The following is a brief history of computers, networking and telecommunication milestones:

greatgodlyElectronics - Devices

Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

96 views

The following is a brief history of computers, networking and telecommunication
milestones:

1. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) credited to Karl Ferdinand Braun in 1897

2. Teletype (telegraph 5 bit) used during WW1

3. ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) credited to Va
n Duuren during WWII



error checking and auto request for retransmission

4. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) credited to DOD / MIT
during WWII



Used for decoding enemy messages



1st generation computer: used vacuum tubes



Programmed wit
h jumpers and switches



MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure): 7 minutes



337 multiplications per second

5. SAGE (Semi
-
Automatic Ground Environment) developed at MIT in the 1950s



23 centers for ground/air enemy detection systems



Error checking, keyboard & CRT te
rminals



Duplex
-
ed computers, voice grade (300
-
4KHz)



300 baud, light pens, multiuser system



Magnetic core memory



Ground to air data Tx



1st commercial use was Sabre Reservation System

6. Jacquard's Loom developed by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804



First progr
ammable machine



Used punch cards to control the weaving of intricate patterns

7. Transistorized Computers
-

2nd Generation
-

1960s



One of the 1st inventors: Cray



Batch programming: 1 program at a time



Punch cards



Stored programs: held in memory



50K instru
ctions/second



Example: IBM 7905

8. CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) credited to Cobato/MIT in 1961



Time slices multi users

9. Synchronous Orbit Communication Satellites. Idea by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945



Geostationary orbit around equator by Rose/Hug
hes Aerospace in 1963



36,000 miles altitude

10. LASER credited to Maiman in 1960



Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation



A narrow band source of optical radiation suitable for use as a carrier of
information

11. T
-
1 Carrier System credited

to Bell Labs in 1961



TDM (Time Domain Multiplexing)



24 channels = 64 Kbps ea.



1.544 Mbps (mega bits per sec)

12. RS
-
232 developed in 1960 and revised since.



Standard plug and "protocol" convention between modems and machines: 25 pin



Europe uses V.24 com
patible standard

13. Auto Equalization Techniques of Phone lines credited to Lucky et al. in 1965



Adapt to characteristics of telephone line to increase speed

14. Fiberglass credited to Kao & Hockman in 1966



Proposed "fiberglass" optics developed at Stan
dard Telecom Labs

15. Integrated Circuit Computers
-

3rd Generation
-

1967



SSI/MSI (Small Scale Integration/Medium Scale Integration)



10 transistors/chip and 100 transistors/chip



Multi
-
user systems



Multitasking

16. Carterfone
-

FCC Decision in 1968



FCC d
ecision allows other manufacturers to use phone lines



Opens up competition among phone systems

17. Low
-
loss Fiber credited to Kapron in 1970



Speeds: 45
-
90 Mbps developed at Corning Glass Works



1984: attained 405
-
565 Mbps in single mode



Early 1990s: attain
ed 1.7 Gbps

18. ARPA Network (ARPANET) developed by the DOD in the 1970s



Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense
-

US



1st use of Packet Switching, layered protocols



Beginning of the Internet

19. VLSI Integration
-

4th Generation Com
puters developed by Intel in 1971



Very large scale integration: 20,000+ transistors/chip



Intel 4004 microprocessor
-

4 bit



Grandparent of processors today

20. Layered Network Architecture



SNA: System Network Architecture IBM Mainframe



DNA: Digital Networ
k Architecture DEC for DECNET

21. Ethernet developed by Xerox in 1974



Ether is the mysterious invisible fluid that transfers heat



Originally based on the ALOHA radio protocol

22. Videotex developed by Teletel (France) in the 1980s



Interactive video
-

Min
itel

23. Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnect developed by the ISO in 1983



Continuously evolving model for layering network protocols

24. AT&T Divestiture in 1984



Break
-
up of AT&T monopoly into Baby Bells

25. ISDN developed in 1984



Integrated S
ervices Digital Network



Strong in Europe



A network evolving from a telephone integrated digital network supporting voice,
teletex, videotex, fax, slowscan video, etc.

26. Linux Version 0.01 released Sept 17, 1991