Concept Switching in the Interspace:

grassquantityAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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IEEE Knowledge Media Networking KMN’02

Keynote Address, CRL, Kyoto Japan, July 11, 2002


Concept Switching in the Interspace:

Networking Infrastructure for

Community Knowledge


Bruce Schatz

CANIS Laboratory

Graduate School of Library and Information Science

University of Illinois at Urbana
-
Champaign

Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University

schatz@kuis.kyoto
-
u.ac.jp, www.canis.uiuc.edu

THE THIRD WAVE OF NET EVOLUTION

PACKETS

OBJECTS

CONCEPTS


from

Objects to Concepts


from

Syntax to Semantics


Infrastructure is Interaction with Abstraction

Internet

is packet transmission
across computers

Interspace

is concept navigation
across repositories

CONCEPT SPACES


Technology

Engineering

Electrical

FORMAL

INFORMAL

(manual)

(automatic)

IEEE

communities

groups

individuals

LEVELS OF INDEXES

THE DISTRIBUTED WORLD


Community Repositories in the Interspace


Peer to Peer Networking Infrastructure


Every Person performs Every Role



USER



request

LIBRARIAN


reference

INDEXER


classify

PUBLISHER


quality

AUTHOR


generate

Meta Data

How to Represent the

Community Knowledge



Automatic and Interactive

Representation Techniques

for Capturing the

Fundamental Structure


Meta Maps

How to Locate the

Community Knowledge



Automatic and Interactive

Location Techniques

for Capturing the

Fundamental Landscape


CONCEPTS ACROSS THE INTERSPACE

SCALABLE SEMANTICS


Automatic indexing


Domain
-
Independent indexing


Statistical clustering




Compute Context of




concepts within documents


documents within repositories

CROSS
-
OVERS IN SEMANTIC INDEXING

1992
1993
1995
1996
1998
COMPUTING CONCEPTS


92:
4,000

(molecular biology)

‘93:
40,000

(molecular biology)

‘95:
400,000

(electrical engineering)


96:
4,000,000

(engineering)


98:
40,000,000

(medicine)

SIMULATING A NEW WORLD


Obtain discipline
-
scale collection



MEDLINE from NLM, 10M bibliographic abstracts


human classification: Medical Subject Headings


Partition discipline into Community Repositories


4 core terms per abstract for MeSH classification


32K nodes with core terms (classification tree)


Community is all abstracts classified by core term


40M abstracts containing 280M concepts


concept spaces took 2 days on NCSA Origin 2000


Simulating World of Medical Communities


10K repositories with > 1K abstracts (1K w/ > 10K)

COMMUNITY PROCESSING

Semantic Indexing


Extracting Concepts (AI)


Canonical noun phrases


Generic statistical parser



Computing Context (IR)


Co
-
occurrence frequency, in collection


Useful interactively, not strict ordering


System Side Infrastructure

Classification Technologies for
Multimedia Documents



Phrases

(multi
-
word nouns)


Concepts

(generic phrases)


Types

(identified concepts)


Clusters

(grouped types)


Structures

(semantic universals)

INTERSPACE NAVIGATION


Semantic Indexes for Community Repositories



Navigating Abstractions within Repository



concept space & category map



Interactive browsing by Community experts



*www.canis.uiuc.edu/interspace
-
prototype

Interspace Remote Access Client

Navigation in MEDSPACE

For a patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Find a drug that reduces the pain (analgesic)


but does not cause stomach (gastrointestinal) bleeding


Choose Domain

Concept Search

Concept Navigation

Retrieve Document

Navigate Document

Retrieve Document

Category Map

Category
Navigation

Concept Navigation

User Side Infrastructure

Navigation Technologies for

Search Interfaces



Exact Match

(noun phrases)


Relationship List

(concept suggestions)


Cluster Comparison

(groups to groups)


Spreading Activation

(group intersections)


Artificial Landscapes

(semantic distances)

SWITCHING

In the Interspace…




each Community maintains its own repository



Switching is navigating Across repositories



use your vocabulary to search
another specialty

Medicine Session

Categories and Concepts

Concept Switching

Document Retrieval

CONCEPT SWITCHING


“Concept” versus “Term”


set of “semantically” equivalent terms


Concept switching


region to region (set to set) match

term

Semantic region

Concept Space

Concept Space

ENGINEERING SESSION

Engineering Categories & Concepts

Further Concept Navigation

Searching via Concept Suggestion

Switching Across Repositories

Future Technologies


Concept Switching


Spreading activation, type tagging



Dynamic Indexing


On
-
the
-
fly collections, during session




Path Matching


Aggregating indexes, many repositories



Semantic Analysis of Multimedia


Collections of Objects containing Units


Text: community repository (topic proximity)



document abstracts containing noun phrases


Image: aerial photograph (spatial proximity)



feature regions containing texture tiles



Units
--

media
-
dependent
(statistical parsers)


Indexes
--

media
-
independent
(statistical clusters)


Media Interoperability Model


text concept space & category map (geoscience)


1M phrases in 500K abstracts from Georef


and Petroleum Abstracts


image concept & category maps in aerial photos


visual thesaurus maps for 200K regions in 800
images (6M tiles)



geographic map (where) v. semantic map (what)


spatial gazetteer as bridge
image<=>text<=>number

Text and Number Interoperability

Text and AVHRR Query:

Show me information about
Santa Barbara

area with
mild temperature

and
high
vegetation density
.

Integrated Result:

Within the
bounding
geography location
, 2
documents and 88
AVHRR records related
to the integrated query
are retrieved.

Image Concept Switching

Image Query:

By browsing a
texture (tile) catalog,
show me information
about
residential

and
farm land

areas.

Result:

A set of related
images are retrieved
and shown in the
Results Frame. The
full
-
size image #368
is displayed with its
place names

and
tile
locations
.

INFORMATION SPACEFLIGHT



Landscape as category map visualization



Valleys are semantic clusters


Hills are semantic distances



Traversal across multiple levels of abstraction

Category
Maps

SELF
-
ORGANIZING MAPS (SOMs)

INFORMATION SPACEFLIGHT

INFORMATION SPACEFLIGHT

Flying through
Cyberspace

THE NET OF THE 21st CENTURY


Beyond Objects to Concepts


Beyond Search to Analysis


Problem Solving via Cross
-
Correlating
Multimedia Information across the Net



Every community has its own special library


Every community does semantic indexing



The Interspace is
true

Cyberspace

Subject Assignment

Improved Search by

Identifying Subjects



Human Indexers classify Documents

From Subject Thesaurus and Knowledge


Interactive Support for Community Curators

(Subject Experts but Classification Amateurs)


Use Concept Spaces to Suggest Subjects

From Related Documents in the Collection


See Best Paper Nominee at ACM DL 98

Structure Assignment

Improved Search by

Identifying Structures



Human Indexers classify Clusters

From Generic Structures beyond Subjects


Universal Structures Cross
-
Cultural



Interactive Support for Community Curators

(Subject Experts but Classification Amateurs)


Necessary for Peer
-
Peer Infrastructure

When Ordinary Persons form Communities

The Structures of Everyday Life


Bodies

(individuals)


Food and Clothes


Buildings

(groups)


Houses and Cities



Transportation

(physical interactions)


Rails (trains) and Roads (cars)


Communication

(logical interactions)


Phones (talking) and Computers (retrieving)

Navigating Universal Structures



A planet for every kid’s local environment


Federating the planets into a universe


Ordering all planets from kid’s Point Of View


Flying through the
Kids Universe


Finding similar kids from different POVs


Connecting historically through museums