NT vs. UNIX

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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NT vs. UNIX


Unix: a brief history


Overview


Unix features


Comparing the Operating systems


what IT professionals are saying about this


conclusion

unix: a brief history


during the early 1960s , many
computers were working in the
batch mode, running single jobs.
programers had to use punch cards
to input their programs and then
wait for the output on the line
printer.


Unix : a brief history


The UNIX operating system was born in
1969 as a response to the frustration of the
programmers and the need for new
computing tools to help them with their
projects.


Universities and colleges have played a
great role in the popularity of the UNIX
operating system.

continue..


In 1975, bell labs offered the UNIX OS to
educational institutions at minimal cost.


Many versions have been released since
then, the most popular ones are: AIS, HP
-
UX, LINUX, SOLARIS, UnixWare.

overview


the operating system is system software that
controls, and coordinates the activities of
the computer. Like other operating systems,
the UNIX is a collection of programs that
includes text editors, language compilers,
and other system utility programs .it is
implemented in a layered style software
model.

the model


kernel:

also called the base operating
system ,is the layer that manages all the
hardware dependant functions


resident modules layer
: it provides service
routines that perform users
-
requested
services.


utility layer
: is the Unix user interface
commonly referred to as a shell.

continue..


virtual computer
: consists of a terminal for
user interface and shared access to the other
computer resources such as memory, disk
drives, and most importantly the CPU.


processes
: the UNIX allocates resources to
users and programs by way of processes.
Each process has a process identification
number and a set of resources is associated
to that number.

unix features


portability


Multi
-
user capabilities


Multitasking capabilities


Hierarchical file system


Device independent input and output
operations


User interface shell

portability


the use of the C language made Unix a
portable system. It decrease the user’s
learning time when moving from one
system to an other .it also provide more
choices among the hardware vendors.

Multi
-
user capabilities


under Unix, a number of users can share
computer resources simultaneously with
each user running a different program.

Multitasking capabilities


Unix allow the user to initiate a task and
then proceed other tasks while the original
task is being run in the background.

Hierarchical file system


Unix provide users with the ability to group
data and programs in a manner that provide
easy management.

Device independent input and
output operations


Unix treats all devices (printers, terminals,
disks) as files. With Unix you can redirect
the output of your commands to any device
or file

User interface shell


experienced programmers find Unix simple,
concise, and elegant. On thew other hand
,beginners find it terse ,not user friendly. the
user’s interaction with Unix is controlled by
a program called “shell”. Shell is the face of
Unix and the part with which most of the
users interact.

Comparing the operating systems


Product costs and licensing issues


Functionality


Reliability


System Management


Performance


Web Servers

Product costs and licensing issues


Product


Price (US
-
$)


NT server 4.0(5 users) $809


NT server 4.0(10 users) $1,129


NT server4.0(ed 25users) $3,999


NT server4.0(ed 50users) $4,799


NT documentation kit $ 69.95


20 quantity client lisence $329


single quality client lisence $19.95

that is it?


Of course no! we all know that in a
networked operating system we also need a
telnet server, SMTP server(for e
-
mail) , disk
quotes, news server. By adding all that, the
final price will go up to $4,000 for a NT
solution.

Functionality



NT can communicate with many different
types of computers. So can UNIX.



NT can secure sensitive data and keep
unauthorized users off the network. So can
UNIX. both operating systems meet the
minimum requirements for operating
systems functioning in a networked
environment. Put briefly, UNIX can do
anything that NT can do and more

Reliability


it is in the area of
reliability

that the choice
of operating systems has the most influence.
Even if one operating system offers more
functionality, is more scalable, and offers
greater ease of system management, what
good are these advantages when a server
processing real
-
time financial transactions
is plagued by frequent crashes resulting in
unacceptable downtimes?

System Management


The argument that NT is easier to manage
due to its GUI (point
-
and
-
click graphical
user interface) is unfounded. The advantage,
if any, of GUI over CLI (command line
interface, i.e. having manually to type
commands from a keyboard) is
questionable. The first assumption is that
NT has an advantage over UNIX because of
its GUI. This is wrong. UNIX operating
systems have a GUI as well.

Performance


UNIX has been historically an operating
system for high
-
end hardware.


NT's lack of reliability is only surpassed by
its lack of scalability. The superior
scalability achieved by the commercial
UNIX operating systems on their respective
hardware is the reason why large
corporations with high capacity computing
needs cannot switch to NT even if they
wanted to

Web Servers


The life
-
blood of the Internet is the Web.
This is the face that the public sees. If your
site is slow, plagued with technical
problems, or inaccessible, this will surely
have adverse effects. Since most large
corporations are UNIX
-
oriented, they
normally go with Web server software like
Apache or Netscape
-
Enterprise.

continue..


Apache was conceived with UNIX in mind.
It is free and currently rules the Internet.
Roughly
half

the Web servers on the
Internet are running Apache.


Microsoft's IIS Web server software does
not even amount to one
-
quarter of all
Internet
-
connected Web servers.

continue..


Apache is currently being used by FBI ,
JAVASOFT, FINANCIAL TIMES,
HARVARD UNIVERSITY, THE
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS OF AUSTIN.

continue..


Microsoft's IIS is one of the few things that
actually comes with Windows NT. It does
not possess any special or unique qualities
not already found in other Web server
software. It excels neither in speed, nor in
popularity, nor in the number of concurrent
hits it can handle. It is currently being used
by TEXCO, EXXON, COMPAQ,
NASCAD, The NFL.

What IT professionals are saying
about this


"Windows NT systems carry lower sticker prices
than their Unix counterparts, but ongoing
maintenance and support requirements can make
them much more costly to run."


"Any UNIX with loadable module support is
therefore by nature more appropriate for a server
environment because almost all configuration
changes do not require system restarts.”

continue..


"Oracle, a database firm, is planning to offer
Linux versions of some of its software. . . .
Even without such endorsements, Linux has
achieved a measure of success. In only a
few years, the program has evolved from a
hacker's toy into software that is, at least in
part, technically superior to Windows NT.”

more comments..


" NT doesn't even come close. Even
insignificant changes to a Windows NT
configuration require or request a shutdown
and reboot in order to make the changes
take effect. Change the IP address of your
default gateway and you need to reboot.
You can't even change the type of modem
you use for a dial
-
up PPP connection
without a reboot to update the system. None
of these limitations exist in UNIX.”

more comments..


"I heard from one reader who said that at his
site, Linux on a 486 is outperforming NT
on a 200MHz Pentium, and he has Linux
machines that have been running without
interruption since before NT 4.0 was
released. “

conclusion


if you are a manager, you have to act wisely
to enhance the computing environment at
your facility. Talk to your technical people
and ask them what works. Make the right
decision. Don't be fooled by salespeople
who use buzz words but can't explain them,
remember that your priority is to consider
your company's

computing goals.