National Cancer Institute

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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National Cancer Institute

Research in the last century has
made the quality of life better for
mankind with every passing day.

The following presentation
represents an example of how
far we have come…


100 years of

Advances Against Cancer

The National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute in
partnership and cooperation with the scientific research community
.

Created by the National Cancer Institute’s
Grants Administration Branch.

Gratwick Laboratories

(Roswell Park Memorial Institute).

First cancer research laboratories
established in 1898, moved in 1901.


1903
Radium found
effective in treatment of
tumors.

1911

P. Rous
discovered a virus
that causes cancer in
chickens.

1912

Cancer cells are
grown in the laboratory,
the first long
-
term “tissue
culture.”

1913

Publication of first
known article on cancer’s
warning signs:
Ladies’ Home Journal

1915

Coal tar gives rabbits
cancer in experimental
proof of carcinogenesis.

Black and white drawing of N.Y. Cancer
Hospital, Memorial Sloan Kettering

(Est. 1884)

1904:

View of American Oncologic
Hospital, the first precursor of Fox Chase
Cancer Center.


1925:

The Lankenau
Hospital Research Institute
established and later
created the Institute for
Cancer Research (ICR) to
increase funding support
for cancer research.


The two organizations
joined to eventually become
Fox Chase Cancer Center
in Philadelphia.

National Cancer Institute Act,
July 23, 1937

June 6 , 1938

Members of the first
National Advisory Cancer
Council at the
groundbreaking
ceremonies at the NCI's
building 6.


1930

The National Institute of Health
is established by the Ransdell Act.

1938 NCI Budget: $400,000

Shown: Mrs. Luke Wilson, whose husband, a cancer victim, donated the land

Dr. Thomas Parton, Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service &

Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury (Holding trowel)

June 24, 1939



Cornerstone laying for NCI’s building 6.

1939

The National
Cancer Institute’s first
home, “Building 6”.

Welcome to the National
Cancer Institute

1937

The first NCI staff was comprised of Harvard personnel.

November 27,1937:

First NCI grant was awarded for $27,550 to
Louis F. Fieser to investigate chemical structure and carcinogenic
activity.

1940

First issue of the
Journal of the National Cancer
Institute is published.

1943

Pap smear is introduced
into medical practice.

NCI’s First Scientific Staff
Source:
Life Magazine
, June 17, 1940

1944

DNA found by O. Avery,
C. MacLeod, and M. McCarty to
be the basic genetic material.


1940
-
1949 NCI appropriations $42 million!


National Institutes of Health Campus
-

1940

October 31, 1940

Pres. Franklin

Roosevelt dedicates the first 6 buildings of NIH.

1947

S. Farber finds that a folic acid
derivative inhibits acute leukemia.

1949

FDA approves nitrogen
mustard (mechlorethamine), a
drug that interacts with DNA
chemically to kill cancer cells.

1948
G. Hitchings synthesizes 6
-
mercaptopurine (6
-
MP) to combat
childhood leukemia.

S. Farber also founds Children's
Hospital Cancer Research
Foundation in the next decade.

1955

National Chemotherapy Program
begins.

1950

E. Wynder, E. Graham, and Sir
R. Doll confirm cigarette smoking
-
cancer link.

1953

FDA approves methotrexate
as anticancer drug.

1953

J. Watson and F. Crick
discover the structure of
DNA.

1952

DNA found to be
genetic material in some
viruses.

1955

R. Hertz and M. Chiu Li achieve
total cure of a human solid tumor,
choriocarcinoma.


1950
-
1959 NCI appropriations $330 million!

1960

Chromosome abnormality
associated with leukemias.

1961

M. Nirenberg and others
prove triplet code is how the
information to make proteins is
stored in DNA.

1964


U.S. Surgeon General
issues Report on Smoking
and Health



A virus (Epstein
-
Barr virus) is
linked to human cancer for the
first time.


American Society of Clinical
Oncology established.

1962

Royal College of
Physicians issues report
on smoking and health.

Dr. Emil Freireich working with a
blood cell separator centrifuge at M.D.
Anderson Hospital.



1960
-
1969 NCI appropriations
$1.8 billion!

1969

R. Heubner & G. Todaro
propose the oncogene hypothesis.

1966

NCI standardizes testing
of cancer
-
causing chemicals.

FDA Approvals:


1961

Vinblastine: a drug that binds to tubulin. Derived
from the ornamental shrub, vinca rosea.


