VACCINE - TapRooT

guiltlesscyanBiotechnology

Dec 3, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

268 views





Dear Friends
--

























the novel H1N1 is spreading rapidly in the northern hemisphere, an
early start to the typical flu season
--

while it never faded from the scene during the
summer months, flu illnesses are really
beginning

to pick
-
up again









NOVEL H1N1











the swine flu (novel H1N1) is spreading 4 times faster than other
viruses

and 40%
of the fatalities,
dying

of a viral fever in
3 to
5 days, are young adults in good health
according to WHO
--

according to
CDC, it is starting early and spreading rapidly,
especially in the southeastern U.S.
--

the number of patient visits is

already

as
high

as
last winter's peak










novel H1N1 was the dominant strain in the southern hemisphere for their first
wave, and
clearly is the dominant strain (97%) in the northern hemisphere
--

while 99%
of those infected have a relatively mild case of the flu (recovering in 3 to 5 days), 1%
had a very severe form of the disease
--

in these rare cases, the virus directly infects
t
he lungs, causing severe respiratory failure

--

pathologic evaluation of the tissues,
showed lower lung damage, resembling H5N1 infections










seasonal viruses
tend

to attach to receptors found on cells in the nose, throat and
upper airways (infecti
ng a person's respiratory tract)
--

however, research shows

that
novel H1N1 can also attach

to a receptor found on
cells

deep inside the lungs, resulting
in a more severe lung infection (Nature Biotechnology)


a study, published in Science, has shown that
a student with novel H1N1 will, on
average, infect 2.4 other students at school before feeling too sick to attend school
--

in
households, an average of about one in every 4 people will get sick once a family
member is infected










reviewing the dat
a from the southern hemisphere,
approximately

15% of
hospitalized

cases required intensive care
--

typically requiring a 3 week stay in
an
ICU
-
-

Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS) is the sudden failure of the respiratory
system
--


only 50% of ARDS

patients survived










experience to date suggests that there will be a heavy burden on ICUs in the
coming

months










there is a tremendous amount of research going on to help us all
--

a recent
article in PLoS was "Transmission of influenza vi
rus in temperate zones is
predominantly

by aerosol, in the tropics by contact"
--

the title says it all










WHO has published an analysis (lessons learned), based on the impact of the
first wave in the southern hemisphere:

















novel H1N1
is the dominant strain

















the virus has not mutated

















large numbers of people are impacted

















Health Care may be
overwhelmed

by people requiring ICU care

















a small proportion of ill are
severely

impacted

















drug
resistance

to Tamiflu is not a problem so far

















pattern

of illness targets younger population


http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/notes/h1n1_second_wave_20090828/en/index.html




GLOBAL

-

S
pain




Spain has reported a spike in activity


up 24% over the past week


-

France


France has ordered school closures & recommended that the traditional
greeting
(kissing on both cheeks) be suspended in an effort to slow the spread of the novel
H1N1


VACCINE

-

Seasonal vaccine









seasonal flu shots are readily available in the northern hemisphere
--

I would urge
you to get a seasonal flu shot if you
have not done so already, even if you've had the flu
(likely the novel H1N1)
--

remember that the seasonal H1N1 is resistant to Tamiflu & the
vaccination offers you the best protection


-

Novel H1N1








the great news has been that clinical trials
demonstrate that one dose of the novel
H1N1 vaccine is sufficient to provide immunization (typically within 8 to 10 days)
--

this
will free up many more doses for the general public
--

additionally, HHS has indicated
that it may be able to begin giving sho
ts in early October







preliminary information from clinical trials has indicated no unusual side effects for
children
--

while these trials are continuing, clinical trials have now begun on pregnant
women (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID), a part of the
National Institutes of Health (NIH))


