3-Tier Client/Server - Internet Database Lab.

grrrgrapeInternet and Web Development

Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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3
-
Tier Client/Server

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연구실
]

[





]




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Case Study 1

: U.K. Employment
Service Rolls Out 3
-
Tier in
Record Time

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OOPSLA
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]

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]




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Table of Contents


Background


The Application


3
-
Tier Architecture


Advice

Background

The U.K. government passed the Job Seekers Allowance legislation

to encourage people to get jobs and move off benefit payments faster.

To comply with this new program, the Employment Service’s staff

quickly needed a top
-
notch application. They were new required to

monitor the progress that 2.45 million unemployed people were making

toward finding work. The IT department at Employment Service rose

to this mammoth challenge. It rolled out a major new application
-


called the Labour Market System
-

in record time. It’s one of the largest

operational client/server systems in the world.

The Application : Requirements

Employment Service is an executive agency of the Department

for Education and Employment in the U.K. Its branch offices are

located throughout England, Scotland, and Wales. The agency’s

main business is to help people without jobs find work. Currently

about 2.45 million people have registered as being unemployed.

Before the government passed the Job Seekers Allowance(JSA)

legislation, unemployed people received benefit payments if they

had previously made unemployment insurance payments, or if

they requested income support. JSA added additional requirements.

To keep receiving benefit payments, Employment Services clients

have to sign and comply with a Job Seekers Agreement. This agreement

makes them promise to apply for a certain number of jobs within a

particular time period. Staff members at the employment offices have

to log their client’s Job Seekers Agreement and job
-
seeking activities.

As a last resort, they can recommend that benefits payments be docked

if clients aren’t making progress.

The Application


: Existing Systems


OSCAR


log the meetings between the employment office
staff and the people coming in to seek jobs


have its own data locally


SVACS


show the vacancies available for jobs in the U.K.


have data in nine relational database


The Benefits Payment System


track payments of unemployment benefits and
allowances

The Application


: New System


Labor Market System(LMS)


N
-
tier client/server application


combine OSCAR and SVACS’s local
information into global databases


Job Seekers Agreement Payment
system(JSAP)


extend ‘the Benefits Payment System’


users can access it through the LMS PCs

Architecture


Physical architecture


LMS server, JSA server, many LMS PCs, JSA
Payment System, LMS Database Centers,
dedicated 64Kbps WAN, etc


Logical architecture


tier 1


the client s/w and Tuxedo /WS running on the PCs
in the employment offices


tier 2


multiple LMS servers that run Tuxedo services


tier 3


four regional Ingres database

Physical architecture

Logical architecture

Advice


Use UNIX multiprocessors so you can
inexpensively increase processing power in small
increments as you need it


A TP Monitor is essential when dealing with many
client connections


Test, test, test at all stages of development


Plan for the challenges of distributing s/w
remotely to a large number of users


Recognize that users will need on
-
going training
and mentoring to exploit a new system’s fill
capabilities

Case Study 2

: PeopleSoft Moves
Applications to 3
-
Tier

[
OOPSLA
연구실
]

[





]




프레젠테이션에는

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Table of Contents


Background


The Application


3
-
Tier Architecture


Advice

Background

With revenues of $450 million in 1996, PeopleSoft has built a successful

business delivering 2
-
tier client/server applications that run their customers’

core business functions. While these are enterprise
-
class applications
-

mostly used by Global 2000 customers
-

they are typically installed as

departmental applications that support a few hundred concurrent users.

But PeopleSoft recognized that its customers were changing the way they

were using their applications. With the arrival of the Internet, many of

PeopleSoft’s customers began launching initiatives to let all their employees

access the applications. In addition, many of these customers were using

several PeopleSoft applications together

The Application : Requirements

Instead of a few hundred users in a department accessing a particular

application, tens of thousands of concurrent users will be using an entire

suite of applications.

