Genetic Testing

gooseliverBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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By: Lou Ann Witte

Medina Valley Middle
School


Louann.witte@mvisd.com

Genetic Testing

What is Genetic Testing?


Genetic testing examines genetic
materials to find gene mutations



Direct examination of DNA
molecule detects genetic disorders



A DNA sample can be obtained from
any tissue

Topic Web





Genetic
Testing

Laws

Ethics

Cost

Genetic
Counseling

Human
Genome
Project

Genetic
Engineering

Social
Issues

Prenatal
Gene
Therapy

Genetic
Ancestry

Genetic Tests Used for:


Carrier Screening


identifying unaffected
individuals who carry one copy of a gene
for a disease



Screens genetic flaws among embryos used
in in vitro fertilization



Prenatal diagnostic testing



Newbor
n screening


GT Uses continued:


Presymptomatic testing for
predicting adult
-
onset disorders



Confirmation of diagnosis for
symptomatic individuals



Forensic/identity testing

Inside Cells


Cells


working units of every
living system


Cell Nucleus


contains chromosomes


Chromosomes


23 pairs in humans which
are made up of DNA


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
-

instructions needed to
direct all activities


Genes


a section of DNA that is coded for a
specific trait

Inside a Cell


NUCLEUS

DNA


DNA base
pairs






A pairs with T




G pairs with C



YouTube
-

Genetics 101
Part 1: What
are genes?

Gene


a section of DNA


GENE

23 pairs of
Chromosomes


The
Human
Genome Project
mapped every
gene on these
chromosomes.
There are
20,000
-
25,000
genes on the
chromosomes.


HUMAN GENOME PROJECT


13 year project by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and
National Institutes of Health


Goals:



Identify 20,000


25,000 genes in the



human DNA



Store information in genome databases



Improve tools for data analysis



Transfer technology to private sector



Address ethical, legal and social issues that



arise from the project

Pros and Cons of Genetic Testing


Predictive tests will not give a yes/no
answer


Genetic tests can not guarantee the
disease will develop


Cannot predict how severely the person
carrying the gene will be affected


Many diseases are the result of interaction
between genes and environment


Negative test results may decrease
your quality of life

Pros and Cons continued:


Genetic testing is expensive


insurance
doesn’t cover most tests


Validity of tests questioned because of the
margin of error associated with tests


Normal test may lull you into a false sense of
security


Tests may reveal you are susceptible to heart
disease so you make changes to your lifestyle


Helps new parents make decisions about birth
of child with special needs


More Pros and Cons


An innocent person could be convicted of a
crime because of inaccurate DNA testing


A person cannot alter their DNA since DNA is
unaffected by outside contaminants


DNA can be used to identify family
members


DNA is the most precise method of
identifying criminals and victims


Trace amounts of DNA at a crime scene
can falsely implicate an innocent person

Trends of Genetic Testing


Genetic knowledge may be used to
deny:



employment



social services



insurance benefits (health and life)



drivers license



loans from banks



mortgages on houses




medical treatment



military service



More Trends


Pre marital genetic testing to determine
compatibility


Carrier screenings given to certain ethnic
groups at high risk for diseases (
Tay

Sachs


Jewish, Sickle Cell


Blacks)


Fetal gene therapy to diseases or problems
found before a child is born


Cures for most of today’s common
diseases


Individuals alter their DNA to enhance
appearances, athletic abilities, and mental capacity

Future Olympian?

Is your unborn
child a future
Olympian?

Genetic testing
can hold the
answer!

Genetic Olympian
Corp. will test your
child and offer
gene therapy to
ensure exceptional
athletic abilities!!!

Genetic Information
Nondiscrimination Act of 2008


GINA is a federal law that protects
Americans from being treated unfairly
because of differences in their DNA


Prevents discrimination from
health insurers and employers
on basis of DNA


Does not cover

life insurance,
disability insurance and long
-
term
care insurance


23andMe

A privately held personal genomics and
biotechnology company based in Mountain
View, Calif., 23andMe, claims to be
developing new methods and technologies
that will enable consumers to understand
their own genetic information.

Genetic Testing for Health, Disease & Ancestry; DNA
Test
-

23andMe

Founders: Linda
Avey

and Anne
Wojcicki

(married to
Sergey
Brin

the founder of Google)

Questions to Consider

1.
Who should have access to personal genetic
information and how will it be used?

2.
Who owns and controls genetic information?

3.
What are the larger societal issues raised by new
reproductive technologies?

4.
How do we prepare the public to make informed
choices?

5.
Should testing be performed when no treatment is
available?

6.
Should parents have the right to have their minor
children tested for adult
-
onset diseases?

More Questions

7.
Do people’s genes make them behave in a
particular way?

8.
Where is the line between medical treatment
and enhancement?

9.
Are GM (genetically modified) foods and other
products safe to humans and the environment?

10.
Who owns genes and other pieces of DNA?

11.
Will patenting DNA sequences limit their
accessibility and development into useful
products?

Websites

www.genome.gov

(has info for educators and students)

www.ndsu.edu/pubweb

www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/info

www.ehow.com/about_5397146_genetic
-
testing
-
pros
-
cons

www.cnn.com/HEALTH/bioethics/9808/genetics.part1/

www.allaboutpopularissues.org/human
-
genome
-
project.htm

www.genomics.energy.gov

(ordered poster here
-

free)

www.23andme.com

MOVIE


“Gattaca



featured a world where
children were genetically constructed for
perfection


there are two classes of humans:
those who are genetically perfect and those who
are genetically inferior