1962

5
-
FU


1963

Vincristine: a sister drug to Vinblastine.


1964

Melphalan (L
-
PAM) approved for marketing.

1970


H. Temin & D. Baltimore
discover reverse transcriptase
enzyme: a key to gene
engineering.

1971


President Richard M.
Nixon converted Army’s former
biological warfare facilities at
Ft. Detrick, MD, to house
research activities on the
causes, treatment, and
prevention of cancer.

1973



Computed tomography (CT)
introduced in the United States


Recombinant DNA techniques
developed for cloning genes


Surveillance, Epidemiology, and
End Results (SEER) Program
established.



1970
-
1979 NCI appropriations $6.1 billion.

December 23, 1971

President Nixon signs the National Cancer Act of 1971.

1974



CANCERLINE, a national
database of published cancer
research established.


FDA approves doxorubicin, an
anti
-
tumor antibiotic from
Streptomyces bacteria.

1976



Cancer Information Service (1
-
800
-
4
-
CANCER) opened.


Interleukin
-
2 discovered.


First human proto
-
oncogenes
discovered.


1975


Methods developed
to identify and sequence
DNA fragments.

1977

First national cancer patient
education program founded
(I Can Cope).

1978


First human testing of a biological therapy (alpha
-
interferon).


Tamoxifen approved by FDA for marketing as a treatment drug.


FDA approves cisplatin, a powerful anticancer drug.


Metastatic cells shown to arise from pre
-
existing subpopulations in
primary tumors.

1979


P53 discovered, most frequently mutated gene in human
cancer.


Modified radical mastectomy replaces radical
mastectomy for breast cancer.

1970s


Statistical methods developed to control
simultaneously for several factors in the analysis of
studies and to quantify cancer risks.


Studies clarify the patterns of cancer risk
following exposure to ionizing radiation.


Studies in human populations link cancer risk to
infectious agents, such as human papillomavirus
(cervical cancer) and hepatitis B (liver cancer).



Studies link cancer risks to hormonal drugs, such as
diethylstilbestrol (DES) taken during pregnancy and
hormonal replacement therapy.


Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy developed to
help find and remove precancerous growths.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
introduced.

1980
-
1989 NCI appropriations $12 billion!


Continuous pain medication
infusion pumps developed.


Biochemical and genetic assays integrated into
epidemiologic studies (molecular epidemiology).


First highly effective anti
-
nausea drugs developed
to alleviate side effects of chemotherapy.

1981

Introduction of first human viral
vaccine that can prevent cancer
(hepatitis B virus vaccine for liver
cancer).

1985

Lumpectomy plus radiation
found equivalent to mastectomy for
breast cancer.

1984

The human p53 tumor
suppressor gene cloned.

Adjuvant chemotherapy:


1988

Proven to increase disease
-
free
survival in early breast cancer


1989

Proven to increase survival in
colon cancer



Transition from film
-
based
radiology to digital computer
-
assisted medical imaging.


Multi
-
step nature of
carcinogenesis proven.


Fluorescence in situ hybridization
technique developed (FISH).

Breast cancer death rates
began to decline!


Several common genetic variants
linked to the risk of lung and other
cancers.

1990
-
1999 NCI appropriations $21.8 billion!

1990

First chemoprevention trial to
show efficacy


vitamin A analogue
against mouth and throat tumors.

1991

Adjuvant radiation and
chemotherapy found to improve
survival in rectal cancer.

Cloning Advances:


1993

First of the hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer genes


1994

BRCA1, the first inherited breast cancer gene


1995

BRCA2

FDA Approvals:


1995

Tretinoin, the first successful differentiating agent


1995

Porfimer sodium, a drug that sensitizes tumors to light,
permitting photodynamic therapy in the U.S.


1
996

Topotecan, first of a class of drugs that interferes with the
enzyme topoisomerase


1997


Rituximab, first biotechnology product approved by FDA to
treat patients with cancer


1998


Trastuzumab (Herceptin), targets cancer cells that produce a
protein found in high number of women with metastatic breast
cancer

1990s Studies and Trials

1993


NCI
-
sponsored studies in China show importance of nutrition in preventing
cancer.


The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial begins
recruiting 148,000 volunteers (the largest early detection study).


Annual guaiac fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) is shown to reduce colorectal
cancer deaths by one
-
third.


1997



Cancer Genome Anatomy Project is launched, a multi
-
year project to assemble
the first index of genes involved in cancer.


