Kevin McElhanon - Faculty

groupmoujeanteaBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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AKA:


Corn lily


False hellebore


Skunk cabbage


Family
Liliaceae


Native to mountain
meadows in the Sierra
Nevadas and the
Rockies




Perennial monocot



Grows 1
-
2 meters tall



Stem/leaves resemble
cornstalk



Used by native Americans to treat wounds



Contraceptive



Root is an analgesic and disinfectant



Also used to treat VD


Sheep herds were
plagued by
unexplained birth
defects



Intensive study by the
USDA isolated
cyclopamine as the
causative agent


Required for tissue
maintenance and
regeneration


T
-
cell activation


Can act as a mitogen


Tissue dependent


GPCRs (G Protein Coupled Receptor) are
responsible for a multitude of signal cascades :

1.
Adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway


Activates PKA, which activates ion channels

2.
Phospholipase C pathway


Secretion and translocation of proteins from the ER

3.
IP
3

pathway:


Releases Ca+ from ER activating

4.
Ca+/Calmodulin pathway

5.
Glycogen pathway (via Adenylate cyclase)


Phase I clinical trials underway of a derivate


GDC
-
0449 (Genentech in collaboration with
Curis)


Preliminary results were promising


Side effects: loss of hair, weight loss, otherwise
mild toxicity reported


Already being billed as “hav[ing] the potential
to become a blockbuster drug…for treating
cancers.” (Wong, 2009)



Glioblastoma multiforme (brain tumor)


2
-
3 cases per 100K


Most often terminal


Median survival = 15 months (conventional
chemotherapy)


Without treatment = 4.5 months


(World Heath Organization)





Synthetic drug marketed
as a sedative


Prescribed to pregnant
women to help with
morning sickness


Drug testing conducted on
rats


Rats metabolized
thalidomide


Late 1950’s children born
with Pharcomelia


Later tests on monkeys
produced same birth
defects as seen in humans



Berry, L. (n.d.).
Sierra Wild Flowers
. Retrieved Oct 23, 2009, from
Sierrawildflowers.org:
http://www.sierrawildflowers.org/veratrum_californicum.htm


Binns, W. L. (1968). Effects of Teratogenic Agents in Range Plants.
Cancer Research

, 28
, 2323
-
2326.


Keeley. (2002).
Biology News.

Retrieved Oct 23, 2009, from Bio
-
Medicine: http://news.bio
-
medicine.org/biology
-
news
-
2/Plant
-
compound
-
kills
-
brain
-
tumor
-
cells
-
6856
-
1/


Lingham, A. (2000, June).
The First Appearance of Thalidomide
.
Retrieved Oct 23, 2009, from Thalidomide Isomerism and Optical
Isomerism:
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/thalidomide/first.html


Wong, J. F. (2009).
Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News.

Retrieved Oct 23, 2009, from GEN:
http://www.genengnews.com/articles/chitem.aspx?aid=2518&c
hid=4