PeopleSoft must provides a series of integrated modules that run its
customers’ core business functions. These applications will be used by
Global 2000 customers that are eighty percent of PeopleSoft customers. And
remaining small business, higher education institutions, and federal, state,
and logical governments in US and Canada will use them.

PeopleSoft have to improve performance, expand scalability, and increase
the interoperability between its applications.

Architecture


Physical architecture


Tuxedo application server with EventBroker,
Back
-
end Database, remote call over WAN


Logical architecture


tier 1


PCs running the PeopleSoft client application, Tuxedo
/WS, and Jolt


tier 2


application servers running Tuxedo services


tier 3


broad range of databases, including Informix, Oracle,
MS
-
SQL server, Sybase, DB2

Physical architecture

Logical Architecture

Advice


Keep it simple, stupid


Clearly define your goals at project start. Make
sure you get extensive feedback from customers


Adopt a gradual strategy for moving to a 3
-
tier
environment


Understand what’s flowing back and forth on the
network to make the right choices in separating
client and server functionality


Take advantage of third
-
party products. There’s
no need to spend time developing a component if
someone else has one that does the job

Case Study 3

: Wells Fargo Leads the
Way to Internet Banking

[
OOPSLA
연구실
]

[





]




프레젠테이션에는

수행

항목을

만드는

청중

토론이

포함되어

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프레젠테이션

끝에

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줍니다
.


Table of Contents


Background


The Application


3
-
Tier Architecture


Advice

Background

It was once simple to understand the difference between a bank,

a brokerage house, a mutual fund company, and an insurance company.

They offered fundamental products, and there was little overlap. Today,

the differences have become blurred as financial institutions of all types

compete for investors’ funds. Leadership in the financial services industry

now requires that an organization be able to quickly adapt to a changing

market, offering new products and services to its customers in a timely

and efficient manner.

Wells Fargo Bank has become a technology leader in banking, thanks in

part to its pioneering use of distributed object computing technology. This

technology has helped the company achieve several business objectives,

including changing the way bank employees work with computers to become

customer
-
focused rather than account
-
focused

Innovations made possible through the use of this technology also enabled

Wells Fargo to become the first major bank to offer its customers secure

on
-
line access to account balances through the World Wide Web.

The Application : Requirements

In the 1980s, competition for investors’ funds
-

traditionally kept in banks
-

expanded to include brokerage and insurance companies. To remain
competitive, banks began offering products such as mutual funds and
brokerage accounts
-

products historically outside the purview of traditional
banking. By the late 1980s, a growing trend wad compound statement
banking, where customers expected to receive a single, unified statement
listing the balances and transactions for all of their accounts
-

including
checking and savings, mortgage, credit card, brokerage, and retirement
accounts. Customers wanted their banking activities to be structured in terms
of their overall relationship with the bank instead of a single account.

The Application


: Existing Systems


Direct deposit accounts in mainframe


Mutual funds in Digital VAX/VMS system


Brokerage account processing in Tandem

How can we combine all these information

seamlessly and correctly ?

The Application


: New System


Customer Relationship System(CRS)


use BEA’s ORB, ObjectBroker


customers can retrieve overall relationship
with the bank, including all accounts owned
and their balances and statues by using SSN
or EIN


Applications


Wells Fargo’s Internet Banking Solution


Interactive Voice Response Unit(IVRU)


Automated Teller Machine(ATM)


A Stock market data application

Architecture


Physical architecture


Back
-
end mainframe application servers,
Middle
-
tier ObjectBroker, client PCs


Logical architecture


tier 1


windows
-
based client application to provide GUI


tier 2


Digital’s ObjectBroker using CORBA object model


tier 3


several legacy application systems

Client PC

(Windows)

HP 9000

(HP
-
UX)

IBM(MVS)

IBM(MVS)

IBM(MVS)

HP 9000

(HP
-
UX)

Digital

(VAX/VMS)

Interactive Voice

Response Unit

Sun

(SunOS)

