Genetics and Biotechnology in Action!

groupmoujeanteaBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 21 days ago)

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Genetics and Biotechnology in Action!

Grade Level 7
-
8

Alla Kazy



Course Description

Biotechnology and genetic engineering are hot debate topics these days. Are we
improving our lives are digging our own graves? Even actions based on best intentions
ca
n have deadly consequences. Should we take a risk or should we avoid it at all cost?
Would you like to resolve those questions for yourselves? If you do, join us while we
explore our ancient ancestral roots by
reading

" Seven Daughters of Eve" and enter the
alternative universe created by John Wyndham by
reading

" The Day of the Triff
ids "!
Learn various aspects and guises of genetics and biotechnology from the past to the
present and to appreciate the consequences , by analyzing and evaluating each action
in terms of the potential benefits and potential risks, so that you too can face

the epic
challenge


save the world from the triffids!

Book List

1.
The Day of the Triffids
(20th Century Rediscoveries) (Paperback) by
John Wyndham

(Author) Amazon Price:
$11.20

http://www.amazon.com/Day
-
Triffids
-
20th
-
Century
-
Rediscoveries/dp/0812967127/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1248879041&sr=8
-
1

2.
The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That Reveals Our Genet
ic Ancestry

(Paperback) by
Bryan Sykes

(Author) Amazon Price:
$11.53

http://www.amazon.com/Day
-
Triffids
-
20th
-
Century
-
Rediscoveries/dp/0812967127/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1248879041&sr=8
-
1

Additional Materials Required:

Composition book preferably (but not necessarily) quadrille ruled (recommended item
Staples Item: 858198, $2.79 or similar).


Benchmarks

Reading

58
(
Reading
like an Investigator)
When
reading
a variety of fiction and non
-
fiction
sources, this student continuously created questions about the text to further inquiry,
annotated key words with further connections/definitions, gathered and prior
itized the
accuracy and relevance of information, separated human biases from the facts and
ideas presented, and categorized information into themes.

Writing

61
(Inve
stigative Reports)
When
writing
, this student produced concise, focused, error
-
free products that enlisted strong verbs, content
-
specific vernacular, and varied
senten
ce structure to communicate in an authoritative/logical voice. He/she
incorporated valid, relevant, and correctly cited research that supported a stated
hypothesis/topic; used procedural descriptions and transitions to accurately detail
processes involved;

thoroughly presented collected data in clearly prioritized/organized
text using headings, diagrams, pictures, equations, and/or charts when needed;
persuasively discussed research outcomes, articulating both predicted and unexpected
results; and/or demons
trated the impact of his/her findings in a broader context. When
challenged, he/she consistently separated human biases from facts and logically
defended his/her position

Big Picture

59
(Eliminating and Isolating) Through observation and careful sifting a
nd winnowing of
data, this student deconstructed a problem/system in order to isolate individual
problems, solutions, or cost, and eliminate items irrelevant to the problem
-
solving
process.

Application

62
(Experimenting) Using general scientific processes, this student identified a problem
or formulated a question and then designed an experiment and/or equation that solved
the problem or answered the question.

68
(Ranking Solutions and Revising the Scale) After the student tested/ranked
solutions, he/she revised his/her experiment to factor out additional variables or to factor
in other relevant theories/laws/influences. He/she was also able to expand/modify
additi
onal experiments as needed.

Behavior

63
(Ethical
Investigation
) This s
tudent demonstrated resourcefulness and a
commitment to the valid, critical analysis of the facts by meeting deadlines, providing
and accepting constructive criticism in multiple settings, properly citing sources, and
contributing relevant evidence to grou
p discussions whenever possible. His/her work
consistently met the challenge of vigorous analysis due to the detailed approach taken
and his/her willingness to incorporate feedback.


Course Projects

1.
Origins of Triffids


(58, 59, 61)


Team project due

by the 2
nd

face to face
meeting.

An assay presenting a theory of the triffid origins and their detailed appearance based
on the extrapolation and analysis of the information provided and omitted in the book
and by analysis of their genetic data (addition
al resources provided).

2.
Presentation of the ideas



(59, 63)


Team project due at the 2
nd

face to face
meeting.

Based on the overall understanding of the triffids gained from
writing

the Origin of
Triffids, each group will present their general ideas of how to solve the triffid problem
backing them with available facts.