ANTI
-
VIRAL MEDICATION











two significant medical cases are being discussed (one in the UK, one

in
Australia
), as reported in

"The Lancet"
--

in
desperation
, the physicians
administered an
unlicensed intravenous form of Relenza (GSK) to patients who were not responding to
ICU protoc
ols
for ARDS


this was done
along with cortic
osteroids resulting in a
reversal of the infection
--

these results are encouraging and war
rant furt
her moni
t
o
ring



an

exp
erimental antiviral medication P
eramivir
was shown to

be as effective
as currently
-
available m
edications against flu symptoms
--

t
he new drug
,
manufactured by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals,
is an antiviral agent that inhibits
influenza virus
(influenza A & B)
neuraminidase, an enzyme that is critical to the
spre
ad of influenza within the host

--

P
eramivir
is an
in
jection drug, c
urrently
being developed in both intramuscular and intravenous
formulations



a

US based pharmaceutical company,

NexBio Inc. has

reported

on the
results
of an

animal trial of Fludase, an experimental broad
-
spectrum antiviral
medication also known as DAS181

--

l
aboratory tests on mice showed that the
drug stopped
influenza viruses, including the pandemic H1N1 virus, from infecting
cells and appeared to have stopped the influenza viruses from mutating into drug
-
resistant forms

--

i
nfluenza viruses generally tend to quickly change to provide a
stronger defense agai
nst antiviral dr
ugs
--

h
owever, unlike currently used antiviral
drugs (Tamiflu and Relenza), which work by affecting a compound in the flu virus
itself, Fludase affects the human cell
s that influenza viruses infect
--

t
he difference
in the way this exper
imental drug works makes it less likely to cause the virus to
develop resistance



clinical trials are the next step


OTHER






perhaps

it's

a

good

time

to

review

a

s
tudy

about

survival

of

influenza

viruses

on

environmental

surface:




Influen
za

A

viruses

survive

24
-
48

hours

on

hard,

nonporous

surfaces

such

as

stainless

steel

and

plastic,

but

survive

for

less

than

8
-
12

hours

on

porous

surfaces

such

as

cloth,

paper,

and

tissues

at

conditions

of

35%

to

49%

humidity

and

a

temperature

of

28

ºC

(


82ºF).




Measurable

quantities

of

influenza

virus

transfer

from

stainless

steel

surfaces

to

hands

for

24

hours

and

from

tissues

to

hands

for

up

to

15

minutes.




The

virus

survives

on

hands

for

up

to

5

minutes

after

transfer

from

the

environmental

surfac
es.


B.

Bean,

B.

Moore,

et.al
.

Survival

of

Influenza

Viruses

on

Environmental

Surfaces.

Journal

of

Infectious

Diseases.

V.

146(1),

47
-
51,

July

1982.

Abstract.













http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6282993?dopt=Abstract



an additional source of information about the flu is
http:/
/www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/h1n1flu/htm/index.htm




the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has released a report recommending the use of N95 respirators
as part of the protocols to prevent the spread of novel H1N1 in medical settings
--

stocking &
distribution

of respirators

is useful, ONLY if education is 1st provided
--

wearing masks all the
time is useless
--

wearing them in appropriate circumstances (for sick & healthy people), is
appropriate
--

with the right circumstances you can red
uce the sp
read of the virus
--

see

http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/0000602
-
200910
060
-
00142v1




COMMENTARY









while many business pandemic
preparedness

plans are set around a worst case
scenario, an approach focusing on local assessment of severity is recommended
--

a
tiered approach, based on a risk assessment is more appropriat
e









a recent study by Harvard found that business
preparedness

plans have many
gaps (if they have plans)
--

this is especially true in the area of employee
absences

for
indirect illness





stay safe


best regards


dennis





Dennis
Osmer

Environment, Health, Safety,

& Emergency Management

www.LinkedIn.com/in/dennisosmer

HSE
-
exec@charter.net

678
-
421
-
4452











<<<<<<<

NEW


Please consider the environment before printing this email


CONFIDENTIALITY: This e
-
mail (including any attachments) may contain confidential,
proprietary and privileged information, and unauthorized disclosure or use is prohibited.

If you

receive this e
-
mail in error, please notify the sender and delete this e
-
mail from
your system.