1998



Results of the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial, which tested tamoxifen as a
preventive agent, showed that the drug could reduce the incidence of breast
cancer by half in women at increased risk of developing the disease.



The drug Gleevec shown to be
effective against chronic
myelogenous leukemia.


Prevalence of adult
smoking declines to 20.9
percent.

HPV Vaccine Approved!


The drug raloxifene shown to reduce
the incidence of invasive breast
cancer to the same extent as
tamoxifen but without the potentially
dangerous side effects.

2000
-
2005 NCI appropriations $25.5 billion!

Studies & Trials
in the
New Millennium

2001


The

largest

ever

prostate

cancer

prevention

trial,

Selenium

and

Vitamin

E

Cancer

Prevention

Trial

(SELECT)

is

launched

to

determine

whether

these

two

dietary

supplements

can

protect

against

prostate

cancer
.


2002

NCI

launches

the

National

Lung

Screening

Trial

(NLST)

to

determine

whether

spiral

computed

tomography

is

better

than

single
-
view

chest

x
-
ray

in

reducing

deaths

among

current

and

heavy

smokers
.


2003

Results

from

the

Prostate

Cancer

Prevention

Trial

(PCPT)

show

that

men

taking

finasteride

had

25

percent

few

diagnoses

of

prostate

cancer

than

men

taking

a

placebo,

proving

that

prostate

cancer

can

be

prevented
.


2003

Two

randomized

controlled

trials

show

that

taking

aspirin

daily

for

as

little

as

3

years

reduces

the

development

of

colorectal

polyps

by

19

to

35

percent

in

high

risk

populations
.


2004

The

Women’s

Health

Initiative

(WHI)

shows

that

women

who

take

estrogen

in

combination

with

the

hormone

progestin

are

at

greater

risk

of

developing

breast

cancer

than

estrogen

alone
.


2005

Initial

results

from

the

Digital

vs

Film

Mammographic

Imaging

Screening

Trial

(DMIST)

show

that

women

with

dense

breasts

under

the

age

of

50

who

are

pre
-

or

post
-
menopausal

may

benefit

from

a

digital

rather

than

a

film

mammogram
.


FDA Approvals

2003


FDA

approves

Velcade

for

the

treatment

of

multiple

myeloma
.


2004


FDA

approves

Letrozole

for

the

adjuvant

treatment

of

early
-
stage

breast

cancer

after

5

years

of

tamoxifen

therapy
.


2004


FDA

approves

Eloxatin

for

use

in

the

treatment

of

advanced

colorectal

cancer
.


2005


FDA

approves

Abraxane

in

the

treatment

of

metastatic

or

recurrent

breast

cancer
.


2006

The

FDA

approves

the

vaccine

Gardasil,

which

protects

against

persistent

infection

by

the

two

types

of

HPV

that

cause

approximately

70

percent

of

cervical

cancers

worldwide
.






2000


Researchers

discover

the

most

common

form

of

non
-
Hodgkin’s

lymphoma

(NHL),

diffuse

large

B
-
cell

lymphoma,

is

actually

two

distinct

diseases,

thus

explaining

why

only

40

percent

of

patients

with

NHL

can

be

cured

by

chemotherapy
.



2002


The

International

Agency

for

Research

on

Cancer

classifies

second
-
hand

smoke

as

a

carcinogen
.

In

2006
,

the

US

Surgeon

General

releases

report

on

the

harmful

effects

of

second
-
hand

smoke
.


2006


The

Study

of

Tamoxifen

and

Raloxifene

(STAR)

shows

that

raloxifene

reduces

the

incidence

of

invasive

breast

cancer

to

the

same

extent

as

tamoxifen

but

without

the

potentially

dangerous

side

effects
.







Advances

Decline Shown in Death Rates from Four Leading Cancers
:


09/02/2003
-

Death rates from the four most common cancers
-

lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal
-

continued to decline in the
late 1990s according to new data from the "Annual Report to the
Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975
-
2000."



Treatment Significantly Improves Long
-
Term Outlook for Breast
Cancer Survivors

10/9/2003 International clinical trial concludes women should
consider taking letrozole after five years of tamoxifen treatment to
continue to reduce risk of recurrence.

1938


2006 NCI appropriations total $67.5 billion!


We…
Are Making a Difference.


Scientists

Researchers

Administrators

Patients

Volunteers

Clinicians

American Public


Timeline information and Pictures extracted from the following website:
http://cancer.gov

Making a Difference…

In 2003, there were 10,500,000 cancer survivors in the U.S.