3.
Research proposal



(58, 59, 61)


Team project due by the 3
rd

face to face
meeting.

Each t
eam will submit a formal scientific proposal. The proposal will reflect work that
needs to be done to obtain more clues leading to the solution of the triffid problem or will
describe a solution itself.

4.
Defense of the proposal



(59, 68, 63)


Team pro
ject due at the 3
rd

face to face
meeting.

Teams will present their proposals and defend it from the criticisms by others. All
criticisms and defenses must be based on scientific knowledge and facts.

5.
Letter of recommendation



(68, 61)


Individual pro
ject due by the last day of
term.

After careful and objective review of all proposals each individual will write a formal
letter to the
government

official from the alternative universe which will recommend the
best proposal for implementation. The opinion stated should be backed up by solid
scientific arguments and should take into consideration all points of view.

6.

Lab Notebook



(58, 62, 68)


Individual project due at the 3
rd

face to face.

Written record of all data, ideas, and conclusions gathered throughout the term.

Theme One: Understanding Genetics and
Biotechnology of Today


Week One: Introduction to Biotec
hnology and Genetics

Summary:
This week you will learn to recognize various guises of biotechnology and
learn about the foundations of genetic principles. In parallel, learn to read like an
investigator by collecting all relevant information about triffids.

Learn to note implied and
omitted data.

Guiding Question:

Traditional biotechnology (such as breeding) is deemed safe by
most people who are firmly against genetic engineering. However, in 1957 this “safe”
biotechnology resulted in the creation of the “ki
ller bees”. Should the traditional
biotechnology be regulated just as genetic engineering is? Why?
Be sure to respond to
at least 3 other students.

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff
-
burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Apis_mellifera_scutellata.htm


Branching Activities

Experiments in Plant Hybridization by Gregor Mendel (online)

Other assignments dealing with basic principles of genetics

Reading
:

Read
chapters 1 and 2 of
The Day of the Triffids


Show What You Know:
Discoveries in science change the experience and knowledge
base of those that come after.
L
ook
-
up the genetics timeline on
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kahales/301Genetics/timeline.html


For each event give a short description in your own words of what was

discovered and
why was it important.



Week Two: The Legacy of our Genes

Guiding Question:

Introduce yourself and your great, great, great, great, great, great,
great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great,
gr
eat, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great,
great, great, great, great grandparent to the group. What do you think you both have in
common? What is completely different? Why? Be sure to respond to at least 3 ot
her
students.

Branching Activities:

Activities that have to do with ways that genetics is applied to solve problems.

Reading
:

Read chapters 1
-
5 in
The Seven Daughters o
f Eve
and fill out the chart
below.

Key Concept Synthesis

http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6
-
12/Reading/Reading%20Strategies/ke
yconceptsynthesis.htm


Directions:


Use the following graphic organizer to identify the 10 most important concepts (in
the form of single words or phrases) from the reading.


Think about identifying the 10 most
import concepts this way:


If you had to exp
lain the reading to someone who had not read the
text, what are the five most important concepts you would want them to understand?


Use a
highlighter and marginal notes to identify import concepts
as you read
, and
then

complete the
graphic organizer once
you have completed the reading
.



List Concepts
Read

(with page #s)

Put the
Concept in
Your Own
Words

Find Two Websites that
Give more Information on
the Topic

List 2 Key Ideas Gained from the Websites

1. EX: “The past
i s wi thi n us al l,”
(8).




DNA carr
ies
the
similarities
that have
been passed
down for
many
generations


Links Evolution
-

PBS


Rediscovering

Biolog
y
-

Unit 9
Human Evolution
Animations and
Images



“If Neanderthals had made a substantial contribution to
the gene pool of contemporary humans, replacement
models like out of Africa would be severely challenged.”



“Subtle chemical signals, or
pheromones
, have long
been known to draw pairs together within the same
species, and for a specific reason. In mice, for example,
experiments showed that pheromone
s acted as
attractants between males and females who were
genetically similar except that they differed in a certain
type of immune system
gene
.”

2.








3.








4.








5.








6.








7.








8.








9.








10.









Show What You Know
: Build a flow chart exploring the problem solving process used
to answer a question solved by genetics. Your map should:

1.

Start with a question
.

2.

Show all known possible answers to that question.

