas Schoch, Friedemann Mattern, and Thomas Dbendor
-

fer. Smart identi¯cation frameworks for ubiquitous computing applications,

2003.

My Proposal:

1.
Gather existing approaches to
connectivity frameworks in
ubiquitous computing environments

2.
Compare them empirically

3.
Extract and formally describe important
concepts and features

4.
Propose ideal frameworks and formally
explain any relevant design decisions


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Many Models Use RFID
Technology to Bridge the Real
and Virtual Worlds


Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID)


Small, versatile transponders capable of
storing a small fixed number of bits


There are several different types


Each type has unique range, power
consumption, and transmission
characteristics


The most common forms of these tags
are inexpensive, reliable, and passive


They provide a standardized medium

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

RFID Solves Several Problems
Facing the Achievement of
Ubiquitous Computing


Often, attempts to connect the real and
virtual world through specialized input
devices and gadgets are expensive and too
application
-
specific (Want, 99)


Properly distributing the burden of
complexity is a key issue in ubiquitous
computing (Want, 99)


Is it really necessary for a light to know when
someone has entered the room, or is it
enough for something else to know that
there is a light and a person in the room?

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Roy Want, Kenneth P. Fishkin, Anuj Gujar, and Beverly L. Harrison.

“Bridging physical and virtual worlds with electronic tags,” In CHI, pages

370
-
377, 1999.

Cooltown


Designed upon three principles


Ubiquitous access


Users are able to access outside resources, like the internet, from
virtually any device, using common protocols


Just enough middleware


Much less platform and capability dependent


Locality


the technology's ability to be aware of its environment and act
accordingly


Uses handheld devices, infrared beacons, barcodes, and RFID
tags to situate its users


The infrared beacons, barcodes, and RFID tags resolve to URLs
for webservers which provide contextual information about the
users environment


A large wired infrastructure supports the CoolTown system,
managing information about all the "tagged" people, places, and
things

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Tim Kindberg and John Barton. A web
-
based nomadic computing sys
-

tem. Computer Networks (Amsterdam, Netherlands: 1999), 35(4):443
-
456,

2001.

Cooltown


CoolTown's researchers rely on
several different technologies to
combat some of the shortcomings of
RFID, primarily range


Demonstrates the need for support of
Heterogeneity in Ubiquitous
Computing Frameworks

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Tim Kindberg and John Barton. A web
-
based nomadic computing sys
-

tem. Computer Networks (Amsterdam, Netherlands: 1999), 35(4):443
-
456,

2001.

H
ä
hnel And Colleagues Developed
An Approach To Mapping And
Localization Using RFID


A RFID sensor
-
equipped robot is able
to navigate and map environments
using a laser sensor and a RFID
sensor


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

D. Hähnel, W. Burgard, D. Fox, K. Fishkin, and M. Philipose. “Mapping

and localization with RFID technology.” In Proc. of the IEEE International

Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2004

H
ä
hnel’s Work Demonstrated
Several Important Aspects of RFID
-
Type Systems


They often require secondary systems (e.g.
lasers)


They’re highly susceptible to
instrumentation


They require a lot of the receiver


Are we already leaning towards a system
with a heavily loaded client?


And again, demonstrates the need for
Heterogeneity in Ubiquitous Computing
Frameworks


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

D. Hähnel, W. Burgard, D. Fox, K. Fishkin, and M. Philipose. “Mapping

and localization with RFID technology.” In Proc. of the IEEE International

Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2004

“Websigns” is an Example of a
Completely Virtual System


GPS data is used to situate a user in their environment


Once the Websigns system determines a users
location, it returns any relevant contextual information
to the user based on the Websigns in their vicinity


Users are expected to have constant access to GPS
data as well as internet access


A central site for maintaining Websigns also introduces
a central point of failure and difficulties in scalability


In a system that uses actual RFID tags, offline users
would be able to cache data for later resolution


Real tags provide another level of user interaction and
control

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Salil Pradhan, Cyril Brignone, Jun
-
Hong Cui, Alan McReynolds, and

Mark T. Smith. “Websigns: Hyperlinking physical locations to the Web,”

Computer, 34(8):42
-
48, 2001.

There’s A Lot to Learn Just By
Gathering Current Frameworks




What Next?


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

My Proposal:

1.
Gather existing approaches to
connectivity frameworks in ubiquitous
computing environments

2.
Compare them empirically

3.
Extract and formally describe important
concepts and features

4.
Propose ideal frameworks and formally
explain any relevant design decisions


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

These Systems Can Be Analyzed
Using Network Analysis Tools

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Virtual Inter
-
Network Testbed (VINT)


Model Ubiquitous Frameworks
as Computer Networks

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Cooltown:

Internet

User

User

User

Tagged Artifact

Tagged Artifact

Tagged Artifact

Web

Service

Internet

This Approach Provides Several
Common Methods of Evaluation

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b


Metrics


Throughput


Latency


Message Complexity


Error Rates


Bottlenecks


Behavior Under the Atypical Loads of
a Ubiquitous Computing Environment


Behavior Under the Atypical
Loads of a Ubiquitous
Computing Environment

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

My Proposal:

1.
Gather existing approaches to
connectivity frameworks in ubiquitous
computing environments

2.
Compare them empirically

3.
Extract and formally describe
important concepts and features

4.
Propose ideal frameworks and
formally explain any relevant design
decisions


Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

I Expect to Find:

1.
High dependency on individual users’
capabilities

2.
Major performance characteristics of
various frameworks (Existing, Cellular,
P2P, etc.)

3.
Bottlenecks can be optimized using DNS
-
style name resolution caching

4.
A large potential for P2P
-
based
optimizations


This may introduce security and coherence issues

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b

Questions?

Thanks

Adam Raby, CMSC 691b