What is Food Biotechnology?

gooseliverBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

74 views

What is Food Biotechnology?


Food biotechnology is the
evolution

of
traditional

agricultural techniques such as
crossbreeding and
fermentation
.



It is an
extension

of the type of food
development that has provided
nectarines
,
tangerines

and similar
advancements
.





Technically Speaking...


Food biotechnology employs the tools
of
modern

genetics to
enhance

beneficial

traits of plants, animals and
microorganisms for food production.
It involves adding or extracting select
genes to achieve desired traits.



The musical stylings of


Dr. Karl Winters

There must be more to it than that, Doc


DNA

makes
RNA

makes
PROTEIN


Must be a protein already in existence


A “Selectable Marker” is required to
identify the clone.


The selectable marker is usually
antibiotic resistance, which does not
make YOU antibiotic resistant.

translation

transcription

And how do they do that…?

Other types of biotechnology


Clonal propagation


Random mutagenisis and selection
(directed evolution)


Metabolic redirection


Use of “xenophiles”

Food Biotechnology
Applications


Biotechnology methods are currently
used to
improve

many foods.


Food biotechnology has had a
profound positive impact

on farming
and food security.


At least twelve industrialized and four
developing countries currently use
some form of food biotechnology.

Consumer Benefits of

Food Biotechnology

The Colbert Report

Many people get their information
from (fake) news.


Taste and Quality


Delayed ripening allows
fruits and vegetables to
remain
fresh

longer

Flavorsavar
®
.



Increased solids give
foods
superior taste

and less water to remove
for sauces.



Nutrition


Some oils are lower in
saturated fat and higher in
oleic acid, making them
more stable for frying
without further processing
.


Some foods have lower
levels of saturated fat.


J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc.,2006;106:285
-
293


Health


Some foods have
enhanced
nutritional profiles
.


Biotechnology allows for the
production of foods to help
protect against diseases
.


Enhanced

foods will soon offer
higher levels of antioxidant
vitamins to
reduce risk of
cancer.
Now being
commercialized at Rutgers!
(black tea extract).

How Nutrients Regulate Genes

Nutrient

Gene impact

Disease
potential

Folic acid

DNA methylation

Cancer

Fatty acids

Bind to transcription
factors

Obesity

Vitamin D

mRNA stability

Kidney disease

Flavones

Increase mRNA
synthesis

Cancer

Theaflavins

Decrease mRNA
synthesis(anti
-
inflamatory)

Arthritis


WellGen, Inc.


is the first biotechnology
company using nutrigenomics
to discover and develop
proprietary products that treat
and prevent disease





Nutrigenomics addresses

the role of diet in gene expression

Consumers Support

Food Biotechnology


Nearly two
-
thirds believe food
biotechnology will benefit their family
in the next five years.


More than half would choose products
modified to taste better or fresher.


Two
-
thirds would likely buy produce
protected against insect damage.





Source: Wirthlin Worldwide, October 1999

Environmental Impact of

Agricultural Biotechnology


Healthier plants result in higher
yields.


Insect
-
protected crops reduce the
need for insecticides.


Biotechnology helps protect water
(less pesticide run off, less erosion.)


Economic Impact of

Agricultural Biotechnology


Food biotechnology results in
higher plant yields, increasing
farmers’ efficiency.


Farmer production costs are
reduced.


Debilitating plant diseases and
insect pests are often
preventable.



Combating Hunger


Food biotechnology allows more
food to be produced on less land.


Economic benefits will allow food
biotechnology to contribute to
combating global hunger.


Combating Hunger


Food biotechnology allows more
food to be produced on less land.


Economic benefits will allow food
biotechnology to contribute to
combating global hunger.


FDA

USDA

AMA

IFT

FAO/

WHO

ADA

Food Biotechnology

Is Safe


Food biotechnology is one of
the most extensively reviewed
agricultural advancements to
date.


Studies to date have shown no
evidence of any harmful
effects.

FDA’s basic paradigm


Is the gene coming from the donor well
characterized?


Is the vector (plasmid) well
characterized?


Is the recipient of the gene well
characterized?

Potential Problems with GE Foods


Antibiotic resistance (significance
needs to be determined)


Introduction of new proteins into
foods (FDA seeks comments)


Plants used to make nonfood
substances.


Special concerns with animal feeds.


---------------------


Unintended “pleotropic” effects


Increases of known toxins,
decreases in nutrients


Activation of dormant pathways,
allergens

U.S. Labeling Policy for

Food Biotechnology


FDA safety standards are consistent for all
foods.


Must label the presence of common allergens
not normally found in certain foods


Must demonstrate scientifically that allergens
are not present in modified food.


If nutritional content or composition has been
changed, product must be labeled accordingly.


Consumers Support

Labeling Policy


More than two
-
thirds of
consumers
support the FDA
labeling policy



Source: Wirthlin Worldwide,
October 1999

What Does the Future Hold?

Food biotechnology has the

potential to:


Reduce levels of natural
toxins in plants


Provide simpler and faster
ways to locate pathogens,
toxins and contaminants


Keep products fresher longer


Identify ways to eliminate
allergens from many foods


Increase food supply to
support growing world
population and decreasing
agricultural space.



So what’s the bottom line, Doc?


It depends on the use.


It depends on the market.


It depends on how you vote.