3.

Introduce evidence that either negated or furthered each possible answer.

4.

End with an excepted answer.



Week Three: Unlocking the Past

Guiding Question:
Did she really murder that person? Was he really t
he father? What
happened to the Neanderthals? Where did the Polyisiean people come from? Was the
body of the Tsar really found? Who is that mummy really? Why do some people age
more than others?

Genetics has answered many controvesial questions about the p
ast. State one
question, describe the different prespectives developed on that topic before genetics
helped to answer the question, and then explain how genetic evidence helped to
provide an answer. Be sure to respond to at least 3 other students.

Reading
: Complete
reading

The Seven Daughters of Eve

and fill out the Key Concept
Synth
esis chart.

Branching Activities:

Skill building activities in bioinformatics.


Show What You Know:

1. Apply knowledge and skills learned this week by tracing the relationship of various
organisms presented in the Bioinformatics Assignment.

2. Complete th
e Specialty Qualification Quiz that will test knowledge and skills acquired
to date (not graded). Your performance on this quiz will define your group and specialty
assignment in all future projects.


Theme Two: Tracing the Origins of Triffids



Week Fou
r: The Building Blocks

Guiding Question:
The triffids were supposedly created in the secret military facility.
Can you see how they can be used as a weapon? What do you think is being made at
such facilities around the world today? Where would biological w
arfare lead? Are there
ways to prevent it?

Reading
:

Read the next 6 chapters of
The Day of the Triffids

by John Wyndham.
Discuss the meeting at the University. Which g
roup would you join? How would you
behave in such situation? Go to the
Discussion: The Day of the Triffids

and po
st your
thoughts.

Show What You Know:
This week you will start working as an expert team member on
the 1
st

project: The Origin of Triffids. Each of you will be responsible to contribute work
related to your specialty field of expertise. Collaborate with yo
ur team members in
collection and analysis of the information available about the triffids in your group forum.
Scientific literature will be individually provided.

1) Botanists will have to trace various traits of the triffids to existing plants in phen
otype


possible progenitors (ex. Find which plants produce non
-
volatile oil in their
stems/leaves)

2) Molecular biologists will have to explain the basis of triffid traits on the molecular level
by discovering similar pathways in other plants. (Ex. How is
poison produced and
restricted to the sting?)


3) Geneticists will have to work out how is it possible to have only 5% of fertile seeds.


4) Bioinformatics specialists will work on tracing triffid linage from the DNA data that will
be provided.


5) Ecolo
gists will need to connect the effect of the environment and climate on the
triffids and research similar cases among other plants.

Week Five: Tracing the Past

Guiding Question: “
Unlocking the past”, tracing your linage to the tsar sound exiting
and fairly

innocent. But how far and how deep should we dig? Would that butler be as
excited and proud of his relationship to the iceman if it was discovered that he was a
cannibal? Would you want to know if you are related to Hitler? Are there events and
possible r
elationships in the past better left undiscovered? Give at least three ideas and
be sure to respond to at least 3 other students.


Branching Activities: What goes wrong with DNA

Reading
:
Read chapters 9
-
13 of
The Day of the Triffids

by John Wyndham. Respond to
the thought that situation could have been worse without triffids. Join the discussion
started by Coker of “womanly virtue” vs. “parasitism” and state your views o
n the matter.


Writing

Application
:
This week you will write “The Origin of

Triffids” in which you will
propose scientific explanation of how the triffids were created in collaboration with your
team.

The Origin of Triffids is due on the date of the 2
nd

face to face meeting.


Week Six: Concocting a Solution


Guiding Question:

Hypothetical problem:

Some scientist created a genetically modified mosquito. This mosquito is male and
carries a dominant gene that causes infertility in female progeny. If this male is mated
with the regular female mosquito, all males in the progeny car
ry this gene and all
females are infertile. He proposes to release this mosquito into the general population.
That will result in the full eradication of the mosquito population in the near future. No
more need to spray insecticides! No more diseases carri
ed by mosquitoes! What other
possible side effects could there be? Should he be allowed to do so? Why? Explain
your reasoning (may require some research on your part).

R
eading
:
Finish reading
The Day of the Triffids

by John Wyndham. What is the world
coming to? Are there are any other possible scenarios that John Wyndham had not
foreseen?

