Chapter 10 - CIS Home Page

greydullNetworking and Communications

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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The Client Side of
Networking


Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

File and Print Clients on Private Networks

Connecting to the Internet

Internet Clients

Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems

Chapter

10

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-
Hill/Irwin

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-
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2

Learning Objectives


Apply basic TCP/IP knowledge and skills


Use a file and print client to connect to shares


List methods for connecting to the Internet


Identify and configure common Internet clients


Troubleshoot common client connection
problems

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Hill/Irwin

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that work together to
allow similar and dissimilar systems to
communicate


The two core protocols are Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP)


TCP/IP protocol is automatically installed

in Windows when a network card is present

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-
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4

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


Responsible for the accurate delivery of messages


Verifies and resends pieces that fail to reach the
destination


TCP has several sub
-
protocols


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5

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)


Packages communications in chunks, called packets


Allows a computer to be identified by a logical

address called an IP address


Each packet is given a header that contains

information including the source address (local

host address) and the destination address


Special routing protocols can use a destination IP
address to choose the best route for a packet to take


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6

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP has several sub
-
protocols


IP addresses are very important


A computer cannot communicate on a

TCP/IP network without a valid IP address

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Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Addressing Fundamentals


An IP address is assigned to a network adapter


When a modem and LAN adapter are present, each
connects a computer to a different network


A desktop computer usually has only a single network
device connecting it to a specific network, so that is the
only address by which the computer is known on that
network

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8

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Addressing Fundamentals
(continued)


An IP address has four parts in dotted decimal

format


Example: 192.168.100.48


Four sets of base
-
10 numbers (decimal)


Each number is within 0 to 255


Rules determine how these numbers are used

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Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Addressing Fundamentals
(continued)


4.3 billion possible IP addresses


Allocation methods have reduced the usable number


Current version IP Protocol 4 (IPv4)

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10

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


Which addresses can be used?


Public Addresses


Assigned to hosts on the Internet


A host is any computer or device that has an IP address


Source address must be unique on the entire Internet


Destination address must be unique on the entire Internet

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Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)



Which addresses can be used?
(continued)


Public Addresses
(continued)


Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocates
numbers to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)


RIRs allocate numbers to ISPs


ISPs allocate numbers to customers


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Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)



Which addresses can be used?
(continued)


Private Addresses


They are not to be used on the Internet


Used in private IP networks


No permissions required


An address from one of three ranges of IP addresses


10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255


172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255


192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255


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13

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


Which addresses can be used?
(continued)


Private Addresses
(continued)


To connect to the Internet, each data packet with

a private source address must be intercepted,

repackaged, and given a public IP address as its

source address before being sent out onto the Internet


If there is a response, each packet will be repackaged

and returned to the private address


An Internet router substitutes (or translates) a private

IP address to a unique Internet IP address

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14

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


How Does a Host Get an IP Address?


Static Address Assignment


Manually configured for a host


In most organizations, static IP addressing is done

only on servers, network printers, and network devices


Network administrator will provide on a LAN


ISP will provide for an Internet connection (if needed)


Enter in TCP/IP properties for the network connection

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15

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


How Does a Host Get an IP Address?
(continued)


Automatic Address Assignment (DHCP and APIPA)


Methods by which a computer can be assigned an IP

address, and all the additional configuration settings,
automatically.


Most organizations do Automatic IP addressing via Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server


If no DHCP server responds, a DHCP client may self
-

assign via Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)

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16

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings


Subnet Mask


As critical as the address itself


Divides IP address into two parts: Host ID and Net ID


Example:


IP address 192.168.100.48


Mask of 255.255.255.0


Host ID = 48


Net ID = 192.168.100


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17

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings
(continued)


How masking works in binary math


IP address of 192.168.100.2


In binary = 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000010


Mask of 255.255.255.0


In binary = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000


Masking results in


Net ID of 192.168.100


Host ID of 2


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Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings

(continued)


