NOTES 26 Biotechnology &

gooseliverBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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NOTES 26


Biotechnology &
Genetic Engineering

What is biotechnology?


Biotechnology



the use of organisms
and their genetics in industry to make
products


EX. Insulin medicine for people with
insulin
-
dependent diabetes is produced
using bacteria


Genetic Engineering



making changes
in the DNA of an organism to produce new
traits in that organism


EX. Inserting a gene into a tomato plant
that slows the ripening process

How is genetic engineering possible?


Because all living organisms have DNA, by
moving DNA from one organism to
another, it is possible to transfer traits
from one organism to another


Genetic engineers use plasmids and
restriction enzymes as tools to change an
organism’s DNA


Plasmid



a small, circular
piece of DNA found in some
bacteria that can be used to
carry DNA from one organism
to another


Restriction Enzymes



proteins used to “cut” DNA in
specific places


How is a gene from one organism
moved into another organism?

1.
Scientists identify the gene in an organism
that is responsible for the specific trait they
want to put into the new organism

2.
Restriction enzymes are used to cut the
gene out of the DNA strand and to cut open
a plasmid from a bacteria cell

3.
The cut out gene is inserted into the plasmid
(gene splicing)









Recombinant DNA



DNA produced by
combining DNA from different organisms


4.
Transformation

-

The recombinant DNA
plasmid is inserted into an embryonic cell of
the organism that is going to get the new trait

5.
If the process works, the cell will make the
DNA plasmid a part of its own DNA and the
newly introduced foreign gene will begin
making its protein and causing a new trait

6.
When the original cell divides, it copies the
foreign gene along with its own DNA so the
organism that develops from the original cell
has a copy of the new gene in all of its cells

What is a transgenic organism?


Transgenic Organisms



organisms that have
genes from organisms of other species


Transgenic bacteria

are used to produce
human insulin for diabetes, clotting factor
for people with blood clotting disorders
like hemophilia, and human growth
hormone


EX. The human gene responsible for
insulin production is cut from human DNA
and inserted into a
plasmid

to make
recombinant DNA
. The recombinant DNA
is inserted into bacteria cells which are
transformed

and begin producing insulin.


Transgenic mice

have been produced with
human genes that make their immune
systems similar to humans which allows
scientists to study the affects of disease
on human immune systems


Transgenic cows

have been produced with
extra copies of growth hormone genes
that make them grow faster


Transgenic plants have been produced that
contain genes which produce natural insecticides
(insect
-
killing chemicals), or are resistant to
weed
-
killing chemicals, or have better flavor or
texture

F.D.A. Approves Drug From Gene
-
Altered Goats
(from New York Times 2/6/09)


“…the
Food and Drug Administration

on Friday approved
the first drug produced by livestock that have been
given a human gene.”

What is genetically modified food and
is it good or bad?


Genetically Modified Food (GMF)



food
changed through biotechnology (sometimes
seen as GMO, which means genetically modified
organism
)


Genetically modified food has only been around
since 1992, so the long term health effects of
eating GMF’s are not well studied


Right now there are no labeling laws requiring a
company to let you know if their product has
been genetically modified

Examples of GMFs


Soybeans modified to resist weed
-
killing chemicals
(herbicides)


A herbicide resistant gene is taken from a bacteria
and inserted into the soy plant


Allows farmers to spray high doses of weed
-
killing
chemicals on soy fields without harming the soy
plants


89% of soy grown in the US is GMF


A company called Monsanto makes both the
herbicide resistant soy plants AND the herbicide
they are resistant to (Roundup)

But I don’t eat soy…


“…the ubiquity of soybean derivatives as
food additives in the modern American
diet virtually ensures that all U.S.
consumers have been exposed to GM food
products.”
from CSA.com


60% of all US corn is GM


Try finding a processed food product that
does not contain corn or soy

Doritos Ingredient List

What about McDonald’s?

Some Brands That May Contain GM Ingredients:


Mazola


Crisco


Heinz


Kraft


Peter Pan & Skippy


Eggo


Lean Cuisine


Progresso


Chef Boyardee


Campbell’s Soups


Oreos


Ritz


Teddy Grahams


Triscuit


Wheat Thins


Keebler


Hostess


Frito Lay


Lipton


Aunt Jemima


Betty Crocker


Pillsbury


General Mills


Kellogg’s


Coca
-
Cola


Pepsi


Gatorade


Kool Aid

There are many pros and cons to
the GMF issue


Produce more food on
less land




Can eliminate the need
for chemical pesticides



May someday be an
inexpensive source of
medicines, fuels, and
plastics


Long
-
term health effects
of eating GMFs is
unknown



GM crops could pose a
risk to the environment



Hard to stop GM crops
from mixing with non
-
GM
crops

Pros

Cons