ObjectBroker

ObjectBroker

ObjectBroker

ObjectBroker

ObjectBroker

Customer

Container Account

Account

Bill Pay Service

Credit

On
-
line Service

Deposit

Service

Product

Uses

Business Object Model

Advice


Transform your organization into a group that can
effectively develop component
-
based,


Include users and business participants in the
design and development processes


Understand the business process
-

both the
existing and the desired one


Invest time and energy in developing an object
model that truly represents the business process


Provide sufficient funding to maintain and
enhance your object model

Case Study 4

: Apple Improves Ordering
With 3
-
Tier Upgrade

[
OOPSLA
연구실
]

[





]




프레젠테이션에는

수행

항목을

만드는

청중

토론이

포함되어

있습니다
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제안되는

대로

수행

항목을


력합니다
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상자를

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확인



누릅니다
.


프레젠테이션

끝에

요점을

입력한

수행

항목

슬라이드를

자동으로

만들어

줍니다
.


Table of Contents


Background


The Application


3
-
Tier Architecture


Advice

Background

Apple computer relies on its electronic ordering systems to give its

authorized resellers and service providers an easy way to order computers

and parts. This lets the resellers have greater control over the ordering

process, and it offers Apple cost savings by minimizing administrative tasks.

But when Apple decided to move to an SAP
-
based solution for all its

corporate functions, it found that it also had to replace the existing ordering

systems with a new one that could interoperate with SAP R/3.

To accomplish this, Apple developed a new worldwide ordering system

based on a 3
-
tier architecture. The new system
-

called AppleOrder Global
-

serves as a font
-
end to SAP for processing electronic orders. It provides the

scalable, on
-
line performance needed to service thousands of resellers

around the world. AppleOrder Global is now up and running in Canada and

Europe; U.S. resellers are due to come on
-
line in 1998.

The Application : Requirements

To develop and roll out an electronic ordering system that would garner
internal acclaim
-

at least from Apple’s resellers
-

we need as follows.

First, to develop a scalable system with interactive interfaces.

Next, to support an international production environment. That is, we must
provide real
-
time performance on a global scale.

Last, to ensure that all the functionality of existing systems are offered.

The Application


Existing system


five different electronic ordering systems in
different regions around the world


New system


AppleOrder Global


electronic ordering system


use SAP R/3 modules


users can get information about the status of
pending orders and shipments and access their
account and invoice information and up
-
to
-
date
product and pricing information. etc…

Architecture


Physical architecture


Macintosh computers, Leased line, AppleOrder
Global RS/6000 application server, SAP
RS/6000 Order management server


Logical architecture


tier 1


AppleOrder Global GUI and Tuxedo /WS


tier 2


AppleOrder Global application server


tier 3


SAP R/3 Order Management application server

Reseller’s

Macintosh

Reseller’s

Macintosh

Dedicated

Network

AppleOrder Global

RS/6000

Application Server

SAP RS/6000

Order Management

Server

Dial
-
up or

Leased
-
line

Connection

T1 Line

RFCs over

High
-
speed LAN

Physical Architecture

AppleOrder

Global GUI

MacApp

Framework

Application Layer API

Application Objects

Order Management API

Loca Data

API

AppleOrder

Global API

Middleware

API

Tuxedo /WS

CTree

Database

Custom

Order

Management

ABAP/4

Routines

SAP

R/3

Application

Remote

Function

Calls

Application Objects

Order Management API

Local

Data

API

Oracle

Remote

Function

Calls

AppleOrder

Global API

Middleware

API

Tuxedo

Workstation

Handler

SAP

API

Tier 1

Client

Tier 2

Application Server

Tier 3

Order Management Server

(acting as SAP client)

Logical architecture

Advice


Take time in designing the system. Once you
begin development, it’s hard to go back and
revise the design


Make sure you have a specialist in each
technology


Be sure to have people from the business side of
the house participate as you design and develop
the system


If possible, reuse work you’ve already completed