Unit 10: Explore biotechnology applications in the

gooseliverBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Unit 10: Explore biotechnology applications in the
agriculture industry



Compare methods of plant and animal
improvement as a result of biotechnology

Biotechnology


Is the process of using cells or components of cells to
produce products or processes

Microorganisms


Are used in biotechnology to produce products or carry out
processes

Illustrations of biotechnology


The use of
yeast

to make bread rise


Bacteria
is

used to ferment sauerkraut


Bacteria

is used to produce dozens of types of cheeses
and other dairy products


Microorganisms

are used to transform fruit and grains
into alcoholic beverages


E. Coli


Is bacteria that has been genetically engineered to produce
human insulin in the lab

Biological control


Is an example of a biotechnology applications

Silage


Is an example of biotechnology in livestock feed
production, green plants are converted to livestock feed

The genetic connection


Genetics:

is the biology of heredity


Heredity:

is the transmission of characteristics from an
organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive
cells


Gregor Johann Mendel:

discovered the effect of genetics
on plant characteristics with his experimentation with
garden peas

Selective breeding


Is the earliest example of livestock improvement

Gregor Johann Mendel


Has been credited for creating the foundation for the
study
of Heredity

Clone


Is offspring that is an exact duplicate or copy of the parents

Progeny



Is a common synonym for offspring

Genes


Are components of cells that determine the individual
characteristics of living things


Genes are comprised of
DNA

DNA


Is the acronym for
Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Is
coded material

in a cell that determines what that cell
and its successive cells will become


DNA

occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other
and is connected by chemicals called
Bases

DNA pairs


Adenine

pairs with
thymine


Guanine

pairs with
cytosine


Mapping


Is the matching of genes to certain traits


Is used by geneticists to determine which genes are
responsible for certain traits

Examples of mapping



Tendency of baldness in humans


Height of plants at a certain maturity


Tendency of females to have twin offspring

Fingerprinting


Is also known as DNA mapping

Applications of biotechnology in agriscience


The application of DNA matching to identify parents or
offspring


Genetic engineering


Is the movement of genetic information in the form of
genes from one cell to another cell





Genetic engineering

was discovered by scientists in the
early 1980s and was a breakthrough in modifying the
genetic makeup of organisms

Products of genetic engineering


One of the first commercial products of genetic engineering
was
insulin
, a chemical used by people with diabetes


Herbicide resistant crops

are a product of genetic
engineering


BST (bovine somatotrapin)

is a hormone used to increase
milk production in dairy cattle and became available
commercially as a result of genetic engineering


Other bacteria strains are under development to convert
solid waste from humans and livestock into
sugar and fuel


Ice
-
minus


Is a bacteria that was genetically altered to retard frost
formation on plant leaves

X
-
gal


Is a compound that causes marked bacteria to turn blue,
this can be easily detected and traced in experimental or
real
-
life situations

Genetically altered plants


May be resistance to drought, insects or plant diseases