Show What You Know:
Now that you “know” the past of the triffids, what further
in
formation do you need to collect and what experiments to perform in order to come up
with the way of exterminating them in the future? Is there a solution to the triffid problem
short of extermination?

Propose several ideas of how to eradicate triffids. W
ork with the representatives from
the alternative universe on deciding which one to pursue based on logistics and ability
to overcome technical limitations. Bill Masen, lab manager, will send questions for the
proposed experiments. Michael Beadly, governme
nt official, will request forms, short
reports, memos, etc. Elspeth, historian/journalist, will periodically request additional
information ask opinions, voice public concerns on various issues, etc. And, finally, John
Smith, lab technician, will perform s
ome of the requested experiments and post the
results.

Finalize the idea and send an official memo.

Branching Activities:

Submit requests for at least 3 short experiments (related to triffids) to the lab
tech, John Smith. Review and analyze the results.


Theme Three: Solving the Triffid Problem



Week Seven: Mixing and Matching

Guiding Question:

Is it okay to mix genes from different species?

“An example of a
plant
-
animal
-
human transgenic combination would be one in which the DNA of mouse
and human tumor

fragments is inserted into tobacco DNA. The harvested plants contain
a potential vaccine against non
-
Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
1

Other transgenic plants have
been used to create edible vaccines. By incorporating a human protein into bananas,
potatoes, and tomato
es, researchers have been able to create prototypes of edible
vaccines against hepatitis B, cholera, and diarrhea.
2

The vaccines are proving to be
successful in tests on agricultural animals and humans,”
(
http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/glenn.html?print
) .

Reading
:
Additional scientific literature (will be provided)

Show What You Know:
On
ce idea is proposed, more information needs to be collected
to prove this idea as feasible.

Make a list of all information/protocols/data necessary for a feasibility study. Submit the
request to the library. Read all the literature provided for your reque
st. Based on the
information gathered submit request for at least 3 small experiments along with the
protocol to the lab tech. Receive and analyze the results. (Ex. Send a request for gene
screening, provide protocols for it, receive results as picture of
a gel or a DNA sequence
depending on request).


Week Eight: Ethics and Feasibility


Guiding Question:

Do you think human cloning will happen despite current laws? If it
did, what might be some of the consequences?


Several bioethicists have called for a
ban on species
-
altering technology that would be
enforced by an international tribunal.
14

Part of the rationale for a ban is the concern that
such technology could be used to create a slave race, that is, a race of subhumans that
would be exploited,” (
http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/glenn.html?print
). Should
such ban be limited to humans or should we ban creation of the carrot
-
cabbage plant as
well? What about animals?

Show Wh
at You Know:
Submit feasibility study. It will become along with the “origin of
triffids” a part of the actual research proposal (introduction and background material).

Research (via library request) various techniques required for the research proposed.
Modify those (if required) to suit your experiments. Submit for logistics analysis to Bill.
Modify/change as required. Write up the Materials and Methods section of your
proposal and submit.

Answer to safety and environmental concerns voiced by Elspeth. T
hey will need to be
addressed in the discussion section of the proposal.

Week Nine: Bringing it All Home

Guiding Question:

Would you want to know if there was a genetic defeat in your
family’s history?

http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD022305.html


Show What You Know:

1. Final proposals are due on the date of the 3
rd

face to face meeting

2. Each team will give a short (15 min) oral presentation


an overview of their proposal.

3. Followin
g the presentation each team will be required to answer relevant questions
posed by other teams (for 15 min).

4. Final assignment is due on the last day of term. Each person will be required to
reevaluate the merits of each proposal presented at the face
to face and write a Letter
of Recommendation (1/2
-
1 page long).



First face to face: Introduction

Explicit, implicit, and omitted information

Experts


analyzing the same information from different points of view

Discover your field of expertise activi
ty

Need to bring:

1. Yourself

2. Your Lab notebook

3. Lunch



Second face to face: The Origin of Species

Discussion of The Origin of Species

Discussion of ideas for the proposal

Need to bring:

1. Yourself

2. Your Lab notebook

3. Any visual aids (if
any)

4. Lunch



Third face to face: Presentation of the Research Proposals

Presentations (15 min per team)

Defense (15 min question and answer period per team)

Need to bring:

1. Yourself

2. Your Lab notebook

3. Visual aids (required)

4. Lunch