Default Gateway


IP address of the router on the LAN


Net ID of the default gateway address should

be identical to that of the IP address


Router directs traffic beyond the local network


Without this, traffic will not travel beyond local network


Example: router connects network 192.168.100 to other
networks


Any packet for other networks is sent to default gateway

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19

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings


DNS Servers


Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed online
database


Names mapped to IP addresses


Thousands of name servers maintain this distributed
database


DNS client queries a DNS server to determine the IP

address of a web site


A query of "mcgraw
-
hill.com" returns 198.45.18.151

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20

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings
(continued)


DNS Servers
(continued)


Two DNS Server addresses in Windows IP configuration


Preferred DNS server is contacted with queries


Alternate DNS server is contacted ONLY after

no response from Preferred server

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21

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings
(continued)


Advanced TCP/IP Settings


DNS


Add more than two DNS servers


Change the order in which the DNS servers are used


Allows the DNS client to request a name search for a
domain name when an incomplete name is entered


WINS


Enter WINS servers


WINS resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses

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22

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings
(continued)


Advanced TCP/IP Settings
(continued)


WINS


NetBIOS over TCP/IP automatically installed with
TCP/IP


NetBIOS used in Microsoft workgroups, NT domains,

and Active Directory domains with a mixture of new

and old.

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23

Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol
Suite


Internet Protocol (IP)
(continued)


IP Configuration Settings
(continued)


Viewing an IP Configuration with IPCONFIG


A command line command


Displays the IP configuration of network interfaces


Displays information on static or DHCP clients


Available in all versions of Windows but Windows 95


In Windows 95 use WINIPCFG


IPCONFIG /all displays all IP configurations for all

network interfaces

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24

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


File and print client for each file sharing
protocol



Microsoft's Server Message Block (SMB)


Novell's NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)


Common Internet File System (CIFS)


Network File System (NFS)

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25

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Client for Microsoft Networks


Automatically installed and enabled in Windows


Can see computers with file and printer sharing

turned on


SMB and CIFS


View servers and shares in My Computer | My
Network Places


Connecting to shares depends on permissions


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26

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Novell Clients


Microsoft’s Client Service for NetWare


Not automatically installed on a Windows computer


One comes with each version of Windows


Can be installed optionally, if needed


After installation complete Select NetWare Logon dialog
box


Select a NetWare server or an NDS tree and context


Microsoft client for Novell is less capable than Novell’s


Used when just a few Novell file and printer servers


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27

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.01


Install the Client Service for NetWare


Page 489

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28

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Novell Clients


Novell Client by Novell for Windows


Available for free from Novell


Preferred in a Novell network


Better tools for use by Novell administrators


Separate Novell clients for Windows versions and other
OSs


Download from www.novell.com

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29

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Connecting Client to Shares


Connecting to a file share


Browse to a share using My Computer or Windows
Explorer


Use a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) name in
Internet Explorer or Windows Explorer


Search for it in an AD domain


UNC name is used on Microsoft networks


Syntax:
\
\
servername
\
sharename



Example:
\
\
wickenburg
\
data


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30

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Connecting Client to Shares
(continued)


Connecting to a file share
(continued)


Mapping assigns local unused drive letter to a network
share


Select Tools | Map Network Drive


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31

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.02


Connecting to a Share


Page 492

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32

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Connecting Client to Shares
(continued)


Connecting Clients to Shared Printers


Connecting to printers using UNC names


Connecting to printers using IPP


Adding a standard TCP/IP printer

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33

File and Print Clients on Private
Networks


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.03


Connecting to a Shared Printer


Page 494

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34

Connecting to the Internet


Internet Service Providers


Provide Internet access to individuals or companies


May offer other Internet
-
related services


Examples:


Ground Control (www.groundcontrol.com) satellite Internet
service


T
-
Mobile (www.tmobile.com) cellular Internet service


Local telephone companies provide ISP services for

dial
-
up and DSL customers


Comcast (www.comcast.com) cable Internet service

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

35

Connecting to the Internet


Computer
-
to
-
Internet vs. LAN
-
to
-
Internet


Computer may have a direct Internet connection


Computer may connect to the Internet through a LAN


Wired Connectivity Technologies


Dial
-
up Connections


Use traditional phone system


Inexpensive WAN option


56Kbps


Need ISP service


Cannot use voice and data on same line

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36

Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


Dial
-
up Connections
(continued)


