Chapter 1 notes


Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)


Chapter 1

Biotechnology and

the Workplace



The use of organisms/materials derived from organisms

Make useful products

Not a recent phenomenon

Used organisms to make products

Wine, cheese, bread

Usually referring to something mor
e “dazzling

Cloned sheep, gene therapies, DNA fingerprints


Modern biotechnology

Rooted in basic laboratory research

Broadens/deepens understanding of how living organisms work

The application of knowledge useful to humans

Knowledge gained app
lied to create modern biotechnology

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

Modern biotechnology

Manipulation of DNA

Tools cut DNA at specific sites

Enzymes to splice DNA strands together

Techniques to visualize DNA

Techniques to separate DNA fragments from
one another

Techniques to identify fragments of DNA with SPECIFIC sequences

Techniques to amplify DNA

Techniques to sequence and synthesize DNA

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

Tools and the terms

Allow scientists to introduce genetic information/DNA
from one organism to another

Genetically modified/genetically engineered

When a biologist causes a cell or organism to take up a gene from another organism

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

More terms

Recombinant DNA

DNA that contains sequence
s of DNA from different sources that were brought together
using the tools of biotechnology

Often referred to as “revolutionary”

There is POWER in the manipulation of DNA!

DNA directs the cell in making a specific protein

Called expression (the protein is

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

How is DNA transferred?


Plasmids are molecules of DNA that are found in bacteria separate from the bacterial
chromosome. They:

are small (a few thousand base pairs)

usually carry only one or a few


are circular

have a single
origin of replication

Act as a vector

Carries a desired gene into the recipient cell

Other vectors include viral vectors and direct injection

Under proper conditions, plasmids are readily taken up by recipient bacterial

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

After bacteria transformed, then what?


The large
scale cultivation of microorganisms

Alter the bacteria

Grow in media

Harvest the protein of interest

What about other types of cells?

Possible to intr
oduce gene of interest into cultured mammalian cells/other multicellular

Cultured cells

Cells grown in flasks, dishes, vats, or other containers outside a living organism

Grow more slowly than bacteria

More fragile

More complex nutrient requireme

Introducing gene of interest into plants and animals


A plant or animal whose cells are genetically modified using the techniques of

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

Genes responsible for particular traits or disease sus
ceptibility are chosen and extracted.

Next they are injected into fertilized mouse eggs.

Embryos are implanted in the uterus of a surrogate mother.

The selected genes will be expressed by some of the offspring

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology


about humans?

Raises critically important societal and ethical issues

Can it be passed to offspring

Present research into curing illness

Intended to cure individuals

Not affect children of the treated person, just the illness or condition

What use then?

xplore role of genes

Mechanisms of control

Technologies of Modern Biotechnology

Other uses proving to be beneficial to humans

Monoclonal antibodies


Proteins of the immune system

Recognize/bind to substances invading the body

Bind only to a spec
ific target

Exceptionally homogeneous populations of antibodies directed against a specific target

Produced by hydridoma cells

Result from the fusion of an antibody
production cell and a cultured cell

Very specific and useful

Example: home pregnancy tests



Pharmaceutical products, like insulin or Factor VIII, that are manufactured using
genetically modified organisms as production systems

Transgenic animals

Can produce desired protein

Typically secreted in
to milk

Isolated and purified

Transgenic plants

Genes introduced into crop plants

Cultivated and harvested to obtain product of interest

Gene therapy

Involves replacing a gene that is missing, or correcting the function of a faulty gene, in
order to treat
or cure an illness

E. coli

Recombinant DNA products produced in
E. coli

Human insulin

Before purified from pancreas glands of animals for human consumption

Genetically modified

More reliable source

Less likely to cause allergic reactions

man Growth Hormone

Before, dwarfism treated with hormone purified from pituitary glands from cadavers

Some using this died from neurodegenerative disease
Jakob disease!!!!!!


Treats variety of viral diseases and cancers

Hairy cell leukemia, AIDS
related Kaposi’s sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, and chronic
hepatitis B

Known about in 1957, but difficult to isolate (viral disease in patients, ONLY)

Not available until recombinant methods developed


Yeast Cells

mbinant DNA products produced in yeast cells

Hepatitis B vaccine

Viral illness
no treatment currently available

Before recombinant methods, vaccine prepared from plasma of hepatitis

Limited sources

Concerns about purity

From yeast cell

Unlimited sources

Reduced possibility of contamination


Mammalian cells in culture

Recombinant DNA products produced in mammalian cells in culture


Used to treat anemia from renal failure or AZT treatment

EPO produced in the

Stimulates production/maturation of rbc’s

Found in small quantities in urine

Never available before recombinant methods

Anemia from kidney disease treated with transfusions

Factor VIII

Treatment for hemophilia

Before recombinant methods, source was

human plasma

Patients contracted AIDS


Agricultural/Food Related

Breeding programs for plants and animals

Enhance characteristics

Benefit from biotechnological methods

Very specific genetic manipulation organisms

Does away with most undesi
rable traits passed on by traditional manipulations

VERY controversial

Not as safe as conventional foods?

Introduction of genetically modified organisms into environment may have unforeseen
and adverse effects


End severe food shortages

Enhance nut
rition of plants and animals

Reduce reliance on chemical pesticides

Other Applications


up of contaminated soil and water

Identification of individuals

Human DNA sequences very distinct (except for identical twins)

DNA fingerprinting

The Organization of a Biotechnology Company

Research and Development


Find a potential product WITH commercial value

Performs research relating to the potential product

Characterizes properties of the product

Composition, physical and chemical properti

Strength, potency, or effect of the product

Purity of product

Steps required to avoid contamination

life of product

Applications of product

Safety concerns in use of the product

Establishes product specification

Properties that every bat
ch of final product must have to be released for sale

Develop testing methods to ensure meets specifications

Develop processes to make product

Describe cells or microorganisms to make product

Raw materials needed and specifications of those materials

ment needed

Plan for production

The Organization of a Biotechnology Company

Production Unit

Make product


Work with large
scale equipment/large volume reactions

Monitor and control environment as required for the product

Proper temperature, steri
lity, etc.

Cleaning, calibration, and maintenance of equipment

Follow written procedures associated with producing product

Monitor processes

Initiate corrective actions if problems arise

Complete paperwork!!!!!! (ALWAYS lots’o this)

The Organization of a
Biotechnology Company


Monitor equipment, facilities, environment, personnel, and product

Reviewing all production procedures used in the company

Ensure accuracy of all documents

Test samples of product and materials need for producing product


data to established standards

Decide whether or not to approve product for release

Review customer complaints

The Organization of a Biotechnology Company

Other functions

Engineering or facilities management

Ensures systems that control building are oper
ating properly

Large equipment properly installed and functioning

Facility maintenance and housekeeping

Receiving and shipping



Marketing and sales

Different Types of Biotechnology Work Environments

Basic Biological Researc
h Labs in Academic or Government

Basic research

Investigate fundamental problems in biology

Product is knowledge or information

May result in a commercial product

R&D laboratories associated with industry

Investigate questions in biology intended to result

in commercial products

Production facilities

Make products

Usually use large scale equipment

Testing laboratories

Analytical, quality control, forensic, microbiology, metrology, clinical testing labs

Different Types of Biotechnology Work Environments

ardless of work environment

Scientists and technicians involved in the physical aspects of acquiring data or making a

Grow bacterial cells



Work with materials derived from organisms

Make measurements, prepare reagents, gather/record data