Installing a Modem


Verify modem works


Connect external modem to computer and power


Internal modem is turned on with computer


Install from Phone and Modem Options applet in

Control Panel

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Connecting to the Internet


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.04


Installing a Modem in Windows



Page 499

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Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


Dial
-
up Connections
(continued)


Creating a Dial
-
up Connection


New Connection Wizard in Windows XP


AOL or CompuServe have separate installation programs


Initiate a dial
-
up session using the connection applet


Internet browsers and e
-
mail clients can be configured

to open connection when the application is started

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39

Connecting to the Internet


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.05


Configuring a Dial
-
up Client


Page 502

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40

Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


High
-
Speed Connections


Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)


Digital phone service


Special modem and phone service


Up to 128Kbps


Slightly higher cost than modem dial
-
up


Rarely used in homes in the U.S.


Simultaneously supports data, voice and fax machine


Dropping out of favor due to better alternatives

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41

Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


High Speed Connections
(continued)


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


Uses advanced digital signal processing over telephone
network


Requires changes in components on telephone network


Simultaneously supports data, voice and fax machine


Dedicated circuit from home or office to central office


Several xDSL versions available:


ADSL, SDSL, HDSL, VDSL

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42

Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)



High Speed Connections
(continued)


T
-
Carrier System


T
-
1


24 individual channels transmitting 64 Kbps each


Combined throughput of 1.544Mbps


Fractional T
-
1


One or more individual T
-
1 channels


Cheaper alternative to T
-
1


T
-
3


672 channels with combined throughput of 44.736Mbps


Most expensive

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43

Connecting to the Internet


Wired Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


High Speed Connections
(continued)


Cable


Cable modem service


Cable television networks sell a portion of bandwidth

for data


Faster than common telephone lines


Simultaneously supports data, audio, and video


Signal is shared


Increase in number of users decreases
bandwidth

to each user

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-
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44

Connecting to the Internet


Wireless Connectivity Technologies


Wireless WAN (WWAN) Connections


Covers a large geographical area


Accessible to mobile users


Fully bidirectional


Basic WWAN services offers 1 to 10Mb


Speeds over 100 Mbps with dedicated equipment


Requires antenna tuned to proper radio frequency


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45

Connecting to the Internet


Wireless Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


Satellite


For areas without a wired network that can support
broadband


Used for a significant percentage of all worldwide ISP
links to the Internet backbone and to customers


Estimated 10% of worldwide broadband traffic in 2003
involved satellite communications


Used for mobile communications by the armed forces,
businesses, and individuals


Faster downstream than upstream

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-
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46

Connecting to the Internet


Wireless Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


Satellite
(continued)


Requires an earth
-
based communications station
consisting of a Transceiver (satellite dish) and a Modem
-
like device


Satellite dish pointed at a data satellite


Modem connected to the dish and computer or LAN


Mobile installation more expensive than stationary


Satellite links to a land
-
based operations center which
routes signals to the Internet

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47

Connecting to the Internet


Wireless Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


WLAN Connections


802.11a


Speeds up to 54 Mb


Most public access to WLANs do not use this
standard


Uses the 5
-
GHz band


802.11b


Speeds up to 11Mbps


Compatible with most WLAN access points


Uses the 2.4
-
GHz band

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-
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48

Connecting to the Internet


Wireless Connectivity Technologies
(continued)


WLAN Connections
(continued)


802.11g


Speeds up to 54Mbps


Sustained throughput of 25Mbps


Uses the 2.4
-
GHz bank


Downward compatible with 802.11b

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49

Connecting to the Internet


Sharing an Internet Connection



Sharing a Dial
-
up Connection


Share with other computers on a LAN or WLAN


Windows 98 SE, Windows Me, Windows 2000, and
Windows XP have connection features


Sharing a Broadband Connection


Share from a single computer


Share through a broadband router

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50

Connecting to the Internet


Using a Virtual Private Network


Makes connections to a private network over the
Internet more secure


Remote access VPN over dial
-
up connections


Site
-
to
-
site VPN connects two networks


Creates a “tunnel” between endpoints


Additional security with data encrypting and
authentication of endpoints


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51

Internet Clients


Web Browsers


Simplify navigation of the Web


Translate plain text language into rich, colorful pages


Netscape Navigator


Internet Explorer


Others


Firefox from Mozilla


Opera


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52

Internet Clients


Web Browsers
(continued)


Browser Configuration Options


In Netscape Navigator select
Edit | Preferences |
Navigator


In Internet Explorer select
Tools | Internet Options


General

Security

Privacy

Content

Connections

Programs

Advanced

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53

Internet Clients


E
-
Mail Clients


Scope of Internet e
-
mail exploded in two decades


Mail client may be specific to the mail server


Mail client may be capable of accessing a variety

of servers


Mail client retrieves messages and displays list of

all messages


User selects, responds, saves, creates new, adds
attachments to outgoing, and sends messages

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54

Internet Clients


E
-
Mail Clients
(continued)


Outlook


Separate product or included with Microsoft Office


Client to Exchange and other mail services


Core e
-
mail features


Additional productivity features


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55

Internet Clients


E
-
Mail Clients
(continued)


Outlook Express


Bundled with Windows


E
-
mail client and news reader


Lacks features of Outlook


Internet e
-
mail accounts only


Multiple e
-
mail accounts


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56

Internet Clients


E
-
Mail Clients
(continued)


Configuring and Using an E
-
Mail Client


Information needed


Type of mail server (POP3, IMAP, or HTTP)


Account name and password


DNS name of incoming mail server


Name of outgoing mail server


Obtain information from:


ISP for Internet mail service


Network administrator for internal mail service


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57

Internet Clients


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.06



Configure an E
-
Mail Client


Page 518

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58

Internet Clients


FTP Clients


FTP transfers files between FTP servers and clients


Simple and fast file transfer over TCP/IP


Pre
-
WWW FTP clients character
-
based


Now a variety of GUI FTP clients


Dedicated FTP clients have more features


Anonymous FTP


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Internet Clients


FTP Clients
(continued)


Anonymous FTP


User name and password not required


Users connect using Anonymous account


Users have permissions assigned to Anonymous



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60

Internet Clients


FTP Clients
(continued)


Configuring an FTP client


Information needed


Host name of the FTP server


User ID and password (if applicable)


Account (if applicable)


Passive mode and/SSL connections (if applicable)



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61

Troubleshooting Common Network

Client Problems


Testing IP Configurations and Connectivity


Verifying IP Configuration with IPCONFIG


Troubleshooting connection Errors with PING

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62

Troubleshooting Common Network

Client Problems


Step
-
by
-
Step 10.07



Testing an IP Configuration



Page 522

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63

Troubleshooting Common Network

Client Problems


Troubleshooting Connection Problems with
TRACERT


Discover why a connection to a web site is slow


Traces the route taken by packets


Pings each of the intervening routers


Shows time of response from each router


Reveals bottlenecks

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64

Troubleshooting Common Network

Client Problems


Troubleshooting DNS Errors by Using PING,
NETSTAT, and NSLOOKUP


“Cannot find server or DNS Error?”


Name resolution?


Connectivity problem?


PING IP address


PING domain name


Use another computer to connect to web site


Use NETSTAT to discover IP address


Troubleshoot DNS with NSLOOKUP



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65

Troubleshooting Common Network

Client Problems


Troubleshooting Logon Problems


60
-
80% of help desk calls involve forgotten

password


Avoid problems by memorizing passwords


After a logon failure


Ensure that Caps Lock is not on, and carefully reenter


If correct user name and password were used and failed,
treat it like a connectivity problem


If no connectivity problem, call network admin or ISP